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HANDBOUND 
AT THE 



UNIVERSITY OF 
TORONTO PRESS 



Government 
Publications 





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Published Monthly by the 

PARTMENT OF LABOUR i q G ^ 

CANADA 



Report of Royal Commission on Construction Industry (p. 775) 



Vol. LXII 
JULY 31, 



No. 7 



1962 



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Weekly salaries for office occupations and hourly wage rates for main- 
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THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Michael Starr, Minister George V. Haythorne, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Assistant Editor 

R. M. Dyke 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Circulation Manager 

J. E. Abbey 



Vol. LXII, No. 7 CONTENTS July 31, 1962 

Technical and Vocational Training Assistance 770 

50 Years Ago This Month 771 

Notes of Current Interest 772 

The Goldenberg Report 775 

Changes in General Assistance Legislation, 1961 783 

Latest Labour Statistics 792 

Manpower Situation, 2nd Quarter 1962 793 

Collective Bargaining in June 802 

91st Annual Meeting, Canadian Manufacturers' Association 808 

Industrial Fatalities during the First Quarter of 1962 824 

International Activities in Rehabilitation 827 

Aging and the Economy 828 

Standards for Day Care of Children of Working Mothers .... 829 
International Labour Organization: 

46th International Labour Conference 830 

Teamwork in Industry 833 

Industrial Relations: 

Certification Proceedings 834 

Conciliation Proceedings 835 

Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 852 

Labour Law: 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 856 

Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 864 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operation 866 

Monthly Report on NES Operations 867 

Decisions of the Umpire 868 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 871 

Prices and the Cost of Living 877 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 879 

LABOUR STATISTICS 883 



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58736-0—1 



Cover Photograph 
National Film Board 






The Department of Labour Today 



Technical and Vocational Training Assistance 

Cost of capital projects approved under Technical and Vocational Assistance 
Act up to May 15 estimated at $357.7 million, of which federal contribution 
estimated at $232.5 million. Estimated new student places provided: 113,000 



The total cost of capital projects ap- 
proved up to May 15 under the Technical 
and Vocational Training Agreement be- 
tween the federal and provincial govern- 
ments was estimated at $357,696,569. Of 
this total, the share to be borne by the 
federal Government was estimated at 
$232,552,818. 

These projects, when completed, will 
provide places for an estimated 112,930 
additional students. 

Under the agreement, the federal Govern- 
ment undertook to pay 75 per cent of the 
approved expenditures incurred on the proj- 
ects by March 31, 1963. Reimbursements 
for capital expenditures incurred after that 
date were to be at the rate of 50 per cent. 

The reason the federal Government's 
share as given above amounts to less than 
75 per cent is that parts of some of the 
schools under construction, renovation or 
expansion are being used for purposes not 
connected with technical training, and those 
parts do not come under the agreement. 

The provinces have indicated that, by 
March 31, 1963 they will have completed 
nearly all of the projects that had been 
approved by the end of the fiscal year 
1961-62, and that they will claim almost 
all the federal assistance approved in re- 
spect to those projects. 

More Projects Planned 

They have also indicated that they will 
claim further amounts in respect to other 
projects for which they have not yet sought 
approval but on which expenditures will 
have been incurred before the deadline of 
March 31, 1963. 

The number of projects approved up to 
May 15 was 409. These included 191 new 
schools, of which 3 were technical insti- 
tutes, 27 were trade schools, 6 were com- 
bined trade schools and technical institutes, 
and 155 were vocational high schools. 

Projects involving additions and altera- 
tions to existing buildings numbered 141. 
Of these, 8 were technical institutes, 51 
were trade schools, 12 were combined trade 
schools and technical institutes, and 70 
were vocational high schools. Another 77 
projects involved only minor alterations or 
additional equipment costing $10,000 or 
less for each project. 



An examination of the figures on capital 
projects approved shows that projects being 
undertaken in Ontario account for $251,- 
227,625, or 70 per cent of the total cost, 
and 85,040, or 75 per cent, of the student 
places provided by the new projects. Al- 
berta comes second with an expenditure of 
$30,972,750, estimated to provide 10,125 
student places; and Quebec comes third with 
a total expenditure of $25,434,199 and 
4,215 student places. 

In Ontario, one new technical institute is 
to be built, four trade schools, and 139 
vocational high schools. The number of 
buildings to which additions or alterations 
are being made is 72, of which 55 are voca- 
tional high schools. 

In Alberta, the new buildings being 
constructed include one combined trade 
school and technical institute, and thirteen 
vocational high schools. Six buildings are 
being altered or added to. 

In Quebec, one new technical institute 
is being built, eight trade schools, and one 
combined trade school and technical insti- 
tute. Existing buildings being added to or 
altered include four technical institutes, 
thirty trade schools, and nine combined 
trade schools and technical institutes. 

Figures on total costs of projects and 
number of student places provided (in 
brackets) for the other provinces are: New- 
foundland $19,979,039 (3,470), Prince Ed- 
ward Island $1,190,433 (600), Nova 
Scotia $5,199,000 (1,750), New Bruns- 
wick $4,368,375 (2,215), Manitoba $4,629,- 
374 (1,920), Saskatchewan $1,879,187 
(554), British Columbia $12,061,607 
(2,898), and Yukon Territory $754,980 
(144). 

As shown by the figures quoted above, 
Ontario and Alberta have concentrated on 
the provision of vocational high school 
facilities; in the other provinces the em- 
phasis has been on institutes of technology 
and trade schools or adult vocational 
schools. 

Under the agreement, each province has 
been left free to direct its assisted building 
program to meet what it considers its most 
pressing needs for training. As the need of 
a province for a particular type of training 
facility is met, the province is at liberty to 
turn its attention to other types. 



770 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



From the Labour Gazette, July 1912 



50 Years Ago This Month 



Minister of Labour moves to provide some protection to immigrants employed 
in railway construction. Alberta Federation of Labour founded, replacing the 
former provincial executive committee of Trades and Labour Congress of Canada 



Measures undertaken by the Minister of 
Labour early in the 1912-13 fiscal year to 
provide certain protection for workmen 
employed in railway construction were 
described in a special article in the Labour 
Gazette of July 1912. 

The article stated that this action had 
been prompted by representations received 
from the Trades and Labour Congress and 
various Trades and Labour Councils in 
Western Canada, as well as from consuls 
and vice-consuls of countries from which 
had come the immigrants who were working 
in the construction camps. 

The complaint most frequently made, 
which was found on inquiry to be well 
founded, had been that it was "frequently 
impossible to procure accurate information, 
if any information at all, concerning men 
who are believed to have been employed 
in certain construction camps and who have 
fallen ill, or have in some cases become 
deceased." 

Another complaint was that "the posses- 
sions of a person deceased have frequently 
been frittered away in ineffective efforts 
looking to identification of the owner, or 
have disappeared otherwise." 

The measures undertaken by the Minister 
of Labour included the sending of one of 
the fair wage officers of the Department to 
Vancouver, and the appointment of another 
officer to take his place. The Department 
also framed special regulations, and sent 
copies to the contractors and subcontractors 
engaged in the work. 

These regulations required the employer 
of any workman who was taken seriously 
ill or who died to forward to the Depart- 
ment a form giving the name of the person, 
his age, nationality, place of birth, home 
address if any, and the name and address 
of next-of-kin. These particulars, in the 
case of recent immigrants on whose account 
these steps were chiefly taken, were then 
to be sent by the Department to the con- 
sular office concerned. Relatives or friends 
in Canada whose names and addresses 
were given were also to be informed. 

Officers of the Department were also to 
visit the camps from time to time to report 
on conditions. 

Although at first these regulations were 
to apply only to railway construction, it 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 
58736-0— 1| 



• JULY 7962 



was thought that they might be later ex- 
tended to include other construction work. 

The same issue of the Gazette reported 
that, "An organization was formed during 
June known as the Alberta Federation of 
Labour, being composed of farmers, miners, 
and workers in the building trades, who 
have united to devise and obtain legislation 
in favour of labour interests. This will take 
the place of the previously existing provin- 
cial executive committee of the Trades and 
Labour Congress." 

Also published in the issue was a special 
article on conditions of employment in the 
iron and steel industry in the United States. 
This article said that a striking fact revealed 
by a study of labour conditions in the 
industry was the unusually long hours 
worked. 

"During the period covered by the investi- 
gation, 50,000, or 29 per cent of the 
173,000 employees of blast furnaces and 
steel works and rolling mills included in 
the report, customarily worked seven days 
per week, and 20 per cent of them worked 
84 hours or more per week, which means a 
12-hour day every day in the week includ- 
ing Sunday." 

The investigation showed that the seven- 
day week was not confined to the blast 
furnaces where continuous operation was 
necessary, but that a considerable amount 
of other production work was done on 
Sundays. "The investigation further showed 
that nearly 43 per cent of the 173,000 
employees in the iron and steel industry 
were working at least 72 hours per week," 
the Gazette said. 

Another fact brought out was that "of 
the total number of employees in the indus- 
try under investigation, 85,812, or nearly 
50 per cent, received less than 18 cents an 
hour ... A few very highly skilled men 
received $1.25 per hour." 

The article stated that not only was there 
a large proportion of unskilled labour em- 
ployed in the industry, but "the fact has 
been noted that the tendency of recent 
years has been steadily toward the reduc- 
tion of the number of highly skilled men 
employed, nor is this tendency likely to 
diminish, since each year sees a wider use 
of mechanical appliances which unskilled 
labour can easily be trained to handle." 



771 



NOTES OF CURRENT INTEREST 



Municipal Winter Works Program Breaks Previous Record 



The 1961-62 Municipal Winter Works 
Incentive Program was the most successful 
since the program was introduced in 1958. 
Up to May 31, closing date of the program, 
on-site jobs for approximately 145,500 men 
had been provided; this was 20 per cent 
more than the year before. 

These jobs supplied more than 5,784,000 
man-days of work. 

The previous year's program provided 
121,000 jobs and 5,103,000 man-days of 
work. 

The number of municipalities taking part 
in the program was 2,745, an increase of 
28 per cent over the 2,157 the previous 
year. 

In addition to the jobs provided directly, 
at least an equal number were provided 
indirectly in industries that manufacture, 
sell, and transport the materials used on 
the winter works projects. 

Up to the end of May, 8,247 projects 
had been approved by provincial govern- 
ments and accepted by the federal Gov- 
ernment. The total estimated cost of these 
projects was $318,941,000, of which 
$100,833,000 was direct payroll cost. 

During the period of the program, $81,- 
395,000 was expended on direct payroll 
costs, and of this sum the federal contri- 
bution authorized amounted to $40,417,000. 



This year's program, which began on 
October 15, 1961, was broadened to in- 
clude new classes of projects; in general 
it covered practically any capital under- 
taking of a municipality. 

For all Canada, water and sewer proj- 
ects accounted for the greatest activity and 
provided 43 per cent of the man-days of 
work. Road and sidewalk projects provided 
32 per cent oi the man-days of work. 

The 2,745 municipalities that partici- 
pated in the 1961-62 program also in- 
cluded Indian Bands, unorganized settle- 
ments and various boards and commissions. 
The province of Quebec led with 937 
municipalities, followed by Saskatchewan 
with 517 and Ontario with 356. The other 
provinces and areas, in descending order of 
municipalities participating were: New- 
foundland, 283; Alberta, 237; British Co- 
lumbia, 145; New Brunswick, 84; Manitoba, 
71; Indian Bands, 46; Prince Edward Island, 
30; Nova Scotia, 24; Northwest Terri- 
tories, 12; and Yukon, 3. 

Quebec also topped the list of accepted 
projects, with 2,548. The number of proj- 
ects accepted in other provinces were: On- 
tario, 1,503; Saskatchewan, 1,400; Alberta, 
917; British Columbia, 748; Newfoundland, 
389; Manitoba, 276; New Brunswick, 263; 
Nova Scotia, 68; Indian Bands, 58; Prince 
Edward Island, 53; Northwest Territories, 
18; and Yukon, 6. 



Duke of Edinburgh's Second Commonwealth Study Conference Ends 



The Duke of Edinburgh's Second Com- 
monwealth Study Conference on the human 
consequences of changing industrial environ- 
ment opened in Montreal on May 14 and 
came to an end in Vancouver on June 6. 
Taking part in the conference were some 
300 persons, most of them between 25 and 
45 years of age, who were carefully selected 
as probable future leaders. They came from 
some 35 countries and territories of the 
British Commonwealth; about 70 were 
Canadians. 

The first Commonwealth Study Confer- 
ence was held in Oxford, England, in 1956 
(L.G. 1956, p. 1122). 

Prince Philip, again acting as president, 
opened this second conference and delivered 
the keynote address at the University of 
Montreal, where the first session was held. 
Other leading speakers at the first session 
included Rt. Hon. Vincent Massey, former 
Governor-General of Canada, who acted 
as chairman of the conference; and Dr. 
W. A. Lewis, Vice-Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of the West Indies, Jamaica. 



Countries represented at the conference 
included: Aden, Australia, Bahamas, Ber- 
muda, British Guiana, British Honduras, 
Brunei, Ceylon, Cyprus, Federation of Ma- 
laya, Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasa- 
land, Fiji, Gambia, Ghana, Hong Kong, 
India, Jamaica, Kenya, Malta, Mauritius, 
New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sarawak, 
Sierra Leone, Tanganyika, Uganda, and the 
West Indies (St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Granada, 
Antigua, Barbados and Trinidad). 

After spending two days in Montreal, the 
delegates made a one-day trip to Ottawa to 
study the role of government in an indus- 
trial society, through group discussions with 
specialists. The conference then returned to 
Montreal and held a half-day session on 
"biculturalism" in Canada. The theme of 
this study was set in an address by Dr. 
Marcel Faribault, Montreal scholar and 
businessman. The conference divided into 
special interest groups to allow members to 
hold discussions with prominent French- 
Canadians in different walks of life. 



772 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



During the next week the conference 
divided into 20 study groups, each consisting 
of 14 or 15 persons and led by a Canadian, 
which dispersed in different directions to 
visit industrial centres in Quebec, Ontario, 
and the Maritimes. The groups concentrated 
on two general themes: the particular effects 
of the changing industrial environment upon 
groups of individuals, and the consequences 
of industrialization for the local community. 

The groups came together again at the 
University of Toronto on May 25 and 26. 
During these two days the delegates con- 
sidered the human consequences of metro- 
politan industrialization, with special refer- 
ence to local transportation and rapid urban 
expansion. 

The conference members then boarded 
special trains that were adapted to provide 
opportunity for group discussions and study 
periods, and began a week's trip through 
the Prairie Provinces to the West Coast. 
The conference stopped in Winnipeg on 
May 28 to consider the role of organized 
labour in the changing industrial environ- 
ment. 

May 29 and 30 were spent in the Saska- 
toon district studying the community aspects 
of the impact of industrialization on a 
predominently agricultural province. During 
this stay each member of the conference 
stayed as a guest on a farm or in a private 
home in rural Saskatchewan. 

On May 31 the conference went on to 
Alberta, where a study of transportation in 
an industrial country was concluded. 

On June 2 the members took up residence 
at the University of British Columbia, and 
during the next four days completed their 
notes and attended the closing sessions, 
which were brought to an end with a short 
speech by Prince Philip. 



Old Age Assistance, Disabled 
Allowance Recipients Decrease 

The number of Canadians receiving old 
age assistance, and the number receiving 
disabled persons' allowances, both decreased 
between December 31, 1961 and March 
31, 1962, the Department of National 
Health and Welfare reported last month. 
The number receiving blind persons' allow- 
ances increased. 

The total federal expenditures during 
fiscal 1961-62 increased over 1960-61 for 
old age assistance and disabled persons' 
allowances, decreased for blind persons' 
allowances. 

Old Age Assistance — The number of 
persons receiving old age assistance de- 
creased from 99,651 at December 31, 1961 
to 98,944 at March 31, 1962. 



The federal Government's contributions 
under the federal-provincial scheme totalled 
$7,934,000.74 for the quarter ended March 
31, 1962, compared with $7,651,859.03 in 
the preceding quarter. Since the inception 
of the Act, the federal Government has 
contributed $250,864,587.44. 

Federal expenditure for the fiscal year 
1961-62 amounted to $30,810,585.16, an 
increase of $153,444.11 over the expendi- 
ture of $30,657,141.05 in 1960-61. 

At March 31, 1962, the average monthly 
assistance in the provinces ranged from 
$49.07 to $62.42. At that date three prov- 
inces had adjusted their payments to the 
maximum rate of $65 a month. Payments 
in the other provinces were based on maxi- 
mum assistance of $55 a month. 

Disabled Persons' Allowances — The num- 
ber of persons receiving allowances under 
the Disabled Persons Act decreased from 
50,045 at December 31, 1961 to 50,029 
at March 31, 1962. 

The federal Government's contributions 
under the federal-provincial scheme totalled 
$4,237,467.00 for the quarter ended March 
31, 1962, compared with $4,042,658.38 in 
the preceding quarter. Since the inception 
of the Act, the federal Government has 
contributed $88,544,221.08. 

Federal expenditure for the fiscal year 
1961-62 amounted to $16,433,610.63, an 
increase of $47,790.88 over the expenditure 
of $16,385,819.75 in 1960-61. 

At March 31, 1962, the average monthly 
allowance in the provinces ranged from 
$53.22 to $64.54. At that date five prov- 
inces had adjusted their payments to the 
maximum rate of $65 a month. Payments in 
the other provinces were based on maxi- 
mum allowance of $55 a month. 

Blind Persons' Allowances — The number 
of blind persons receiving allowances under 
the Blind Persons Act increased from 
8,562 at December 31, 1961 to 8,573 at 
March 31, 1962. 

The federal Government's contributions 
under the federal-provincial scheme totalled 
$1,070,925.79 for the quarter ended March 
31, 1962, compared with $1,019,045.52 in 
the preceding quarter. Since the inception 
of the Act, the federal Government has 
contributed $35,685,680.40. 

Federal expenditure for the fiscal year 
1961-62 amounted to $4,129,852.26, a de- 
crease of $31,980.67 over the expenditure 
of $4,161,832.93 in 1960-61. 

At March 31, 1962, the average monthly 
allowance in the provinces ranged from 
$53.03 to $64.24. At that date five prov- 
inces had adjusted their payments to the 
maximum rate of $65 a month. Payments 
in the other provinces were based on maxi- 
mum allowance of $55 a month. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



773 



Canada Attends OECD Seminar on 
Joint Consultation, Communication 

Methods of improving mutual under- 
standing between employers and employees 
in the individual firm were discussed at an 
international joint seminar on "Attitudes 
and Methods of Communication and Con- 
sultation between Employers and Workers 
at Individual Firm Level." 

The seminar, under the auspices of the 
Organization for Economic Co-operation 
and Development, was attended by a Cana- 
dian delegation consisting of John Dickin- 
son, Executive Director of the National 
Productivity Council; Michael H. Nicols, 
Canadian Vice-President, International As- 
sociation of Asbestos Workers; Marcel 
Pepin, Secretary, Confederation of National 
Trade Unions; and Dr. W. R. Dymond, 
Assistant Deputy Minister of Labour. 
Messrs. Nicols and Pepin are members of 
the National Productivity Council. 

A report giving an outline of present 
regulations regarding consultation and col- 
laboration between employers and workers 
at the individual firm level in force in 11 
European countries, drawn up with the 
help of the ILO, was presented at the 
seminar. 

This report was followed by a number 
of papers by representatives from different 
countries. The subjects covered by the 
papers were: Training of Staff in Com- 
munications; Part Played by Supervisory 
Staff and Workers' Representatives in the 
Two-Way Flow of Information; Informa- 
tion as a Factor in Joint Consultation; 
Action Taken on Workers' Proposals; The 
Evaluation of Written Communications; 
Employers' and Workers' Attitudes Toward 
Communications; Principles, Aims and De- 
velopment of Internal Communications 
Systems; and Information as a Factor in 
Joint Consultation — Summary of a Case- 
Study. 

Separate sets of recommendations were 
made by the employers' and the workers' 
representatives. 

The employers' representatives recom- 
mended that: 

1. Study should be made of all kinds 
of information and communication which 
should be available at all levels of an 
undertaking, taking into account the studies 
that have been and will be made, and 
avoiding unnecessary duplication of the 
work of national and international bodies. 

2. All levels of employees require ade- 
quate opportunity to consider the informa- 
tion received and to pass back views and 
suggestions. 

3. Training in these important matters, 
at all levels of the undertaking, requires 



more attention with regard to study methods 
and their development. 

The workers' representatives agreed with 
points 1 and 3, but two of them disagreed 
with point 2 on the ground that trade unions 
were not mentioned. 

The workers' representatives made the 
following recommendations: 

1. The workers' representatives declare 
that an effective system of joint consulta- 
tion and communication is an important 
factor in sound industrial relations, in 
achieving greater work satisfaction, and 
economic progress. 

2.1 It should be a practice of good 
management-labour relations to make regu- 
lar examination of the system of com- 
munication in order to secure the maximum 
efficiency in conveying information both 
upwards and downwards. 

2.2 In all communication and consulta- 
tion, where appropriate, customary trade 
union channels should be adequately utilized. 

3. At international level, the workers' 
representatives are of the opinion that the 
OECD should recommend that member 
governments should encourage to the maxi- 
mum the improvement of communication 
and consultation in industry and that the 
Organization should stimulate and co-or- 
dinate social sciences research in these fields 
in the various member countries. 

4. The seminar looks forward to the 
early resumption of the work of the former 
International Joint Committee for Applied 
Human Sciences and Industrial Relations 
within the framework of the OECD. 

The employers' representatives agreed 
with points 1, 2.1 and 3. They did not agree 
with point 2.2, which they thought not 
suitable for some of the countries concerned. 
One employer's representative objected to 
point 4 on the ground that the seminar was 
not qualified to make such a recommenda- 
tion to the OECD. 



Two New Monographs Released 
In Canadian Occupations Series 

Two new monographs in the "Canadian 
Occupations" series, Careers in Natural 
Science and Careers in Library Service, have 
been released by the Department of Labour. 

Careers in Natural Science, No. 21 in the 
series, is a revision of that part of an earlier 
publication, Careers in Natural Science and 
Engineering, that dealt with occupations in 
the natural sciences. 

Careers in Library Service, No. 47 in the 
series, outlines the broad field of employ- 
ment, professional and non-professional, in 
library work. 

Both monographs are available from the 
Queen's Printer, Ottawa. 



774 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



The Goldenberg Report 



Ontario Royal Commission on Labour-Management Relations in the Construction 
Industry recommends special provisions in Labour Relations Act to govern that 
industry, and extensive changes in the province's labour standards legislation 



Special provisions in the Ontario Labour 
Relations Act to govern the construction in- 
dustry and extensive changes in the labour 
standards legislation of the province were 
recommended by the Royal Commission on 
Labour-Management Relations in the Con- 
struction Industry. 

The proposals involve appointment of a 
Construction Industry Panel of the Ontario 
Labour Relations Board and the establish- 
ing of a Construction Industry Wage Board, 
representative of employers and trade unions 
in the industry, with all necessary powers 
to establish and enforce minimum hourly 
wage rates and maximum hours of work. 

The Report recommended further that the 
Ontario Minister of Labour should call a 
joint conference of employers and trade 
unions in the industry to draft plans for 
multiple bargaining and master agreements 
and to consider the formation of permanent 
consultative machinery on matters of gen- 
eral concern. 

The Commissioner, H. Carl Goldenberg, 
Q.C., was appointed on June 27, 1961, 
under the Public Inquiries Act. He held 
public hearings in Toronto in October and 
November, and received thirteen briefs. His 
report was tabled in the Ontario Legisla- 
ture on March 26. 

The labour disturbances that led to 
the appointment of the Commission began 
in the residential building sector of the To- 
ronto construction industry. As a back- 
ground to the particular dispute, the Com- 
missioner described the economic features 
of the construction industry in general 
and the special characteristics of the resi- 
dential building part of the industry. 

That construction is of major importance 
in the economy of the province is shown 
by the fact that the value of construction 
work performed in Ontario in 1960 was 
$2,340 million, $1,512 million in building 
construction and $828 million in engineering 
construction. Residential construction repre- 
sented almost half the building construc- 
tion. It was estimated that Metropolitan 
Toronto accounted for more than a third 
of the total value of building construction 
in the province. 

A number of special features differenti- 
ate the construction industry from industry 
in general. The product of construction 
remains fixed in a geographical location, 
while the plant and the workers move. Jobs 



at any one site are usually of quite limited 
duration, and large parts of the work force 
move about within localities and between 
areas. 

Irregularity of employment is a feature of 
the industry, which is subject to both 
cyclical and seasonal fluctuations. In 1960, 
while total employment in Canada varied 
by 11.5 per cent between the low point and 
the peak, construction employment varied 
by 56 per cent. 

The industry operates on the principle of 
specialization, which is reflected in the 
organization of construction firms by spe- 
cialty trades and the parallel organization 
of the work force by crafts. The trend is 
to subcontract almost all the work except 
the carpentry and concrete form work. 

It was estimated that, in Toronto, the 
general contractor in commercial and in- 
dustrial building subcontracts 80 per cent 
of the work and the housebuilder almost the 
whole of it. In heavier engineering construc- 
tion, however, the contractor may under- 
take 80 to 95 per cent of the work. 

Except in the case of large projects, 
ease of entry is a characteristic feature of 
the construction industry because construc- 
tion requires less capital per unit of output 
than almost any other industry. 

Residential Construction 

Residential construction has been organ- 
ized by unions only to a relatively small 
degree. Almost all work is done by sub- 
contractors, and competition between trade 
contractors is intense. The Commissioner 
summed up the situation as follows: 

The nature of competition between trade 
contractors in recent years has afforded op- 
portunities to housebuilders, who are engaged 
in a speculative operation, to reduce contrac- 
tors' prices by "shopping" the market and 
"peddling" bids. The boom in housing in To- 
ronto, as elsewhere, in the 1950's attracted 
to the industry many persons with no previous 
experience in building, some of whom have 
been appropriately described as "fly-by-night" 
and "fast buck" operators. Not unduly con- 
cerned with the quality of their product, they 
took advantage of the straitened circumstances 
and inexperience of small contracting firms, 
especially as the boom declined, often forcing 
bids to be reduced to unsound levels. The re- 
sponsible builders would then be forced to 
bring pressure on their contractors in self 
defence. In a surplus labour market, and with- 
out the constraint of collective agreements, the 
contractors, who are essentially contractors of 
labour, would seek to recoup themselves by 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



775 



cutting their own costs at the expense of their 
employees through substandard wages, exces- 
sively long hours of work, and disregard of 
safety standards, as well as by lowering the 
quality of the work. 

The brief of the Toronto and District 
Trade Contractors' Council confirmed that 
the practice of "bid peddling," that is, de- 
liberately importuning a subcontractor into 
lowering his price below his competitor's 
by openly revealing the latter's quotation, 
was becoming prevalent in the residential 
construction field. 

The bulk of the labour force in resi- 
dential building in Toronto is composed 
of unskilled and semi-skilled Italian im- 
migrants, most of whom came to Canada 
in the 1950's. In recent years there was 
always an excess supply of unskilled labour 
and the ranks continued to be swelled by 
the inflow of more immigrants and the 
entry of the younger generation into the 
construction labour force. As the boom de- 
clined, the labour surplus increased and 
the workers, unprotected by unions or a 
minimum wage, bid more strongly against 
each other for available work. 

The Commissioner found that there had 
been exploitation of workers in house and 
apartment building by some contractors and 
that the abuses were an underlying factor in 
recent labour disturbances. He was not 
able to measure the extent to which the 
abuses prevailed, but he had no doubt that 
"a significant minority" of firms in the 
housebuilding industry took advantage of 
the needs, the fears and the limited experi- 
ence in Canada of the immigrant worker. 

Taken together, the kinds of exploitation 
cited by the Brandon Union Group, the 
Toronto and District Trade Contractors' 
Council and the Administrator of the Italian 
Immigrant Aid Society cover all the classic 
forms: marginal and below marginal hourly 
wage rates and short payment of hours 
worked; kickbacks (the payroll registers 
and pay cheques show regular wages but 
the employee is required to return to the 
employer, or pay him in advance, part 
of the wages in cash as a condition of 
obtaining or retaining employment); no 
more than straight-time pay regardless of 
hours worked in a week; irregular and long 
hours;' no vacation pay although the pro- 
vincial legislation requires a minimum of 
2 per cent of wages; non-payment of wages. 
(NSF cheques, disappearance of contract- 
ing firms without paying employees at the 
end of the season); collusion of an em- 
ployer and an employee to circumvent a col- 
lective agreement or a fair wage schedule. 

Standard practices in the matter of pro- 
viding statements to the employee indicat- 



ing wages earned, hours worked and de- 
ductions made have been abandoned, and 
safety regulations have been viewed as a 
needless expense. 

The brief of the Ontario Provincial 
Council, United Brotherhood of Carpen- 
ters and Joiners of America alleged ex- 
ploitation in other cities as well as Toronto. 
Interviews by a union officer with immi- 
grant workers in housing projects in Kitch- 
ener in 1959 found wages ranging from 
85 cents to $1.50 an hour and very long 
daily hours. Describing a situation in 
Guelph the same brief quoted the Presi- 
dent of the Guelph Labour Council in 
August 1960 as follows: 

They've got cement work, curbs, and gutters 
being done by labourers, and they are paying 
them anywhere from $1.00 to $1.25 per hour, 
which is big money. They start them off at 
about 6.45 a.m. and give them about 45 
minutes for a dinner break, and they are 
through at about 6.45 at night. For this they 
are paid anywhere from 10* to 11 hours, 
depending upon how good the boss feels — we 
have been to City Council twice now, once 
with the fact they were hiring all people from 
Toronto, and transporting them in every day. 
They had a truck-load of 26 people in a 
small i-ton truck — 26 men being driven all 
the way from Toronto, which meant these 
men were getting up about 4.30 in the morning, 
coming all the way to Guelph. After they 
were through at about 6.45 at night, they would 
load them back in the truck, and go all the 
way back to Toronto again. 

Unions have generally been less suc- 
cessful in organizing workers in residential 
building than in commercial and industrial 
construction for the reason, among others, 
that there is less continuity of employment 
and more competition for jobs. On the 
employer side, the large number of small 
firms with a very high turnover rate makes 
collective bargaining through employers' 
associations more difficult than in non- 
residential construction, where firms are 
larger and fewer in number. 

Approximately 5,000 workers in house 
and apartment building in Toronto, mainly 
immigrants, are now members of the fol- 
lowing five locals chartered directly by the 
international unions and commonly called 
the "Brandon Union Group:" 

Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers Interna- 
tional Union of America, Local 40 

International Hod Carriers, Building and 
Common Labourers Union of America, Local 
811 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Join- 
ers of America, Local 1190 

Operative Plasterers and Cement Masons 
International Association of the United States 
and Canada, Local 117 (Plasterers) 

Operative Plasterers and Cement Masons 
International Association of the United States 
and Canada, Local 117-C (Cement Masons) 



776 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



Employment in residential construction in 
Metropolitan Toronto was estimated by 
the spokesman for this group at 22,100. 

Commercial and Industrial Construction 

Commercial and industrial building is 
almost completely organized in Toronto. 
Non-union firms account for a relatively 
small proportion of the total volume of 
construction. Bargaining takes place between 
craft unions and associations of employers. 

In a move to co-ordinate bargaining, the 
general contractors and the trade contract- 
ing associations formed the Labour Rela- 
tions Association of the Toronto Construc- 
tion Industry late in 1960 and have been 
proposing direct negotiations between the 
Association and the Building Council, with 
which the craft locals are affiliated, or con- 
current negotiations with each union. 
Neither alternative has yet been accepted 
by the unions. 

Engineering Construction 

Road builders are distinguished from 
general contractors in that they are en- 
gaged in a highly specialized activity in 
which a relatively small number of firms 
participate. Subcontracting is mainly for 
hauling and grading. 

Road construction is carried on for only 
seven or eight months of the year but a 
small number of key men are employed 
throughout the year. Unskilled workers are 
employed and trained by the contractor. 
With limited alternative employment op- 
portunities, they tend to work for a particu- 
lar employer year after year. 

Much of the work is performed away 
from settled communities. The standard 
hours of work are unusually long, the cur- 
rent agreement in Toronto providing for 110 
hours of work in any two weeks at straight 
time. 

In Toronto, the organized employers rep- 
resented by the Metropolitan Toronto Road 
Builders Association negotiate with a coun- 
cil of trade unions representing the Operat- 
ing Engineers, the Teamsters and the La- 
bourers. Most of the work is for govern- 
ments. 

It was pointed out in the hearings that 
the federal Government includes a fair 
wage schedule in its contracts, as do Metro- 
politan Toronto and other municipalities, 
but that, although Ontario Government con- 
tracts require the payment of fair wages, 
no schedule has been formulated. The 
spokesman for the Metropolitan Toronto 
Road Builders Association pointed out that 
the amount of construction available for 
the contractors has not increased in re- 
lationship to the number of contractors that 



have come into the business. As a result, 
the business is very competitive and, with 
no prevailing minimum rate or no minimum 
rate of wages, there is a tendency to cut 
wages to get contracts. 

The sewer and watermain contractors 
are dependent in large part on residential 
building, and particularly on the develop- 
ment of new subdivisions and commercial 
centres. The contractors are organized in 
the Metropolitan Toronto Sewer and Water- 
main Contractors Association and bargain 
with a council of trade unions representing 
the same three unions as negotiate with 
the road builders. The Association recom- 
mended that to stop the exploitation of 
labour a minimum wage schedule should 
be adopted by areas for the whole province. 

The Strike in August 1960 

The incidents that led up to the appoint- 
ment of the Royal Commission began in the 
summer of 1960. To obtain recognition from 
the employers in the residential sector, the 
five Brandon unions took strike action 
at the beginning of August 1960. When the 
strike ended in the third week in August, 
somewhat less than half of the 600 car- 
pentry and masonry contractors had signed 
collective agreements. Thus a large group 
of contractors in each trade continued to 
operate with non-union employees and to 
pay wages below union rates. 

The contractors who had signed agree- 
ments claimed that they could not afford 
union wages and conditions in the face of 
strong competition from non-union con- 
tractors, along with declining activity in 
house building. Many union contractors 
lowered wage rates. If the unions objected, 
they did not avail themselves of the griev- 
ance procedure under the agreements. 

A strike was called on May 29, 1961, 
ostensibly to protest against violation of 
agreements but also as an instrument for 
the organization of non-union workers. 
Pickets were placed around non-union resi- 
dential projects and union supporters put 
pressure on tradesmen to join locals and 
on non-union contractors to recognize the 
Brandon locals. 

The affiliates of the Building Trades 
Council, representing some 25,000 workers 
in the commercial and industrial field, sup- 
ported the strike, and some large projects 
were brought to a halt. The Teamsters union 
also observed the picket lines. 

Early in June 1961, the Premier of the 
province intervened and proposed a settle- 
ment plan involving: the establishing of 
a special temporary arbitration board to 
adjudicate the alleged violations of collective 
agreements; the appointment of additional 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

58736-0—2 



JULY 1962 



777 



labour inspectors to investigate violations 
of labour standards legislation; and the 
appointment of a Royal Commission to 
inquire into labour relations in the con- 
struction industry. 

Both parties approved the proposal in 
principle, but it was not until the middle 
of July that they came to terms and the 
stoppage ended. In order to give the spe- 
cial arbitration board jurisdiction, both 
parties had to sign agreements giving it 
authority to make final and binding orders 
in connection with grievances. 



The unions continued to picket selected 
residential construction sites for organiza- 
tional purposes throughout the remainder of 
the year. 

Summing up the situation, the Com- 
missioner said: 

This analysis of labour relations in residential 
building shows a highly unstable situation 
arising from the economic characteristics of 
the industry, a surplus labour market and op- 
portunities for exploitation of workers by ir- 
responsible employers, ineffective organization of 
employers and of employees, and inadequacies 
in the law. Such a situation, breeding conflict, 
calls for remedial measures. 



The Remedies Proposed 



The Commissioner recommended that 
special provisions governing the construction 
industry should be embodied in the Labour 
Relations Act. 

In hearings before the Commission, rep- 
resentatives of contractors and of trade 
unions agreed on the proposition that leg- 
islation of general application, such as the 
Labour Relations Act, is not appropriate 
to deal with the special labour relations 
patterns and problems of the construction 
industry. The brief of the Brandon group 
referred to "the peculiar fluidity" of the 
employment relationship, pointing out that, 
as a result, "both employer and employee 
are constantly driven to resort to the la- 
bour market, and that virtually all transac- 
tions on that market are expected to be 
impermanent." By contrast, in most other 
industries, the employment relationship is 
conceived of as more or less permanent. 

"It is not surprising," the brief continued, 
"that legislation of general application pre- 
mised upon a general view of the facts of 
industrial life should be unsuited in many 
respects to the needs of this particular in- 
dustry. Nor is it surprising that the mal- 
function of the legislation has in turn 
created a situation in which many unions, 
frustrated in pursuing their admittedly law- 
ful objects by legal means, have turned to 
extra-legal devices." 

The Ontario Federation of Construction 
Associations stated: "The size of the work 
force of any particular type of contractor 
or any building project is constantly chang- 
ing. Hence, those provisions of the Ontario 
Labour Relations Act which deal with 'an 
appropriate bargaining unit,' which is ap- 
parently intended to be some collection of 
regularly employed persons engaged by a 
particular employer at a particular location, 
have little meaning in the construction 
industry." 



Recommendations 

The following special provisions were 
recommended by the Commission: 

1. The Act should direct the Chairman 
of the Labour Relations Board to appoint 
a Construction Industry Panel of the La- 
bour Relations Board, which will be pri- 
marily available for cases arising from the 
construction industry. 

2. "Area certification" should be made 
the general rule and "project certification" 
should be restricted to long-range projects 
of a special nature, and this policy should 
be set out in the Act. (The Board now 
grants certification for an area unit in an 
employer's place of "residence," i.e., head 
office or branch office). 

An area certificate should be issued upon 
the union's establishing that it has the 
requisite number of members among the 
employees in the unit at the time when the 
application is made, and, further, where 
a union has bargaining rights, either through 
certification or on renewal of a collective 
agreement, the employer should be obliged 
to bargain with it even when there are 
no employees in the bargaining unit on the 
job. Where, as the result of a build-up of 
employees following certification, the union 
may no longer represent the majority of 
the employees in the unit, the Board should 
be empowered to entertain at its discretion 
an application from such employees for 
termination of bargaining rights at an earlier 
stage than is now provided in the Act. 

3. The Act should be amended to pro- 
vide for multi-employer units and that 
two or more trade unions may join in an 
application for certification. 

4. To avoid delay in the certification 
procedure, special provision should be made 
in the Rules of Procedure of the Board for 
the expeditious processing of construction 
industry cases. Hearing officers with the rank 
of Deputy Vice-Chairman should be ap- 
pointed and the Panel should be author- 



778 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



ized to grant interim certification without 
public hearings upon the report of the Hear- 
ing Officers, subject to review by the Board 
at the request of an interested party. 

5. The Act should be amended to reduce 
the periods provided for negotiation and 
conciliation, because the delays involved 
in negotiation and conciliation procedures 
are unduly long in terms of the require- 
ments of collective bargaining in construc- 
tion. If the conciliation officer reports that 
he has been unable to effect a collective 
agreement, a conciliation board or mediator 
should be appointed only upon the joint 
request of the parties. The Act should 
further provide that the parties may agree 
in writing to accept the report of a medi- 
ator or a conciliation board, as the case 
may be, and that, upon doing so, they 
should be bound by the report. 

6. To facilitate conclusion of negotiation 
and conciliation before the expiry of an 
existing agreement, the Act should be 
amended to require that notice to bargain 
should be given within three months and 
not less than two months before the expiry 
date of the existing agreement. 

7. To provide a more expeditious way of 
dealing with grievances while agreements 
are in effect, the Act should be amended 
to require all collective agreements in the 
construction industry to provide for settle- 
ment by an arbitrator designated in the 
agreement or selected from a panel of 
arbitrators named in the agreement. Such 
an arbitrator should be required to make 
his award within five days from the termi- 
nation of the hearings, unless the period is 
extended with the consent of both parties. 

8. The Act should be amended to provide 
that "where a business or part thereof is 
sold, leased or transferred, the purchaser, 
lessee or transferee shall be bound by all 
the proceedings before the date of sale, 
lease or transfer and shall become ipso 
facto a party thereto, and that the pro- 
ceedings shall continue as if no such change 
has occurred, and that if a bargaining agent 
was certified the certification shall remain 
in effect, and if a collective agreement 
was in force that agreement shall continue 
to bind the purchaser, lessee or transferee 
to the same extent as if it had been signed 
by him." (A number of cases were cited 
to the Commissioner where an employer 
in the housebuilding branch of the con- 
struction industry evaded collective bar- 
gaining with a certified union merely by 
effecting a nominal change in the legal 
entity of the business.) 



9. The Act should be amended to em- 
power the jurisdictional disputes com- 
mission to deal with jurisdictional disputes 
that originate because of claims put for- 
ward by a union whose members are not 
at work on a project but who think they 
should be employed there. Further, the 
Act should expressly prohibit strikes, picket- 
ing and lockouts in connection with a 
jurisdictional dispute, and the jurisdictional 
disputes commission should be empowered 
to make orders requiring any party to cease 
and desist from doing any act which pre- 
vents the implementation of the order. 

The Ontario Federation of Construction 
Associations claimed that jurisdictional dis- 
putes, arising from the conflicting claims of 
unions to perform a particular type of work, 
usually result in work stoppages and pick- 
eting, and that such machinery as exists 
for dealing with the problem is ineffective. 

In the Commissioner's view, jurisdictional 
disputes over work assignment, to be under- 
stood, must be related to the organization of 
the industry, which, as pointed out above, 
is based on the principle of specialization. 
"Subcontract specialization by material or 
product component and the division of 
labour by crafts or trades are applications 
of this principle." 

The craft union structure of the building 
trades is the counterpart of the system of 
specialization under which the industry 
operates. Craft unions, operating in a 
labour market with an extremely high rate 
of turnover and, therefore, a very low 
degree of security of job tenure, seek to 
achieve more security for their members. 
Accordingly, with the employment and in- 
come of its members dependent on the 
availability of their specialized work, the 
union in each craft seeks to protect and 
enlarge its task jurisdiction and thereby 
the employment opportunities of the craft. 
Its jurisdictional claims correspond in a 
sense to the seniority rights of workers in 
industrial plants. 

Among the factors contributing to juris- 
dictional conflict are the overlapping of 
jurisdictional claims under the respective 
union constitutions; changes in the mate- 
rials used due to technological develop- 
ments; competition between subcontractors; 
and work assignments by contractors which 
differ from the custom of the trade. 

The Commissioner noted that strikes to 
enforce the claims of one union against 
those of another are prohibited by the 
internal rules of international building 
trades unions, and that the constitutional 
provisions of the Building and Construction 
Trades Council of Toronto and Vicinity 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

58736-0— 2J 



• JULY 7962 



779 



state that "picketing of jobs will not be 
permitted for settling jurisdictional disputes 
between affiliated unions of the Council." 

The principle of adjustment without work 
stoppages has been accepted but the exist- 
ing machinery of voluntary settlement, the 
National Joint Board for the Settlement 
of Jurisdictional Disputes, in Washington, 
D.C., has not always been effective as 
applied to disputes in Canada. 

J. J. Pigott, the spokesman for the On- 
tario Federation of Construction Associa- 
tions, submitted that: 

... on several occasions when Ontario con- 
tractors have sought relief by appealing to 
this tribunal to solve a local jurisdictional 
dispute, they have encountered all of the 
annoying delays and frustrations which natu- 
rally arise because the tribunal operates as 
a merely voluntary arrangement between certain 
unions at the top level; because it is too far 
distant from the site of the actual dispute 
to operate effectively; because of extraordinary 
delays in getting the facts before such a 
tribunal; and because of the practice of this 
tribunal in making decisions which are only 
applicable to the particular work project 
upon which the dispute has arisen and do not 
necessarily have any precedent value with re- 
spect to a similar dispute on an adjacent 
work project. 

The Commissioner recommended that 
"the trade unions and employers' organiza- 
tions in the Ontario construction industry 
should jointly set up their own machinery 
for the settlement of jurisdictional disputes 
along the lines of the Joint Board for the 
Settlement of Jurisdictional Disputes in 
Washington, or as may otherwise be ap- 
propriate to Ontario as a Canadian prov- 
ince." 

It would still be necessary, in the Com- 
missioner's view, for the law to provide 
for cases where voluntary adjustment can- 
not be effected. Such a procedure was in- 
troduced into the Ontario Act in 1960. The 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council is empow- 
ered to appoint one or more jurisdictional 
dispute commisssions to deal with jurisdic- 
tional dispute complaints and to issue orders 
and directives. A commission was appointed 
and it has issued orders in approximately 
thirty cases. In none has it been found 
necessary to entorce compliance by register- 
ing an order in the Supreme Court as may 
be done if there is failure to comply with 
the order, a fact which indicated to the 
Commissioner that it has been meeting witn 
success in the performance of its functions. 

Its jurisdiction has been affected, how- 
ever, by the decision in the recent case 
of Canadian Pittsburgh Industries Limited 
vs. H. Orliffe et al (L.G., Jan., p. 77), which 
holds, in effect, that it may deal only with 
disputes that arise between different groups 
of employees working for the same em- 
ployer on a project. 



10. More effective enforcement should be 
achieved by extending the authority of the 
Labour Relations Board. It now has au- 
thority to inquire into a complaint of an 
individual that he has been discriminated 
against or otherwse dealt with contrary to 
the Act, and to issue remedial orders. He 
would confer upon the Board broad powers 
to deal with all cases of violation or fail- 
ure to comply with the Act or an order 
under it. To expedite such enforcement he 
recommended that hearing officers be auth- 
orized to issue orders, subject to appeal to 
the Board by an interested party. 

In briefs submitted to the Commission, 
both contractors, organizations and trade 
unions alleged that there had been violations 
of the Labour Relations Act by the other 
party. Evidence before the Commission 
showed that in the housebuilding industry, 
including apartment construction, both 
unions and management had disregarded 
the provisions of labour relations legisla- 
tion. 

In consequence, the Commissioner found 
that the situation called for some changes 
in the enforcement provisions of the Act 
but he said he could not accept the drastic 
changes suggested in some briefs, which 
would unduly enlarge the role of the state 
in industrial relations without achieving 
the desired result. 

Their authors apparently assume that every 
problem can be solved by a law and that the 
courts will always provide an eftective remedy 
with minimum delay. The tacts are that some 
problems ot human relationships cannot be 
solved by law alone and that delays in the 
courts may tar exceed the delays of adminis- 
trative tribunals, these considerations apply 
to labour legislation which seeks to promote 
industrial peace through collective bargaining. 

The Commissioner found worthy of seri- 
ous consideration the submission by the 
Ontario Federation of Construction Associ- 
ations that the present system of negotia- 
tion, in which each local craft union insists 
on separate craft bargaining in the organized 
part of the industry, is chaotic and wasteful. 
He concluded that "considering the inter- 
dependence of the various crafts on a 
construction project and, having regard to 
the bargaining experience in Toronto and 
in other areas in the recent past, it is clear 
that a system of consecutive independent 
bargaining by each craft can produce dis- 
order in the industry whenever agreements 
are subject to renewal." 

He did not think that the law could 
properly require multiple and concurrent 
bargaining, but he thought it should facili- 
tate it. He considered that the recommenda- 
tions he had made for amendment of the 
Labour Relations Act would do so. 



780 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



He further recommended that the Min- 
ister of Labour should call a joint conference 
of employers and trade unions in the con- 
struction industry to consider and formu- 
late plans for multiple bargaining, master 
agreements, a uniform expiration date of 
collective agreements in each bargaining 
area, and to deal with related matters. 

If the conference is successful, the estab- 
lishment of a permanent Joint Labour-Man- 
agement Council might be considered. It 
should meet periodically on matters of gen- 
eral concern, such as winter employment 
and training. The promotion of year-round 
employment in construction would improve 
industrial relations, and government, man- 
agement and labour should co-operate to- 
ward ths end. 

Minimum Standards 

It was established in the briefs to the 
Commission that the legislation of the 
province had not been effective in prevent- 
ing exploitation of workers in residential 
building. It was pointed out in the briefs 
that there was no general minimum wage 
for men, and that in the two trades, plaster- 
ing and painting, in which industrial stand- 
ards schedules set minimum rates and 
conditions of work for tradesmen, there 
appeared to be widespread violations. 

The Hours of Work and Vacations with 
Pay Act was said to be observed in the 
breach, rather than in performance. 

The Commissioner made recommenda- 
tions with respect to several Acts establish- 
ing minimum stanaaras. 

The Industrial Standards Act 

In the Commissioner's view there were 
several reasons for the ineffectiveness of 
existing schedules and the failure to nego- 
tiate more schedules. (Only two, for the 
plastering and painting trades, are in force 
in the Toronto zone.) 

A schedule applies to a specific trade 
in all branches of the industry. The trade 
is not defined precisely and there is no 
provision for certification of skilled trades- 
men, with the result that an employer 
covered t>y the schedule may find himself 
compelled to pay the skilled tradesman's 
rate to semi-skilled employees, or, on the 
other hand, an immigrant who is a skilled 
tradesman may have to accept substandard 
wages because he cannot prove he is skilled. 

The zones are defined to include urban 
areas and the zones have not kept up with 
urban development. Housebuilders engaged 
in work outside the zone have an unfair 
advantage over those who have to pay the 
scheduled rate within the zone. 



The rates are the top rates under collec- 
tive agreements in the commercial and 
industrial sector and the hours are the 
same as in those agreements. The extension 
of these rates and hours to residential 
building has deterred agreements on sched- 
ules. In his opinion, the difference between 
the economics of the two branches of the 
industry warrant variations in construction 
schedules which the crafts are not prepared 
to accept. 

Further, adequate administrative machin- 
ery and a proper system of inspection by a 
staff of qualified inspectors and auditors 
is lacking. 

Considering the foregoing, he found that 
the Act as presently applied to the con- 
struction industry does not offer a solution 
to the problem of protecting the unorganized 
worker and the responsible employer in the 
sectors of the industry where collective bar- 
gaining is weak. 

Minimum Wages and Maximum Hours 

The Commissioner's finding was that the 
construction worker needs the protection of 
a minimum wage. The facts show that both 
unskilled workers and tradesmen in the 
unorganized sector of the industry are par- 
ticularly vulnerable to competitive pressures 
on their wages and working conditions that 
may and do lead to exploitation. Under the 
Minimum Wage Act, minimum wages have 
been set only for women. The conditions in 
the unorganized part of the construction 
industry call for a change of policy in 
Ontario in this respect. 

Having concluded that a minimum wage 
was necessary, he reached the further con- 
clusion that it should be a rate that took 
into account the seasonal nature of the 
industry, loss of time caused by inclement 
weather, and loss of time in transferring 
between jobs. A minimum adequate for a 
worker in an industry with a steady employ- 
ment pattern would not be adequate for a 
construction worker. The lowest rate pro- 
posed in the recommendations made to the 
Commission for unskilled construction 
labour was $1.25 and the highest was $1.60. 

He favoured the establishment of two 
rates only, one for tradesmen and another 
for other employees, a method adopted in 
British Columbia's Construction Industry 
Male Minimum Wage Order No. 12 (1960), 
which sets minimum rates of $2 per hour 
for tradesmen and $1.30 per hour for other 
employees for a 40-hour week. 

He accordingly recommended that legis- 
lation be enacted to create a Construction 
Industry Wage Board composed of an 
equal number of representatives of trade 
unions and employers in the industry and a 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY J962 



781 



public member as chairman, with all neces- 
sary powers to establish and enforce mini- 
mum hourly wage rates and maximum 
hours of work in the construction industry. 

The Board should first determine and 
establish an appropriate minimum wage 
rate for tradesmen and an appropriate mini- 
mum wage rate for other employees, and 
the maximum number of hours to be 
worked at such rates, for the Metropolitan 
Toronto-Greater Hamilton area, since it is 
in this area that immediate remedial meas- 
ures are required. It should then conduct 
the necessary inquiries and investigation for 
determining minimum rates and maximum 
hours in the construction industry in other 
parts of the province or for the province 
as a whole. The Board should review its 
orders periodically. 

The Board would need to be provided 
with an adequate staff of qualified inspectors 
and auditors. Without a satisfactory system 
of inspection, the Commissioner emphasized 
that the law would be a dead letter in so 
far as some contractors are concerned and 
would not provide the required protection 
either for the workers or for the responsible 
employers. All employers should be required 
to post the orders of the Board where the 
employees will be able to read them, in 
English and in the principal language of the 
employees, if it is other than English. 

Further, the Government of Ontario 
should specify fair wages and maximum 
hours of work in government contracts. 

Vacations with Pay 

There was general agreement in the briefs 
to the Commissioner that the provision for 
vacations with pay is not properly enforced. 
He attributed this to inadequate inspection 
because of the limited available inspection 
staff and to inadequate penalties to serve 
as a deterrent. 

He noted that when an employer is con- 
victed of violation of the vacation with pay 
provisions, the fine is a nominal one ("not 
less than $25") and it is not mandatory for 
the magistrate to order the employer to pay 
the employee his vacation pay, and, if he 
does issue such an order, it must be filed 
by the employee in a division court to 
become effective. 

He recommended that the Hours of Work 
and Vacations with Pay Act be amended 
to make it mandatory upon the magistrate 
to order an employer convicted of violation 
to pay to the Industry and Labour Board, 
on behalf of the employee, the amount due 
him in vacation pay. 



He also recommended a review of the 
regulations governing the use of stamps in 
the construction industry, adequate inspec- 
tion, and the posting by the employer of 
notices and regulations under the Act. 

Protection of Wages 

The abuses in residential building re- 
vealed by the inquiry pointed to a need for 
effective legislation for the protection of 
wages. The Master and Servant Act and 
the Mechanics' Lien Act do not meet the 
requirements of the situation. 

The Commission accordingly recom- 
mended that wages protection legislation be 
enacted in Ontario. It should make the 
prime contractor or builder responsible for 
ensuring the payment of wages by his sub- 
contractors, and should authorize the 
Minister of Labour to require the employer 
who has defaulted in the payment of wages 
to furnish security to guarantee the payment 
of wages to his employees. 

The practice of "kickbacks" should be 
prohibited; employers should be required 
to furnish each employee with a complete 
pay statement on every payday, and em- 
ployees should be informed of their rights 
under the legislation by the posting of an 
abstract or other material prescribed by 
the Minister, in English and also in the 
principal language of the employees if it 
is other than English. 

He further recommended that the Master 
and Servant Act be amended by raising the 
amount that may be claimed for wages due 
and unpaid from $200 (the present maxi- 
mum) to $500 and by allowing proceedings 
to be taken within six months, instead of 
one month, after employment has ceased or 
after the last instalment of wages was due, 
whichever is later. He also recommended 
that the Mechanics' Lien Act should be 
reviewed in terms of modern requirements. 

Registration of Contractors 

To meet the enforcement problem aris- 
ing from the difficulty of identifying and 
locating contractors in housebuilding, the 
Commission recommended that legislation 
be enacted requiring all builders, con- 
tractors and sub-contractors to register with 
the municipal authority in all municipalities 
in which they operate, and that the munici- 
palities be authorized to charge a fee for 
such registration. 

He would also require all persons to 
whom a building permit has been issued 
to report to the municipal authority the 
names of all contractors and subcontrac- 
tors employed on the project, and would 
require the municipal authorities to report 
such registrations and other data regularly 
to the provincial Department of Labour. 



782 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



He noted that the Royal Commission on 
Industrial Safety had found that licensing 
was necessary to force compliance with 
safety regulations in the construction in- 
dustry, and recommended the adoption of 
legislation setting up a system of licensing. 
If this recommendation were implemented, 
a system of registration would not be 
necessary. 

Apprenticeship 

The Apprenticeship Act should be re- 
vised to take cognizance of developments in 
vocational training and of economic and 
industrial changes. Specifically, the upper 
age limit of 21 for apprenticeship should be 
repealed in view of the fact that large 
numbers of workers are unemployed because 
of a lack of the required skills. 



Legislative Action 

Before the Ontario Legislature prorogued 
on April 18, action was taken to implement 
a number of the recommendations. 

The Labour Relations Act was amended 
by inserting provisions applicable to the 
construction industry, and a panel of the 
Labour Relations Board has since been 
named to deal with construction industry 
cases. 

The enforcement provisions of the Hours 
of Work and Vacations with Pay Act were 
strengthened, and the Master and Servant 
Act was amended with respect to wage 
claims that may be dealt with under it. 

Details of the new legislation will be 
reported in a later issue. 



Changes in General Assistance Legislation 

from November 1960 to December 1961 

Major changes are made in general assistance legislation in Quebec, Ontario 
Saskatchewan and Alberta; minor changes in Newfoundland, Manitoba. Several 
provinces amend legislation on mothers' allowances, accommodation for aged 



GENERAL ASSISTANCE 

Major changes were made in legislation 
on general assistance in Quebec, Ontario, 
Saskatchewan and Alberta; and minor 
changes were made in Newfoundland and 
Manitoba. 

Newfoundland 

Under Regulations gazetted December 
12, 1961, some changes were made in the 
amount of social assistance that may be 
granted to a person toward repairs and 
renovations of his home. The Social As- 
sistance Board may, as formerly, grant a 
person in any one year an amount not in 
excess of $240 for this purpose, but a new 
provision permits an aggregate of such 
grants of up to $960 in any four-year 
period. 

Any amount in excess of $960 must be 
approved by the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council, and then only if the debtor gives 
the Minister of Public Welfare a mortgage 
on the land on which his home is situated 
and, if required, on any additional land. 
The terms of repayment of the excess are 
as prescribed by the Lieutenant-Governor 
in Council. 

Formerly, subject to the approval of the 
Minister of Public Welfare, the Regula- 
tions permitted an increase in the basic 



amount up to $750, in any one year, with any 
amount in excess of $750 to be approved 
by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 

The Social Assistance (Consolidated) 
Regulations, 1961, published in the New- 
foundland Gazette of January 17, 1961, 
consolidated all Regulations under The 
Social Assistance Act, 1954, and revoked 
all former Regulations. 

The Dependants' Allowances (Repeal) 
Act, 1961, and The Mothers' Allowances 
(Repeal) Act, 1961, repealed The De- 
pendents' Allowances Act and The Mothers' 
Allowances Act respectively, since the terms 
of both of these Acts had been incorpor- 
ated in The Social Assistance Act, 1954. 

Quebec 

It will be recalled that major changes 
were made in general assistance in 1960 
with full assumption by the province of 
costs of aid (L.G. 1960 p. 1256). 

An amendment to the Quebec Public 
Charities Act, assented to May 10, 1961, 
added to the classes of persons assisted 
under the Act. The amendment, effective 
from September 1, 1961, provides for 
monthly allowances, payable by the prov- 
ince, of up to $65 to needy widows or 
spinsters of 60 to 65 years of age, and 
for monthly allowances up to $10 to 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



783 



needy persons receiving old age security, 
old age assistance, or blind or disabled 
persons' allowances. Additional amounts 
may be given in cases of necessity. The 
amendment also provides for allowances 
to needy persons who are not hospitalized 
and not assisted under other provisions of 
the Act. 

Rates 

Regulations under the Quebec Public 
Charities Act (O.C. Nos. 1664 and 1665) 
dated July 27, 1961, and effective Septem- 
ber 1, 1961, replaced former Regulations. 
These Regulations, which were gazetted 
September 30, 1961, made changes in rates 
and a number of important administrative 
and other changes. They were then amended 
by Regulation O.C. No. 1887 dated Septem- 
ber 7, 1961, also gazetted on September 30. 

Under Regulation 1664, rates of assist- 
ance and maximum allowable income are 
set for needy widows and spinsters and for 
persons receiving aid in the home. Under 
Regulation 1665, allowances for persons 
not hospitalized and not assisted under 
other provisions of the Act are to be at a 
rate to be set by the Lieutenant-Governor 
in Council. 

Allowances over and above the basic 
rates are authorized for all classes. O.C. 
No. 1664 authorizes additional allowances 
up to $25 a month for heads of families, 
if the beneficiary is living in a city or in 
another municipality where the cost of 
living is declared equally high. Under Regu- 
lation 1665, an additional allowance up to 
$15 a month is provided for recipients of 
"governmental allowances" who reside in 
areas recognized as high-cost areas by the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 

Recipients of "governmental allowances" 
means those categories of persons who 
receive federal-provincial and provincial 
allowances as follows: old age security, 
blind persons' allowances, disabled persons' 
allowances, needy mothers' assistance, or 
aid to needy widows and spinsters. 

O. C. 1887 of September 7, 1961, au- 
thorizes the administrative authorities to in- 
crease the rates, if they are inadequate, 
but not the maximum income, by $15 a 
month for all classes of recipients living 
in a city or in another municipality form- 
ing part of the Corporation of Metropoli- 
tan Montreal, or in one of the cities or 
towns of: Anjou, Cote St. Luc, Dorval, 
St-Leonard-de-Port-Maurice, Quebec, Sil- 
lery and Ste. Foy. 

Administration 

The Regulations of July 26, 1961 (O.C. 
1665) transferred administration of supple- 
mentary assistance and special assistance 



(unusual expenses) from the Social As- 
sistance Services of the Department of 
Family and Social Welfare to the Social Al- 
lowances Commission of the Department. 

Payments formerly made by municipal 
and voluntary agencies, subject to the ap- 
proval of the Social Assistance Services, 
are now to be administered by and made 
directly by the Commission. Under O.C. 
No. 1887, voluntary and municipal agencies 
were given until January 1, 1962, to trans- 
fer all such cases to the Commission. Emer- 
gency assistance formerly payable by munic- 
ipal or voluntary agencies may now also 
be paid directly by the Commission. 

Means Test 

Some changes were made in the means 
or needs test. The allowable income is now 
based on whether or not the individual is 
single or the head of a family, and whether 
or not he is employable or unemployable 
for 12 months or more. The amount of 
allowable cash or liquid assets for a single 
employable person is now $200, and for the 
head of a family, $400, including the capital 
of his spouse. The same rates apply to a 
person unemployable for less than 12 
months. 

A single person or head of a family, if 
unemployable for 12 months or more, may 
have cash or liquid assets of $1,000 in- 
cluding, for a married person, the capital 
of his spouse. A similar amount is allowed 
for a widow or spinster 60 to 65 years of 
age, and for a recipient of old age security, 
old age assistance, or blind or disabled 
persons' allowance. 

Under O.C. 1665, employable persons 
applying for assistance are now obliged, 
like other categories of persons, not to have 
transferred assets within five years of ap- 
plication for the purpose of qualifying for 
assistance payments. Under former Regu- 
lations the period for this group was one 
year. 

Income is computed much as before, 
with some slight changes in the proportion 
to be included of the amount paid for food 
and lodging by persons outside the family; 
this has been reduced from 40 to 30 per 
cent. O.C. 1664 and 1887 set out the 
financial obligations of relatives; those 
with whom the petitioners or beneficiaries 
live are obliged to contribute to their 
support either in money or in kind, an 
amount equal to at least 20 per cent of 
the taxable income. 

Children living with parents who are 
beneficiaries of an allowance are obliged 
to pay for board and lodging an amount up 
to $50, that is, a third of their monthly 



784 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 9 JULY 7962 



income up to $150, and in addition, 10 
per cent of the monthly income in excess 
of $150. 

Ontario 

Substantial changes were made under the 
General Welfare Assistance Act by Regu- 
lations gazetted November 12, 1960 (O. 
Reg. 293/60), and subsequent amendments. 

The major change made by these Regula- 
tions is in the schedule of maximum rates 
of general assistance that the province will 
share with the municipalities. The schedule 
includes a specified amount for food, cloth- 
ing and household sundries, termed "the 
pre-added budget," which replaced the for- 
mer separate amounts for each of these 
items, and includes, as well, the milk allow- 
ance formerly expressed in terms of quan- 
tity. Separate schedules are set out for 
single persons and for heads of families, 
with amounts according to the number and 
age of dependants. 

Rates were subsequently raised by Regu- 
lations gazetted February 25, 1961 (O. Reg. 
31/61). The amounts for all pre-added 
budgets were increased. The rate for a 
single person living alone, for example, 
was raised from $27.75 to $29.85 a month; 
that for a head of family with one de- 
pendent adult was raised from $49.50 to 
$53.80 a month; and the rate for a family 
with one child 10 to 15 years of age was 
raised from $60.35 to $66 a month. 

All shelter allowances were also raised 
by the above Regulations. The rate for 
single persons renting furnished and heated 
premises was raised from $18.50 to $25 
a month. For heads of families renting un- 
heated premises, the range was increased 
from $19-$ 3 4 a month to $25-$40 a 
month, the amount varying with the number 
of rooms, from one to six; and for those 
renting heated premises, the corresponding 
increase was from a range of $23.05-$47.80 
to a range of $29.05-$53.80. The monthly 
amounts added for each room in excess 
of six remains unchanged. 

The total maximum allowances, including 
all items, for heads of families with de- 
pendants remain unchanged. 

A later amendment (O. Reg. 172/61) of 
July 3, 1961, raised the ceiling for shelter 
allowances in municipalities having a pop- 
ulation of 100,000 or more (that is, Metro- 
politan Toronto, Hamilton, Ottawa, Lon- 
don and Windsor). The maximum amount 
which the province will share with these 
municipalities for heated premises is $75 
a month and for unheated premises, $65 a 
month. The total maximum allowance for 
all items including the pre-added budget 



may be increased by the amount of the 
excess paid for the shelter allowance in 
these municipalities. 

In assessing an applicant's income, a 
municipal or regional welfare administra- 
tor must include the net amount of some 
items, such as income received from room- 
ers, boarders, or from rented self-contained 
quarters (80, 40 and 60 per cent respec- 
tively), and 40 per cent of the gross 
amount received under old age security, old 
age assistance, blind persons' allowances, 
disabled persons' allowances, or mothers' 
allowances. He must also include the gross 
amount of payments, such as those re- 
ceived under a mortgage, agreement for 
sale, annuity or maintenance order. In- 
come does not include family allowances, 
donations made by a religious, charitable 
or benevolent organization, and casual gifts 
of small value (O. Reg. 172/61). 

With the approval of the Director of the 
General Welfare Assistance Branch of the 
Department of Public Welfare, a regional 
welfare administrator may now grant as- 
sistance to persons having residence in 
territory without municipal organization, in 
amounts in excess of the maximum which 
the province will share with a municipality 
(O. Reg. 172/61). 

Transportation allowances which the 
province will share with a municipality 
were extended under Regulations of Novem- 
ber 12, 1960, to those required to enable a 
person to obtain employment or to enable 
him to obtain medical, hospital or nursing 
home care not provided in the municipality 
in which he is living, but these were re- 
voked by the Regulations gazetted July 3, 
1961. 

Under the Regulations gazetted Decem- 
ber 2, 1961 (O. Reg. 362/61), transpor- 
tation costs for persons resident in territory 
without municipal organization may now 
be paid for purposes other than to and 
from hospital, provided the purpose is 
approved by the Director as necessary for 
the general welfare of the person. The 
cost of an escort, where necessary, may be 
included. 

The province will also pay the actual cost 
of the grave for the burial of an indigent 
person, if this is not provided free of charge 
under The Cemeteries Act, and the cost 
of transporting the body of a deceased 
person to a place to await burial. 

Under O. Reg. 293/60, gazetted Novem- 
ber 12, 1960, the following changes were 
also made. The date from which residence 
in a municipality or territory is calculated 
has been changed from April 1, 1956 to 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



785 



April 1, 1957. Periods in which supple- 
mentary aid was received may now be 
included in the calculation of residence. 

Rehabilitation services must now be ap- 
proved by the Director of the General Wel- 
fare Assistance Branch rather than, as 
formerly, by the Minister. 

The procedure of payment for emergency 
dental services (extractions) has been al- 
tered. Vouchers are issued by the municipal 
welfare administrator and accounts paid by 
the municipality, with 80 per cent reim- 
bursement by the province. Formerly, ac- 
counts were forwarded direct to the Deputy 
Minister of Health and the bill was paid 
by the province. 

Under O. Reg. 31/61, an unemployed but 
employable person must report to the local 
office of the National Employment Service 
every two weeks instead of weekly as 
formerly. 

Manitoba 

In Manitoba, Section 9 of the Social Al- 
lowances Act was proclaimed effective from 
October 1, 1961. This Section provides for 
appeal to the Appeal Board by an applicant 
or recipient of a provincial social allow- 
ance against refusal of an allowance, the 
amount of the allowance granted, or discon- 
tinuance, reduction or increase of the 
allowance. 

Saskatchewan 

An amendment to the Social Aid Act, 
assented to April 8, 1961, authorized two 
or more municipalities to associate to 
provide aid to indigent persons within the 
municipalities. The municipal councils con- 
cerned are required to pass complementary 
by-laws to provide for the establishment of 
a board to exercise and perform the duties 
of a municipality under the Act. The by- 
laws must outline, among other particulars, 
the number and composition of the board, 
qualifications of members, and the propor- 
tion of the total cost of providing aid that 
each municipality shall share. 

Changes were made in the Regulations 
governing the social aid and supplemental 
allowances programs. 

Social Aid 

Under Regulations O.C. 2086/60, gazet- 
ted December 2, 1960, a municipality 
is permitted to grant a rent allowance 
on the basis of actual rental. A schedule 
for natural gas rates is included for cities, 
towns and villages, for heating and cooking, 
where gas is used as an alternative to coal, 
wood, or fuel oil. 



In determining financial resources, the 
exemption permitted for burial expenses 
for elderly persons, or persons with a short 
life expectancy, was raised from $250 to 
$300 for a single person and from $500 
to $600 for a married couple. 

Under Regulations O.C. 1939/61, gazet- 
ted November 17, 1961, Section 9 has been 
amended to permit a municipality to waive 
the provision that no aid be given a wage 
earner in full-time employment if the Di- 
rector of Public Assistance has given prior 
approval to the criteria used by the munici- 
pality for dealing with such cases. If no 
prior approval has been given, each case 
must be referred to the Director for de- 
cision. 

In the section on shelter allowances, pay- 
ment on the principal of a mortgage or 
agreement for sale is allowed if the recipient 
receives aid for more than six months. Total 
amounts allowed for shelter, however, may 
not be in excess of the rental allowance 
which would otherwise be paid. 

Clothing allowances have been raised 
substantially, and now range from $5 a 
month for a child up to five years of age, 
to $10 for an adult 19 to 64 years of age, 
inclusive. 

The schedule of utility rates has been 
expanded to include village and rural rates 
as well as city rates. Municipalities, as 
formerly, may use the schedule or may 
pay an allowance to cover the actual cost 
of utilities. 

The above Regulations permit the fol- 
lowing exemptions in computing the appli- 
cant's financial resources: maintenance 
payments made by the Department of 
Social Welfare Rehabilitation on behalf 
of a child in the care of the Minister; the 
cash surrender value of life insurance up 
to $600 for recipients having dependent 
children and who are likely to need assist- 
ance for more than six months; and the 
value of room and board of a child under 
one year of age, where the child lives with 
his mother. In calculating income, 95 per 
cent of the gross income from suites is 
included. 

The Regulations also reaffirmed the 
policy that social aid is not subject to 
transfer or to attachment in satisfaction 
of any claim. 

Supplemental Allowances 

Changes were made in amounts of al- 
lowances and in the method of calculating 
supplemental allowances for recipients of 
old age security or blind persons' al- 
lowances under Regulations gazetted April 
21, 1961 and May 12, 1961 (O.C. 618/61 



786 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



and O.C. 829/61); further changes were 
made by Regulations gazetted November 
17, 1961 (O.C. 1940/61). 

Under O.C. 618/61, the "means test" 
was replaced by a "needs test" in which 
need is determined by the budget deficit 
method, that is, the applicant's available 
resources are balanced against the estimate 
of regularly recurring need. A person and 
his family are considered to be in need 
when a "budget deficit" exists. Eligibility 
for supplemental allowances for new appli- 
cants has been determined under these 
Regulations since April 1, 1961. Persons 
receiving allowances under former Regula- 
tions continued under those Regulations 
until November 1, 1961, when all recipients 
were required to qualify under the new 
Regulations. 

Allowances for food, shelter, clothing and 
utilities are at the same rate as those for 
recipients of social aid, but fuel allowances 
vary slightly, and under Regulations O.C. 
829/61, the allowance for necessities for 
personal care was raised from $1.60 to $6 
monthly, and the amount for laundry, clean- 
ing and household supplies raised from 
$1.30 for a family of one or two adults to 
$4 monthly for each adult. 

Under Regulations gazetted November 
17, 1961, rates for clothing, utility and 
shelter allowances were set at the same 
rate as for recipients of social aid. 

Under Regulations O.C. 618/61, items to 
be counted as income are the same as for 
applicants for social aid, with the addition 
of certain children's moneys held in trust 
by certain public bodies. Also, proceeds 
from the sale of real property, which are 
to be used for the purchase of other prop- 
erty to serve as a home, may be held in 
trust for a period of not more than four 
months pending completion of the purchase. 
During this period, the proceeds are not 
treated as cash or liquid assets. 

O.C. 1940/61 provides that 95 per cent of 
gross income from suites be included in 
the calculation of income. In the determin- 
ation of financial resources, exemptions 
correspond to those of social aid, but three 
additional subsections were added to apply 
to applicants for supplemental assistance. 
These permit exemptions to the extent of 
the value of room or board or both, for a 
dependent son or daughter who is not a 
child but who is attending school on a 
full-time basis; the exemption continues 
for four months after the son or daughter 
discontinues school on a full-time basis. 
Aid granted to such a dependent son or 
daughter as a part of the family unit by 
the municipality is also exempt. 



Persons receiving supplemental allowances 
may be absent from the province for a 
period of up to three months without can- 
cellation of the allowance. Provision is made 
for a special food allowance and for an 
allowance for a housekeeper, if this service 
is required by a recipient in his own home 
for himself or his family. 

Alberta 

An Act to amend The Public Welfare 
Act, assented to April 11, 1960, was pro- 
claimed in force June 1, 1961. (This amend- 
ment provided for the addition to the Act 
of Part III, Social Allowances, to provide 
for provincial allowances to needy mothers 
with dependent children and to persons 
who, because of age, or physical or mental 
incapacity that is likely to continue for 
more than 90 days, are unable to earn 
sufficient income to support themselves and 
their dependants.) 

The Social Allowances Regulations under 
the Act were gazetted May 15, 1961, and 
became effective June 1, 1961. These set 
out the residence requirements, the means 
test and allowable income, allowances pay- 
able for food and clothing, and the condi- 
tions of payment to trustees. 

An applicant is required to be resident in 
the province, that is, to be domiciled within 
the province. He must declare all income, 
and must disclose all transfers or assign- 
ments of real or personal property within 
the five years preceding application. A single 
person is permitted liquid assets of $500, 
and a married person or person with de- 
pendants, $1,000, and in addition, a dwell- 
ing of reasonable value used by the appli- 
cant as a home. 

The food schedule gives weekly, semi- 
monthly and monthly rates for an adult 
living alone, an adult living with others, 
a married couple, and nine classes of chil- 
dren according to age and sex. The monthly 
amounts range from $9.70 for an infant 
under one year of age to $27.50 for an 
adult living alone. 

The clothing schedule sets out monthly 
amounts which vary according to age and 
sex, from $3.70 for an infant under year 
of age to $9.60 for a girl 12 to 16 years 
of age. 

Other basic needs, such as shelter, fuel 
and drugs, necessary for the health and 
well-being of the recipient, may be paid in 
amounts accepted as a minimum standard 
of health and decency in the community. 

Payments may be made to a trustee on 
behalf of a recipient who is incapacitated 
through infirmity, illness or other cause, or 
who is using or is likely to use his allow- 
ance for other than his own benefit. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



787 



MOTHERS' ALLOWANCES 

Under amendments to legislation affecting 
mothers with dependent children, rates were 
changed in three provinces: Prince Edward 
Island, Saskatchewan and Quebec. Cover- 
age was also extended in three provinces: 
Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and 
Quebec. Other major changes were made 
in Saskatchewan, an administrative change 
was made in New Brunswick, and amend- 
ments were made to the Regulations in 
Ontario. 

Prince Edward Island 

In Prince Edward Island, the maximum 
allowance per family was raised to $125 
from $75 a month under an amendment to 
the Mothers' Allowances Act in March, 
1961. The age of children attending school 
who may benefit by an allowance was ex- 
tended from the end of the school year 
in which the 16th birthday falls to the end 
of the school year in which the 18th birth- 
day falls. 

Nova Scotia 

Under an amendment to Part I of the 
Social Assistance Act assented to March 13, 
1961, a needy mother may qualify for an 
allowance if her husband is serving a 
term of imprisonment of two years less 
one day or a longer term; formerly a term 
of two years or longer was specified. 

New Brunswick 

An amendment to The Social Assistance 
Act, Part I (Provincial Assistance), govern- 
ing allowances for needy mothers with 
dependent children, changed the title of the 
"Advisory Commission" to the "Welfare 
Advisory Board" and gave it advisory func- 
tions respecting Part I and Part II (Munic- 
ipal Assistance). 

The function of the Board under Part I 
has been restricted and it is no longer to 
consider all applications from needy mothers 
with dependent children, but only to inquire 
into the merits of those referred to it by 
the Director of the program. The appoint- 
ment and composition of the Board remains 
as previously set out in the Act. 

Quebec - 

The amendment to the Needy Mothers' 
Assistance Act, effective September 1, 1961, 
extended coverage of the Act and raised 
the basic rate for a mother and one child 
from $60 to $75 a month. It abolished the 
requirement of Canadian citizenship, re- 
duced the residence requirement from three 
years to one year, and removed the require- 



ment that if a deserted mother is to be 
eligible for an allowance her husband have 
previous domicile in Quebec. 

The amendment also reduced from six 
to three months the period of absence or 
imprisonment of a husband before the 
mother may qualify for an allowance. It 
permits the grandmother to qualify for an 
allowance in cases where the mother has 
abandoned the children; formerly, the 
grandmother could receive an allowance 
only if the mother were dead or hospitalized. 
This provision, which formerly applied also 
to the sister or aunt, if of age, now extends 
also to the stepmother, sister or stepsister 
of 18 or more years of age. 

Ontario 

Regulations under The Mothers' and 
Dependent Children's Allowances Act, 
amending previous Regulations, were ga- 
zetted February 25, 1961 and, with the 
addition of revised forms, on July 3, 1961 
(O. Reg. 25/61 and 210/61). 

Fuel allowances for recipients living in 
a territorial district now extend from Sep- 
tember to April inclusive instead of to 
March. 

In determining the amount of an allow- 
ance, the qualification that the difference 
between the expenses and income be $5 
monthly or more has been removed; the 
amount of the allowance is now the dif- 
ference between these two items. 

The definition of "liquid assets" was 
revised to exempt, in calculating income, 
the amount remaining to be paid, under a 
mortgage or agreement for sale, to an 
applicant or recipient or to his spouse. The 
revised section specifies that damages in 
favour of a child for whom an allowance 
is applied for or allowed are "damages for 
physical injury and nervous shock suffered 
by a child or children . . ." 

The regional welfare administrator may 
now accept as evidence of the divorce of an 
applicant any evidence satisfactory to him, 
of the dissolution of the marriage. Such 
evidence was formerly restricted to the 
original or a certified copy of the final 
decree or judgment. 

The new Regulations require a field 
worker to submit every six months a report 
on the circumstances of each recipient that 
might affect payment of the allowance. A 
report need now be submitted every four 
months or more frequently only when the 
Director or the regional administrator so 
directs. 

Saskatchewan 

The Mothers' Allowances Regulations 
under the Social Aid Act were rescinded, 
effective July 1, 1961, when a new set of 



788 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



Regulations came into effect. The Regula- 
tions for Aid to Dependent Families, as the 
program is now called (O.C. 673/61), were 
gazetted April 21, 1961, and were amended 
by Regulations O.C. 1941/61, gazetted 
November 17, 1961. 

These Regulations retain the same cate- 
gories of eligible mothers with dependent 
children as did the former Regulations 
governing mothers' allowances. Significant 
changes, however, have been made in rates 
and in allowable income. Aid under the 
new Regulations may not be received con- 
currently with social aid or with a supple- 
mental allowance for basic maintenance. 

Formerly, mothers' allowances recipients 
could receive assistance also from the muni- 
cipality of residence if need existed. The 
rates for items of basic maintenance under 
the new Regulations are the same as for 
recipients of social aid, and are higher than 
those formerly paid under mothers' allow- 
ances. For example, a mother and one child 
who receive a mother's allowance of 
$60 a month, may now receive, depending 
on the age of the child, $32.50 to $46.50 
for food, and, as amended by Regulations 
of November 17, 1961, $15 to $20 for 
clothing, $40 for rent, and, in addition, other 
allowances for fuel, utilities and items of 
personal and household care. 

No specific maximum allowable amounts 
for liquid assets and other assets are set 
out under the new Regulations. Need is to 
be determined according to the budget 
deficit method, that is, the balancing of 
available resources against the estimate of 
regularly recurring need. The resources to 
be considered are the same as those for 
recipients of social aid. Recipients of 
mothers' allowances under former Regula- 
tions whose assets exceeded those allowed 
by the new Regulations were permitted six 
months in which to reduce their assets 
through reasonable expenditure, and at the 
end of this period eligibility was to be 
established in accordance with the new 
Regulations. 

The Regulations of November 17, 1961, 
made several amendments. Clothing and 
utility allowances were increased and an 
allowance authorized to cover taxes, in- 
terest and principal on a mortgage at the 
same rates as those set out in the revised 
Social Aid Regulations. Clothing rates were 
raised from $2.60 to $5 a month for a 
child under 5 years of age, and range up to 
$10 a month for a person 19 to 64 years 
of age, an increase from $5.50. A special 
food allowance on medical recommendation, 
and an allowance for a housekeeper, if re- 
quired, are authorized. Aid may be given 



up to $60 a month per person for board and 
room, with an additional allowance up to 
$10 a month for comforts. 

The exemptions allowed in calculating 
income under the above Regulations were 
broadened to include the following: main- 
tenance payments made by the Department 
of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation on 
behalf of a child in the care of the 
Minister; the value of room or board of 
a dependent son or daughter who is not 
a child, but who is attending school on a 
full-time basis; the value of such room 
or board for a period of four months after 
the son or daughter has ceased attending 
school on a full-time basis; aid granted by 
a municipality to such a dependent son or 
daughter as part of the family unit; the 
value of room and board of a child under 
one year of age where the child is living 
with the mother; and the cash surrender 
value of life insurance up to $600. 

LIVING ACCOMMODATION FOR THE AGED 

The interest rate on loans made under 
Section 16 of the National Housing Act 
was increased from 5& per cent to 51 per 
cent per annum by Order in Council P.C. 
1961-551, gazetted April 26, 1961, and 
was subsequently reduced to 5& per cent by 
Order in Council P.C. 1961-1493, gazetted 
November 8, 1961. 

During their 1961 sessions, the Legisla- 
tures of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, 
Quebec, and Ontario passed legislation 
affecting living accommodation for the 
aged. New or amended Regulations came 
into effect in Ontario and Alberta. 

Nova Scotia 

Under a new Section of the Social Assist- 
ance Act, the Minister of Public Welfare 
may pay an honorarium and travelling 
allowance to the members of a Board of 
Visitors who have inspected a municipal 
home and filed their report. 

New Brunswick 

The Auxiliary Homes Act was assented 
to April 8, 1961, and is to take effect when 
proclaimed. This Act provides for provincial 
aid for the construction of accommodation 
for persons who, because of disease or age, 
require custodial care but do not qualify 
for services under the Hospital Services Act. 
A municipality, municipalities, or charitable 
organization constructing such a home may 
receive a provincial grant of $2,000 per 
bed or 50 per cent of capital costs, includ- 
ing equipment, whichever is the lesser. 

The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may 
make regulations respecting the construc- 
tion, equipping, furnishing, maintenance, 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY J 962 



789 



inspection, supervision, control and manage- 
ment of an auxiliary home, the number of 
patients to be accommodated, the standard 
of nursing care, the conditions for the 
admittance of patients, payment of the sub- 
sidy for construction, and any other neces- 
sary matters. 

The Act is to be administered by the 
Minister of Youth and Welfare, or other 
member of the Executive Council designated 
by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 

Quebec 

Through Order in Council 1210, gazetted 
July 29, 1961, limited-dividend housing 
companies, as defined in the National Hous- 
ing Act, are exempted from corporation 
taxes under the Corporation Tax Act of 
the province. 

Ontario 

By an amendment, The Homes for the 
Aged Act requires that a person appointed 
as superintendent of a home must have 
served satisfactorily in such a capacity for 
at least six months, and must have com- 
pleted a course of instruction approved by 
the Minister. Temporary appointments may 
be made for a period of up to one year. A 
new subsection in the Act requires the 
appointment of a physician to be respon- 
sible for the medical care of residents in a 
home. 

Through a change in admittance require- 
ments, mentally incompetent persons who 
are not eligible for admission to an institu- 
tion under The Mental Hospitals Act must 
now be over 60 years of age before being 
admitted to a home for the aged. 

Regional welfare administrators are now 
included among persons having authority 
to take affidavits and statutory declarations 
under the Act, replacing district welfare 
administrators and supervisors. 

The cost of maintaining homes in terri- 
torial districts is to be defrayed in propor- 
tion to municipal assessments according to 
the assessment rolls as revised and equalized 
in the immediately preceding year. Where 
assessment rolls are not equalized by Feb- 
ruary 10, a Board may apportion the amount 
it requires in proportion to the assessments 
most recently equalized, rather than on 
assessment rolls returned but not yet 
equalized. 

Boards of homes are now permitted to 
include in their estimates a reserve for work- 
ing funds which is not to exceed 15 per 
cent of the total estimates for the year. 
In estimating the cost of a new building, 
or the alteration of an existing one, the 
amount of land for which costs may be 
included has been reduced from fifteen to 
eight acres. 



Regulations under The Ontario Homes 
for the Aged Act, gazetted October 21, 
1961, amended the definition of "provin- 
cial authority" to include regional welfare 
administrators or welfare institutions super- 
visors in place of district welfare super- 
visors and district welfare administrators. 

All medical services provided or used 
in a home for the aged are subject to the 
approval of the physician appointed for 
the home. At least once a year the physi- 
cian must report to the Board or Committee 
of Management on the general health of 
the residents and on the medical and nurs- 
ing services provided, and make any recom- 
mendations he considers essential for their 
health and well-being. 

The Regulations now require that an ap- 
plicant for admission to a home must 
have a chest x-ray and be declared free of 
tuberculosis. Also, the residents of a home 
must be given an annual chest x-ray as 
well as an annual medical examination. 
The physician for the home is to attend 
and prescribe for any resident who does 
not have his own attending physician, or 
who requests the services of the home's 
physician. 

A new subsection requires that notice of 
the death of a resident must be given to a 
coroner other than a coroner who is the 
physician for the home in which the de- 
ceased was a resident. The date that the 
notice of death was given to the coroner 
must be included in the written record of 
the deceased. 

When the cost of maintaining a person 
in special home care is $90 a month or less 
(formerly $75), the amount payable by the 
province remains at 70 per cent of the cost 
less 70 per cent of any maintenance pay- 
ments made by the person or on his behalf, 
other than by a municipality. When the 
cost is more than $90 (formerly $75), the 
province will pay an amount equal to $63 
(formerly $52.50), less 70 per cent of 
maintenance payments as described above. 

Where an application for the provincial 
share of maintenance costs is not made 
within three months following the first day 
of the month to which it relates, the 
amount payable when the cost is $90 or 
less (formerly $75) is 25 per cent of the 
cost less 25 per cent of maintenance pay- 
ments made. Where the cost is more than 
$90, the payment would be equal to $22.50 
a month (formerly $18.75), less 25 per 
cent of maintenance payments made. 

The Board or Committee of Management 
of a home must ensure that up-to-date 
inventory records are maintained on a 
continuing basis and are available for in- 
spection at any time. The records must 



790 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



show additions and deductions, together 
with the reasons for them, and the disposi- 
tion of any item deducted. Serial numbers 
must be assigned to each item of furnishings 
and equipment. The Board or Committee 
must designate a person to make an an- 
nual inspection of the records and items, 
and to submit a written report. 

Alberta 

Detailed Regulations governing fire pre- 
vention in municipally licensed homes for 
the aged have been issued under the Fire 
Prevention Act. These Regulations, Order 
in Council 177/61, gazetted February 15, 
1961, are concerned mainly with structural 
aspects of homes, heating units, and equip- 
ment provided for the prevention and ex- 
tinguishing of fires. While certain of the 
provisions apply to all licensed homes, 
others do not apply to existing homes ex- 
cept on the written order of the Provincial 
Fire Commissioner or his inspectors. 

Plans and specifications for new homes 
or for additions and alterations to existing 



homes must be submitted to the Provincial 
Fire Commissioner before construction be- 
gins. Plans must be complete enough to 
show compliance with the Regulations. 
Height and area limitations, and heating 
and cooking installations, must conform to 
the provisions of the National Building 
Code. In addition, special construction 
features apply for the use of fire walls and 
smoke barriers, the enclosing of stairwells 
and chutes, and the materials to be used for 
interior surfaces. 

In all homes, safety rules and a plan for 
the protection and evacuation of residents 
must be posted. Employees are to be in- 
structed in fire safety and trained in the 
proper use of fire-fighting equipment. The 
superintendent of a home is required to 
test the fire alarm system each week, in- 
spect fire extinguishing units once a month, 
and have heating equipment and chimneys 
inspected every six months. A fire drill must 
be held each month. 

— Research and Statistics Division, 
Department of National Health and Welfare. 



Manufacturers' Profits in 1961 
Average 4.9 Cents of Sales Dollar 

Corporate earnings in Canada in 1961 
averaged 4.9 cents on each dollar of sales, 
it was found in the 14th annual survey of 
the manufacturing industry by the Canadian 
Manufacturers' Association. More than 
1,000 companies of all sizes were included 
in the survey. 

The firms covered employ almost half a 
million Canadians and their aggregate sales 
last year exceeded $10.3 billion, a record. 
At 4.9 cents, the 1961 average profit on 
the sales dollar was up one-half cent from 
the 1960 figure of 4.4 cents, which was a 
13-year low. But it still left the profit one- 
half cent below the 5.4-cent average for 
the whole 1948-61 period. It was also a 
full cent short of the 5.9 cents reached in 
1955, the record for the past 10 years. 

The survey also showed that in 1961, for 
the third consecutive year, there was an 
increase in the number of firms that made 
no profit at all — a total of 212 out of the 
1,011 companies surveyed. 



Canadian Education Conference 
Voted Out of Existence 

The Canadian Conference on Education 
was voted out of existence by its executive 
on May 31. The executive decided that 
the Canadian Education Week Committee, 
which has been a part of the CCE for the 
past six years, should take over the pro- 
motion of education on a national basis. 

The CCE was founded by various organi- 
zations interested in analysing and advancing 
education; its orignal sponsor was the Cana- 
dan Teachers' Federation. The central body 
held a conference at Ottawa in 1958 and at 
Montreal last March (L.G., April, p. 399). 
The object of the conferences was to study 
the problems and determine the needs of 
education in Canada. 

Anticipated financial difficulties, the belief 
of some sponsoring organizations that there 
was no immediate need for another national 
conference, and withdrawal of the Canadian 
Teachers' Federation as a sponsor forced 
the dissolution of the CCE. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



791 



Latest Labour Statistics 

(Latest available statistics as of July 15, 1962) 



Principal Items 



Manpower 

Total civilian labour force (a) (000) 

Employed (000) 

Agriculture (000) 

Non-agriculture (000) 

Paid workers (000) 

At work 35 hours or more (000) 

At work less than 35 hours (000) 

Employed but not at work (000) 

Unemployed (000) 

Atlantic (000) 

Quebec (000) 

Ontario (000) 

Prairie (000) 

Pacific (000) 

Without work and seeking work (000) 

On temporary layoff up to 30 days (000) 

I . I 

Industrial employment (1949 = 100) 

Manufacturing employment (1949 = 100) 

Immigration 

Destined to the labour force 

Strikes and Lockouts 

Strikes and lockouts 

No. of workers involved 

Duration in man-days 

Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries (ind. comp.) 

Average hourly earnings (mfg.) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly wages (mfg.) 

Consumer price index (1949 = 100) 

Index numbers of weekly wages in 1949 dollars 

(1949 = 100) 

Total labour income $000,000 

Industrial Production 

Total (average 1949 = 100) 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-durables 



Date 



June 
June 
June 
June 
June 

June 
June 
June 

June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 

June 
June 

April 
April 

1st Qtr. 
1962 
1st Qtr. 
1962 



June 
June 
June 



April 
April 
April 
April 
June 

April 
April 



May 
May 
May 
May 



Amount 



6,752 
6,451 
687 
5,764 
5,302 

5,587 
672 
192 

301 
45 

105 
92 
26 
33 

290 
11 

116.7 
110.3 

11,762 

5,710 



53 

14,545 

260,650 



$80.21 

$ 1.88 

40.6 

$76.51 

130.5 

140.9 
1,613 



188.1 
167.3 
170.1 
164.9 



Percentage Change 
From 



Previous Previous 
Month Year 



+ 2.5 

+ 3.1 

+ 0.9 

+ 3.4 

+ 4.2 

+ 2.5 

+ 0.3 

+ 43.3 

- 10.4 

- 32.8 

- 7.9 
+ 13.6 

- 27.8 

- 13.2 

- 10.5 

- 8.3 



1.3 

0.6 



+ 17.8 
- 16.1 
+ 86.6 



- 0.3 
+ 0.5 

- 1.0 

- 0.2 
+ 0.3 



0.1 
1.4 



+ 4.4 

+ 4.3 

+ 5.9 

+ 2.9 



(a) Distribution of these figures between male and female workers can be obtained from Labour 
Force, a monthly publication of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. These figures are the result of a 
monthly survey conducted by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics for the purpose of providing estimates 
of the employment characteristics of the civilian non-institutional population of working age. (More 
than 35,000 households chosen by area sampling methods in approximately 170 different areas in 
Canada are visited each month.) The civilian labour force is that portion of the civilian non-institutional 
population 14 years of age and over that was employed or unemployed during the survey week. 



792 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



Employment Review 



Manpower Situation, Second Quarter, 1962 



The first half of 1962 was a period of 
continued advance in output and employ- 
ment. Output in real terms increased in the 
first quarter by H per cent over that in the 
fourth quarter of 1961. 

Economic indicators available for the 
second quarter indicate a continuation of 
the upward trend. Data on construction con- 
tract awards, housing starts, retail sales — 
particularly sales of motor vehicles — and 
exports show continued strength. 

Employment rose even more sharply in 
the second quarter than in the first three 
months of the year. The largest gains were 
in manufacturing, construction and the serv- 
ice industries. Since the first quarter of last 
year, when the present recovery got under- 
way, employment has increased by 4.5 per 
cent, a more rapid rise than the comparable 
period in the 1958 and 1959 recovery. 

Unemployment fell this year from a post- 
war peak in early 1961 to its lowest level 
in the past four years. This relatively sharp 
drop in unemployment is the combined re- 
sult of rising employment and a noticeably 
slower growth of the labour force. 

An important factor contributing to this 
slowdown was reduced participation in the 
labour market by the young and the old. 
Over the year, the increase in the number 
of those under 20 years of age who were 
attending school exceeded the increase in 
their number in the population; a small 
decrease in their number in the labour 
force was a result. Among those over 65, 
and particularly among men, participation 
in the labour market has been dropping 
steadily since 1957. Over the year, with- 
drawals from the labour force in this age 
group have exceeded their increase in the 
population. 

These developments have sharply reduced 
the rate of labour force growth. In the past 
12 months, on average, the labour force 
has shown a year-to-year gain of 1.1 per 
cent, only about one-half the average rate 
of the decade 1950-1960. 

Employment 

Non-farm employment (seasonally ad- 
justed) rose by a little more than 1 per 
cent between the first and second quarter 
of 1962. This was a somewhat slower rate 
of advance than in the opening quarter 
this year, although it equalled the rise 
that took place during the same stage of 
the previous business upswing. 



With increases in every quarter of the 
past year, non-farm employment in April- 
June 1962 averaged 225,000 higher than 
in the corresponding period a year earlier. 

Paced by a strong advance in manufac- 
turing and smaller gains in construction 
and the service-oriented industries, the pick- 
up in employment during the second quar- 
ter was about 60,000 greater than the cus- 
tomary spring rise. Manufacturing employ- 
ment, averaged for the quarter, rose by an 
estimated 81,000, which was double the 
average rise for this period during the past 
decade. The 111,000 increase in construc- 
tion employment was unusually large for 
this period, being equalled only once during 
the past ten years. 

The service industry, which expanded 
sharply during the first quarter of 1962 and 
accounted for virtually all of the quarter's 
2-per-cent increase in seasonally-adjusted 
non-farm employment, increased at a more 
moderate pace in the second quarter. Aver- 
aging 28,000 higher than in the first quarter, 
the second-quarter increase in employment 
in the service industry was only slightly 
more than seasonal. 

The firmer trend in manufacturing was 
particularly encouraging. After showing 
signs of hesitancy during the first quarter, 
employment in manufacturing rose more 
than seasonally during the second quarter. 
The quarter-to-quarter gain (allowing for 
seasonal factors) was the largest since the 
recovery began a little more than a year 
ago. 

With this improvement, the number em- 
ployed in manufacturing industries in the 
second quarter averaged 5 per cent above 
the recessionary low point and 2.9 per cent 
above the previous cyclical peak, reached 
in the third quarter of 1959. 

The advance in manufacturing employ- 
ment extended to both durable and non- 
durable goods industries; the former group 
showed the most impressive increases. 

Noteworthy was the rise in the motor 
vehicle industry. Influenced by an increas- 
ingly strong consumer demand this spring, 
output of passenger cars increased more 
than seasonally during April and May. Al- 
though employment did not increase pro- 
portionally, a substantial number of addi- 
tional workers were hired, nevertheless. 
Sizeable advances in output and employ- 
ment were reported in parts and accessor- 
ies. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



793 



In other parts of the transportation equip- 
ment industry employment changes were 
marginal. Shipbuilding employment, which 
experienced a strong upward trend through- 
out 1961, increased slightly in the second 
quarter, making up for the small decline 
in the opening quarter of this year. Activity 
in the aircraft and parts industry continued 
at the high level of the previous quarter. 
On the other hand, the railroad and rolling 
stock industry, a persistent source of weak- 
ness last year, experienced a further small 
decline during recent months. 

Activity in industries producing machin- 
ery and heavy electrical equipment increased 
during the second quarter in response to 
a pick-up in business investment. Expendi- 
tures for the acquisition of machinery and 
equipment are expected to run about 8 
per cent higher this year than in 1961. This 
factor, together with the effects of devalu- 
ation and the recent imposition of sur- 
charges on a wide range of imported com- 
modities, should bolster activity in the do- 
mestic industries in the months ahead. 

Most major steel consuming industries 
were reported to have stepped up their 
purchases of steel in the second quarter 
of this year. Shipments of steel for build- 
ing construction and the automotive in- 
dustry were particularly large; in the first 
four months tonnages shipped to each of 
these industries were about 27 per cent 
higher than in the corresponding period 
last year. 

Reflecting this strengthening demand, em- 
ployment (seasonally adjusted) in primary 
steel manufacturing increased by 4 per 
cent during the period January to April. 
In addition, employment rose fairly gen- 
erally in all iron and steel industries. 

Employment in nondurable goods indus- 
tries has been characterized by relatively 
small quarter-to-quarter changes during the 
current business upswing, and developments 
in the second quarter of this year do not 
appear to have altered its trend. The im- 
provement in this sector of manufacturing 
seemed to be fairly widespread in the 
second quarter but the advances were gen- 
erally small. 

Larger-than-seasonal increases took 
place in the construction industry during 
the second quarter. Housing starts (season- 
ally adjusted) were maintained at the rela- 
tively high level of earlier months. In the 
first half of the year, starts in urban centres 
of 5,000 and over were up over those in the 
corresponding period in 1961 by about 3 
per cent. 

An improvement has also been evident 
during recent months in non-residential con- 
struction, largely from increased outlays for 



institutional structures. Industrial construc- 
tion also increased, and this marks a re- 
sumption of the upward trend that began 
last summer but was broken in the opening 
quarter of this year. 

The most recent data on non-residential 
contract awards suggest a rising trend in 
this type of construction in the near term. 
In the first five months of 1962, contract 
awards for non-residential construction were 
10 per cent higher in value than those in 
the corresponding period last year. 

Employment in the primary industries in- 
creased somewhat more than usually be- 
tween the first and second quarter, mainly 
reflecting renewed activity in certain parts 
of mining. Increases in metal mining, no- 
tably iron ore, and non-metal mining more 
than offset declines in fuels. Total em- 
ployment in mining rose to a significantly 
higher level than last year. 

Forestry employment increased season- 
ally during the second quarter but some- 
what lower than a year ago. 

As indicated earlier, the employment 
gains in the service-oriented industries were 
of relatively modest proportions in the 
second quarter. In the service industry 
proper, seasonally adjusted employment rose 
by about one-half of 1 per cent, compared 
with a rise of 2.7 per cent in the previous 
quarter. 

Gains were similarly small in the second 
quarter in trade, finance and insurance. 
These industries expanded rapidly during 
the last business recession but have grown 
relatively slowly during the current up- 
swing. 

Reflecting the strong growth of employ- 
ment in particular industries and occupa- 
tions, labour shortages were reported in 
various areas across the country. Shortages 
of skilled tradesmen were fairly prevalent, 
particularly in Ontario and Quebec. In the 
professional category, electronic engineers, 
chemists, chemical engineers and engineers 
specializing in time and motion studies 
were reported to be in short supply. 

Employment in Perspective 

In June 1962, total employment was 
230,000 higher than a year earlier, a rise 
of 3.4 per cent. Men accounted for almost 
three quarters of this increase, with males 
in all age groups sharing in the rise. 

Although the greatest increase in magni- 
tude was among men, the largest relative 
gain was among women, though the dis- 
parity was less marked than in the early 
part of the year. The June-to-June increase 
in the number of employed women was 
just under 5 per cent whereas the increase 
in the number of employed men was a 
little more than 3 per cent. 



794 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



The difference in rates between sexes 
has narrowed noticeably during the past 
year, mainly reflecting the improvement 
in job opportunities in manufacturing and 
construction industry. 

Manufacturing employment increased 
some 95,000 over the year, more than 
recouping the earlier losses. The June esti- 
mate (seasonally adjusted) was 6 per cent 
above the pre-recession peak. 

The employment recovery in construc- 
tion played an important part in the year- 
to-year rise in job opportunities for men. 
In June of this year, construction employ- 
ment was about 37,000 higher than a year 
earlier. 

The service-producing industry continued 
to be an expansionary force in the nation's 
economy although the rate of growth has 
shown signs of slowing down during the 
past year. Employment in service-producing 
industries as a whole showed a year-to-year 
increase of 107,000. The largest gains were 
in trade, community and government serv- 
ice and finance. 

Employment in agriculture continued its 
long decline, falling by 18,000 over the 
year. 

Changes in Manufacturing 

Employment expansion in manufacturing 
has been widespread: all major industry 
groups have shared in the year-to-year im- 
provement. The largest gains took place 
in durable goods industries, which showed 
the greatest weakness during the recession. 

The automotive and automotive parts 
industries showed substantial advances, 
about 10 per cent in each case. Another 
part of the transportation equipment in- 
dustry that increased sharply over the year 
was shipbuilding. Allowing for strike activ- 
ity last year, the advance over the year in 
this industry amounted to 15 per cent. 

Other durable goods industries that 
showed large gains were electrical appar- 
atus and supplies, which increased by 13 
per cent, and non-metallic mineral prod- 
ucts, which rose by 10 per cent. The up- 
surge in activity in the former group stems 
mainly from increased output of telecom- 
munications equipment, although heavy 
electrical machinery also advanced stronglv. 
The improvement in non-metallic mineral 
products reflects the rising demand for 
building materials following the upturn in 
construction activity. 

All parts of the iron and steel industry, 
except agricultural implements, operated at 
higher levels than a year ago. The largest 
gains were in heating and cooking appli- 
ances, industrial machinery, hardware and 
tools and primary iron and steel. With 



smaller increases in all but one of the re- 
maining industries in this group, total em- 
ployment rose by a little more than 4 per 
cent over the year and reached a level only 
slightly below the peak of the last business 
upturn, in the fourth quarter of 1959. 

The durable goods industry as a whole 
made a strong comeback during the past 
year. At the end of April, the employment 
index (seasonally adjusted) stood at 115.6, 
which was only slightly below the previous 
high. 

Employment increases in nondurable 
goods industries were fairly general, though 
of relatively modest proportions, during 
the past year. Industries in this sector which 
showed the most marked improvement were 
rubber, leather and foods. 

Unemployment 

A strengthening in the demand for la- 
bour, combined with a slower growth of 
the labour force, has resulted in a fairly 
steady decline in unemployment for more 
than a year. Because of a sharp rise in 
the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate 
in June (in part owing to a very large 
influx of young people into the labour 
market), there was little change in the 
average level between the first and second 
quarter of 1962. The month before the 
influx, however, the unemployment rate 
had fallen to 5.6 per cent, well below the 
lowest point reached in the 1958-59 busi- 
ness upturn. 

The June labour force survey showed 
a very large entry of 14- to 19-year-olds 
into the labour force, large enough to af- 
fect the trend of total employment and un- 
employment. As a result, unemployment de- 
clined less than seasonally during the month. 

A part of the large increase in young 
people resulted from the fact that the 
survey was conducted relatively late in the 
month. Each year between mid-May and 
mid-July, more than 200,000 students flock 
into the labour market for summer em- 
ployment, so that a change of a week in 
the timing of the survey makes a substan- 
tial difference in the result. 

This year some 95,000 teenagers were 
added to the labour force between May and 
June. In the same period during 1961 and 
1960, when the June survey was a week 
earlier, the labour force in this age group 
increased by fewer than 30,000. 

The recruitment or recall of male workers 
accounted for a major part of the decline 
in unemployment over the year. In the 
second quarter the number of unemployed 
men was 100,000 (24 per cent) lower 
than in the same period in 1961, against 
a reduction of 9,000 (14 per cent) unem- 
ployed women. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



795 



The stronger demand for labour bene- 
fited workers of all ages, but particularly 
the 25-44 age groups. As usual, however, 
the incidence of unemployment was greater 
among young people than it was among the 
more experienced members of the labour 
force. In June the number of unemployed 
in each age group, as a percentage of the 
labour force, varied from just over 12 
per cent in the 14-19 age group to less 
than 5 per cent for those over 25 years 
old. 

Duration of unemployment fell quite 
sharply between the first and second quar- 
ters of 1962. In June, 40 per cent of the 
unemployed had been without work for 
less than a month; this relatively high pro- 
portion was the result of the large influx 
of students. The number unemployed for 
more than a month but less than a year 
continued to decrease, and in June was 35 
per cent lower than last year (compared 
with a 19-per-cent year-to-year difference 
in total unemployment.) 

It should be noted that in June there 
was an estimated 26,000 persons unem- 
ployed for more than a year. This was 
down from a high of 35,000 in January, 
but virtually unchanged from a year earlier. 
It was apparent that the strengthening in 
labour demand during the past year had so 
far barely touched this group of long-term 
unemployed. 

Family Data 

During the quarter, additional data were 
released on the characteristics of family 
units in which someone was unemployed. 
Quarterly surveys of this type have been 
conducted during the past two years to 
throw more light on the characteristics of 
the unemployed. The surveys show how 
many unemployed were heads of families, 



the number of dependants in family units 
that had someone unemployed, and the 
number of families that had someone un- 
employed and someone employed at the 
same time. The proportions of unemployed 
in these various categories have varied with 
the seasons, but have been fairly consistent 
from year to year. 

In April 1962, there were 485,000 un- 
employed persons. Of these, 244,000, or 
about half, were heads of family units. An 
estimated 148,000 unemployed were single 
sons or daughters and 55,000 were other 
relatives of the head of the family. About 
38,000 unemployed were not related to any- 
one in the place they lived. 

There were, at this date, 393,000 family 
units experiencing unemployment, as op- 
posed to 485,000 unemployed persons. This 
means that, apart from the 38,000 non- 
members of family units, some family 
units had more than one person unem- 
ployed. In fact, an estimated 43,000 of the 
393,000 families had two or more persons 
unemployed. 

In some family units with someone un- 
employed, there were at the same time 
other members working. In 125,000 such 
families, one person was employed and 
72,000 families had two or more persons 
employed. On the other hand, in 196,000 
families (exactly half the total number of 
units), no person was employed. 

There were, on average, 1.9 dependent 
children (i.e., under 25 years of age and 
not in the labour force) per family unit. 
Just over one-third (34 per cent) of the 
families had no dependent children; 45 per 
cent had from one to three children; and 
20 per cent had four children or more. 
Generally speaking, families in which no one 
was employed had the largest numbers of 
dependent children. 



LABOUR MARKET CONDITIONS 





Labour Surplus 


Approximate Balance 


Labour Market Areas 


1 


2 


3 


June 
1962 


June 
1961 


June 
1962 


June 
1961 


June 

1962 


June 
1961 








7 
21 

5 
25 


10 

19 

4 

31 


5 

4 
9 
32 







1 


2 


5 




10 


Minor 


1 


2 


25 






Total 


2 


4 


58 


64 


50 


42 







796 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



Regional Manpower Situation 



ATLANTIC 



The underlying employment trend con- 
tinued upward in the Atlantic region dur- 
ing the second quarter, although the pace 
of advance was somewhat slower than in 
the earlier stages of the recovery. Com- 
pared with the second quarter of 1961, total 
employment was higher, on average, by 
48,000, or 2.8 per cent. Unemployment 
averaged 24,000 lower than a year earlier. 

The largest employment gains in the 
second quarter were in manufacturing, con- 
struction and fishing. Within manufacturing, 
the advances were widely distributed. Food 
processing, sawmilling and pulp and 
paper industries experienced greater-than- 
seasonal increases in employment. Moder- 
ate strengthening occurred also in the iron 
and steel industry, especially in structural 
steel, which was in greater demand as a 
result of an upturn in construction activity. 

The spring pick-up in construction activ- 
ity was greater than is usual for this period 
of the year. The improvement appears to 
have been mainly in residential construc- 
tion. 

The transportation equipment industry 
improved slightly, although activity was 
still at a relatively low level. Employment 
in shipbuilding was maintained at the high 
level of the previous quarter. 

Employment developments in the pri- 
mary industries were mainly seasonal. 

Employment in non-farm industries aver- 
aged 24,000 higher in the second quarter 
of this year than in the corresponding 
period in 1961; farm employment was 
9,000 lower. 



Much of the improvement was in manu- 
facturing industries. Noteworthy was the 
upturn in shipbuilding employment. Can- 
neries operated at a substantially higher 
level this spring than a year ago; activities 
in canning plants were sharply curtailed 
last year due to poor fishing conditions. 
Employment was moderately higher than 
a year ago in railroad and rolling stock 
and paper products, the rise in the former 
being from a very low level. 

Weakness persisted in the iron and steel 
industry. At the end of April the employ- 
ment index for this industry stood at 76.0, 
down 4 per cent from a year earlier and 
well below the index of 90.4 in April 1960. 

Aside from manufacturing, employment 
changes over the year were relatively small 
and largely offsetting. Small gains took 
place in the service-producing industries 
and in construction; mining employment 
was somewhat lower than a year ago. There 
was little change in the level of activity 
in forestry. 

Unemployment in the second quarter of 
1962 was 8 per cent lower than the year 
before. As a proportion of the labour force, 
unemployment averaged 11.4 per cent in 
the second quarter of 1962, compared with 
12.6 per cent a year earlier. 

In June, the classification of the 21 
areas in the region (last year's figures in 
brackets) was as follows: in substantial 
surplus, (2); in moderate surplus, 13 
(14); in balance, 8 (5). 



QUEBEC 



Employment in Quebec has shown a sub- 
stantial rise since the low point in the third 
quarter of 1961. The increase from the 
trough (seasonally adjusted) was just over 5 
per cent. Much of the advance took place in 
the first quarter of this year. In the second 
quarter of this year total employment 
averaged 1,707,000, which was 74,000 higher 
than in the corresponding quarter of 1961. 

Unemployment, seasonally adjusted, drop- 
ped by 10 per cent during the first quarter 
but has remained relatively stable during 
recent months. A year-to-year comparison 
(second quarter averages) shows a 27-per- 
cent drop in unemployment. 

A smaller than usual increase in farm 
employment slowed down the over-all em- 
ployment advance during the second quar- 
ter. Farm employment, allowing for sea- 
sonal influences, dropped by 8 per cent be- 



tween the first and second quarter of this 
year and was 6.4 per cent lower than a 
year earlier. 

Non-agricultural employment, on the 
other hand, showed a somewhat larger 
than seasonal increase during the second 
quarter, mainly as a result of further 
strengthening in manufacturing. With in- 
creases in both consumer and producer 
goods industries, total manufacturing em- 
ployment rose to a level about 8 per cent 
higher than a year earlier. 

In the consumer goods industries, develop- 
ments in primary textiles were particularly 
noteworthy. The importance of the industry 
lies not only in its being a substantial em- 
ployer of labour, providing employment to 
some 42,000 persons in 1961, but also in the 
fact that the majority of the 370 establish- 
ments in some 110 communities in the 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



797 



region are located in small towns and rural 
areas, many of which depend largely on 
this industry for employment. 

In the 12 years preceding 1961, the tex- 
tile industry experienced a steady decline, 
resulting in a 20-per-cent drop in employ- 
ment. Since the end of 1960, however, the 
declining trend has been reversed and by 
the end of 1961 employment had recovered 
almost one third of the ground lost in the 
previous decade. A continuation of this 
upward trend in employment was still ap- 
parent during the first half of 1962. Among 
the factors that helped to bolster activity 
in the textile industry were the lower ex- 
change rate on the Canadian dollar and 
adjustments to import quotas. 

Most durable goods industries showed 
continuing strength during the second quar- 
ter. The employment revival in electrical 
apparatus and supplies was particularly 
noteworthy. After experiencing a steady 
decline throughout most of 1961, this indus- 
try has been very active during the past 
few months. The most recent data indicate 
that employment in this industry was about 
1 1 per cent higher than last year. 

Iron and steel products, which experienced 
a noticeable decline in the first quarter of 
the year, showed a substantial improvement 
in the second quarter, mainly as a result of 
increasing demands for heavy machinery. 
In the transportation equipment industry, 
prospects improved somewhat as a result of 



new orders for railway rolling stock from 
domestic railways and from abroad. Activity 
in Quebec shipyards continued strong. Em- 
ployment in the aircraft industry generally 
remained at a high level, although there 
were a number of layoffs at one plant. A 
recent government order for aircraft should 
have a stabilizing influence on employment 
in this industry in the coming months. 

The construction industry showed con- 
siderable improvement in the second quarter 
after being at a relatively low level earlier 
in the year. Employment in the second 
quarter was well above that in the previous 
year; residential and non-residential con- 
struction shared in the improvement. Indus- 
trial projects were reported also to have 
figured prominently in the increase. 

Employment in forestry increased during 
May and June as summer cutting operations 
got underway. The employment level in 
this industry was somewhat lower than a 
year ago, however, mainly because of in- 
creased mechanization. 

Reflecting the improvement in the em- 
ployment situation, registrations on file at 
National Employment Service offices drop- 
ped sharply over the year. The largest 
decreases occurred in metropolitan areas, 
which showed a 20 per cent drop. 

In June, the 24 labour market areas in 
the region were classified as follows (last 
year's figures in brackets): in substantial 
surplus, 2 (1); in moderate surplus, 18 
(21); in balance, 4 (2). 



Employment in Ontario showed an im- 
pressive advance during the second quarter 
of 1962. The increase over the previous 
quarter amounted to nearly 2 per cent, after 
allowing for seasonal factors. This was the 
first sizeable advance since last summer. 

The rate of growth during the quarter was 
stronger than at any time since the upswing 
began some sixteen months ago. The main 
sources of strength were construction and 
manufacturing, although the increase in 
agricultural employment was unusually large 
this spring. Farm employment increased by 
32,000 between the first and second quarter, 
which compares with an average advance 
of 22,000 during the past decade. 

Total' employment in the second quarter 
was 2.7 per cent higher than a year earlier, 
and 3.8 per cent above the trough in the 
first quarter of 1961. 

The construction industry showed remark- 
able strength in the second quarter. Em- 
ployment in this industry fell slightly 
throughout 1961 but rose a little in the 
first quarter of 1962 and picked up sharply 
in the second quarter. 



ONTARIO 

Non-residential construction accounted 
for most of the improvement, institutional 
building showing particular strength. Indus- 
trial, commercial and engineering construc- 
tion showed a somewhat greater than usual 
revival this spring. 

Residential construction showed renewed 
strength after declining for two consecutive 
quarters. 

Manufacturing, which accounts for some 
30 per cent of total employment in Ontario, 
held fairly stable in the opening quarter of 
1962 but rose again in the second quarter. 
The gains were mostly in durable goods 
industries. The year-to-year increase in 
manufacturing employment amounted to 
about 6 per cent. 

Iron and steel products strengthened in 
the first half of 1962 as employment rose 
moderately in the first quarter and held firm 
in the second quarter. Blast and steel fur- 
naces along with rolling mills showed further 
strengthening as a result of increased domes- 
tic shipments. Foundries and sheet-metal 
shops continued busy, and employment in 
machinery was maintained at the high level 



798 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



attained in the first quarter. Activity in 
agricultural implements showed a further 
moderate decline. 

Increased production of domestic cars and 
trucks during the second quarter led to a 
further rise in the number of workers 
employed in the automobile industry. The 
motor vehicle and parts industries together 
showed a 10-per-cent rise in employment 
over a year ago. Activity increased some- 
what in aircraft and in railway rolling stock, 
mainly during the first quarter. 

A weakening world demand for non- 
ferrous metal products, along with tech- 
nological changes, led to a small employ- 
ment decline in smelting and refining. 

Non-metallic mineral products, which 
showed substantial strengthening in the first 
quarter, continued to improve during the 
second. In April, employment in this indus- 
try was 13 per cent higher than a year 
earlier. The rise in employment stems 
mainly from heavy demands for building 
materials, following an upturn in construc- 
tion activity. 

The electrical apparatus and supplies 
industries showed further expansion in the 
second quarter, though the gains were not 
as large as in the previous quarter. Heavy 
electrical machinery and telecommunications 
equipment showed continued buoyancy. 
Activity in household appliances was re- 
ported to have levelled off owing to high 
inventories of finished goods. 

Operations in sawmills and wood products 
factories continued to expand. 

Activity in most of the nondurable goods 
industries remained fairly stable during the 



second quarter. Compared with a year ago, 
there were gains in the order of 4 per cent 
in rubber, leather, textiles, clothing, chemi- 
cals and foods. 

Logging operations were maintained at 
the high level that prevailed in the first 
quarter, spurred by continuing strong de- 
mands for pulpwood and sawlogs. 

Mining employment declined appreciably 
in the first quarter and eased again slightly 
in the second. Over the year, the drop 
amounted to about 5 per cent as a result 
of production cutbacks in gold, silver, cop- 
per and uranium. 

Trade, finance and services, which to- 
gether account for more than 45 per cent 
of the total employed, have shown little 
employment change so far this year. In 
the second quarter, a small employment 
rise took place in wholesale and retail 
trade but slight declines occurred in finance 
and services. In 1961, employment had 
risen substantially in both service and fin- 
ance. The year-to-year advance in the 
service-producing industries stood at 4 per 
cent in the second quarter of 1962. 

Unemployment declined more than sea- 
sonally between the first and second 
quarter of 1962. Averaging 95,000, or 3.9 
per cent of the labour force, it was substan- 
tially lower than the 131,000, or 5.5 per 
cent of the labour force, in the second 
quarter of 1961. 

In June, the classification of the 34 
labour market areas in the region (last 
year's figures in brackets) was as follows: 
in moderate surplus, 15 (16); in balance, 
19 (18). 



PRAIRIE 



Employment in the Prairie region in the 
second quarter of 1962, apart from seasonal 
variations, showed little change from the 
previous quarter but was higher than the 
year before. 

The number employed increased between 
the first and second quarter by 77,000, 
which was close to the average rise for this 
period during the past several years. Total 
employment averaged about 2 per cent 
higher than a year earlier, and the gain 
from the trough in the first quarter of 1961 
was 3.4 per cent. 

Non-agricultural employment showed a 
slightly larger than seasonal rise this spring, 
but farm employment increased less than is 
usual for this time of year. Despite the 
slower upturn in farm employment, ex- 
perienced farm workers were reported to 
be in heavy demand. Crop prospects were 
generally favourable, although in some areas 
grain crops were retarded owing to a lack 
of precipitation. 



Mining employment showed a rising trend 
during the second quarter and was substan- 
tially higher than a year ago. Notable year- 
to-year gains took place in all sectors except 
coal. In nickel mining, production and em- 
ployment were at significantly higher levels 
than a year ago. At the end of April total 
employment in mining was 5 per cent higher 
than a year earlier. 

Employment in the construction industry 
showed signs of levelling off during recent 
months after expanding for more than a 
year. Activity in the commercial sector 
weakened somewhat during the second 
quarter, but other parts of non-residential 
construction and housebuilding were main- 
tained at high levels. 

The increase in manufacturing employ- 
ment during the second quarter was about 
seasonal, although trends in individual in- 
dustries were mixed. Moderate strengthen- 
ing was reported in the iron and steel, non- 
metallic mineral products, and chemical in- 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



799 



dustries but there were offsetting losses in 
wood and petroleum products. Total manu- 
facturing employment was slightly higher 
than a year ago. 

With less grain in storage and with grain 
shipments down from a year ago, employ- 
ment in the transportation industry declined 
during the second quarter. Activity in public 
utilities was maintained at the high level 
which prevailed earlier in the year. 

Activity in wholesale and retail trade 
increased during the second quarter, partly 
reflecting improved crop prospects. Finance 
and service showed continuing strength 
during recent months. Compared with a 



year earlier, employment in these three 
industries combined showed an average em- 
ployment gain of 3 per cent. 

Unemployment declined seasonally be- 
tween the first and second quarter of 1962. 
As a proportion of the labour force, un- 
employment was 3.7 per cent in the second 
quarter of 1962, compared with 4.3 per 
cent a year earlier. 

In June, the classification of the 19 
labour market areas in the region (last 
year's figures in brackets) was as follows: 
in moderate surplus, 4 (6); in balance, 15 
(13). 



PACIFIC 



Economic conditions in the Pacific region 
continued to improve during the second 
quarter of 1962. Total employment, season- 
ally adjusted, was 1.3 per cent higher than 
in the previous quarter and 4.8 per cent 
higher than a year ago. Non-farm employ- 
ment averaged 26,000 higher than in the 
second quarter of 1961; farm employment 
remained virtually unchanged. 

Unemployment declined less than usual 
during the quarter, although it continued 
at a substantially lower level than last 
year. As a proportion of the labour force, 
unemployment in the second quarter was 
6.3 per cent, compared with 8.2 per cent 
a year earlier. 

Manufacturing and construction were 
mainly responsible for the underlying im- 
provement in employment during the second 
quarter. Forestry operations were ham- 
pered by weather and by road restrictions 
during the early part of the quarter, but 
more recently peak levels of production and 
employment were reported. 

Logging was particularly active in the 
coastal areas, resulting in fairly widespread 
shortages of skilled workers. Wet weather 
reduced the threat of forest fires this year 
so that there were few interruptions in 
logging operations during J.une. 

Manufacturing employment increased 
substantially between April and June and 
for the second quarter as a whole showed 
a gain of about 9 per cent over the previ- 
ous quarter. Although much of the rise 
was in -seasonal industries, the gains were 
generally larger than usual. 

Sawmilling and logging, which together 
account for more than one third of the 
net value of commodity output in the 
region were very active during most of the 
quarter. The majority of the more than 
1,900 sawmills in the region operated at 



capacity levels, particularly toward the 
end of the quarter. Foreign demand for 
wood products remained strong, although 
exports to Japan slackened somewhat due 
to a lack of shipping facilities. The pulp 
and paper industry showed continuing 
strength during recent months, with some 
additional hiring being reported. 

The iron and steel industry, whose im- 
portance in the region has been steadily 
increasing, remained buoyant during the 
second quarter. The main elements of 
strength were increased orders for fabri- 
cated steel and various types of industrial 
machinery. 

Construction employment showed a sharp 
upturn during the second quarter, particu- 
larly during the latter part of the period. 
Compared with the first three months, em- 
ployment rose by 20 per cent, sharply 
higher than in any recent year. 

In June, a number of areas experienced 
the highest employment levels for the month 
since 1956. As a result, shortages of skilled 
tradesmen were fairly prevalent. 

Both residential and non-residential con- 
struction contributed to the high level of 
activity. The construction of two large proj- 
ects for mining companies were among 
the more important elements of strength. 

Reflecting the improvement in the em- 
ployment situation, registrations for em- 
ployment at National Employment Service 
offices in June were 26 per cent lower than 
a year earlier in the major industrial areas, 
20 per cent lower in metropolitan areas and 
18 per cent lower in minor areas. 

In June, the 12 labour market areas in 
the region were classified as follows (last 
year's figures in brackets): in substantial 
surplus, (1); in moderate surplus, 8 (7); 
in balance, 4 (4). 



800 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS-JUNE 1962 





SUBSTANTIAL 


MODERATE 


APPROXIMATE 


LABOUR ^ 




LABOUR SURPLUS 


LABOUR SURPLUS 


BALANCE 


SHORTAGE 1 




Group 1 


Group 2 


Group 3 


Group 4 * -4 






Calgary 


— ^HALIFAX 








Edmonton 


— ^HAMILTON 




METROPOLITAN AREAS 




Montreal 


Ottawa— Hull 




(labour force 75.000 or more) 




Quebec — Levis 

>-ST. JOHN'S 

— ^VANCOUVER— NEW 
WESTMINSTER 

Windsor 


Toronto 
— ^WINNIPEG 






Lac St. Jean 


Brantford 

— KORNER BROOK 
Cornwall 

Farnham — Granby 
Fort William- 
Port Arthur 
Joliette 
Kingston 

— »-MONCTON 


Guelph 
Kitchener 
London 
Subdury 




MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 




New Glasgow 






(labour force 25.000-75.000; 60 




Niagara Peninsula 






per cent or more in non-agricul- 
tural activity) 




Oshawa 

Peterborough 
— >-ROUYN— VAL D'OR 

Saint John 

Sarnia 
— »-SHAWINIGAN 

Sherbrooke 
— ^SYDNEY 

Timmins — 
Kirkland Lake 

Trois Rivieres 

Victoria 










Barrie 


Brandon 








Chatham 


— k:harlottetown 




MAJOR AGRICULTURAL 
AREAS 




— >-RIVIERE DU LOUP 
SASKATOON ■< — 


Lethbridge 
Moose Jaw 






— »-THETFORD— LAC 


North Battleford 




(labour force 25,000-75,000: 40 




MEGANTIC— 


— »-PRINCE ALBERT 




per cent or more agricultural) 




VILLE ST. GEORGES 


— >-REDDEER 

Regina 
— >-YORKTON 














Rimouski 


— >-BATHURST 
Beauharnois 
Belleville — Trenton 
Bracebridge 

— h:ampbellton 


Brampton 
— >-BRIDGEWATER 
Central Vancouver 
Island 








— »-DAUPHIN 








Chilliwack 


Drumheller 








Cranbrook 


Gait 








Dawson Creek 


Goderich 








Drummondville 


— KiRAND FALLS 
— >-KENTVILLE 








Edmundston 








Fredericton 


Kitimat 








— >GASPE 


— >>LACHUTE ST.THERESE 








Kamloops 


Listowel 








Lindsay 

— >*montmagny 


Medicine Hat 




MINOR AREAS 




North Bay 




(labour force 10.000-25.000) 




— ^NEWCASTLE 

— K)KANAGAN VALLEY 

— >-PRINCE GEORGE- 

QUESNEL 
— X>UEBEC NORTH 


— K>WEN SOUND 

— ^PEMBROKE 

— >-PORTAGE LA PRAIRIE 

— >-PRINCE RUPERT 








St. Hyacinthe 








SHORE 


St. Thomas 








Ste. Agathe- 


Simcoe 








Ste. Jerome 


— >-SOREL 








St. Jean 


Stratford 








— >ST. STEPHEN 


Swift Current 








Sault Ste. Marie 


— >-TRAIL— NELSON 








Summerside 


— KTRURO 








Valleyfield 


Victoriaville 

Walkerton 

Weyburn 


















Woodstock — Tillsonburg 










— >-YARMOUTH 





" VThe areas shown in capital letters are those that have been reclassified during the month; an arrow indicates the group from which 
they moved. For an explanation of the classification used, see page 642, June issue. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

58736-0—3 



• JULY 7962 



801 



Collective Bargaining Review 

Collective Bargaining in June 

During June, five major settlements were negotiated in the pulp and paper 
industry. They cover approximately 1,500 employees in Ontario and about 
6,300 workers in British Columbia. 

In Ontario, one-year agreements negotiated by the Pulp and Paper Mill 
Workers give a wage increase of 4 cents an hour to employees at Kimberley- 
Clark Paper, Terrace Bay, and at the Marathon Corporation, Marathon, and of 
5 cents an hour at the Thorold plant of Provincial Paper. Other features of 
these agreements include increased shift premiums and higher company contri- 
butions to welfare plans. 

In British Columbia, the same union signed one-year agreements with six 
companies, which agreed to increase wages by 3i per cent and to reduce the 
length of service to qualify for four weeks vacation from 23 to 20 years. The 
settlement applies to employees in the pulp operations of Canadian Forest 
Products, Columbia Cellulose Company, Rayonier Canada Limited, B.C. Forest 
Products, MacMillan, Bloedel and Powell River Industries, Crown Zellerbach 
of Canada and Elk Falls Company. 

One-year contracts embodying a wage increase of 3i per cent and identical 
vacation provisions were also signed during the month by the Paper Makers, 
who represent employees in the paper mills of the last three companies. 

After a referendum vote completed in mid-June, the Woodworkers and 
Forest Industrial Relations Limited signed a two-year agreement which applies 
to about 27,000 lumber workers in more than 150 logging and sawmill firms 
on the British Columbia coast. The settlement follows a formula recommended 
by Industrial Inquiry Commissioner Dr. Neil Perry, Dean of Commerce, 
University of British Columbia, and provides for two wage increases of 8 cents 
an hour and for four weeks vacation after 20 years of service. Under the 
previous agreement, which expired June 14, the maximum vacation was three 
weeks after five years of service. 

Early in June a certification of the Steelworkers by the Manitoba Labour 
Board displaced the Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers as bargaining agent for 
nearly 2,000 International Nickel Company employees at the company's Thomp- 
son plant. The Board's decision followed a representation vote held April 23 to 
26 and a recount of the ballots in May. Prior to the vote, the Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers had petitioned the Manitoba Court of Appeal for a stay of 
proceedings, but this request was not granted. In May, the union appealed the 
result of the vote, maintaining that the rival Steelworkers had engaged in 
electioneering in the course of the vote. The Manitoba Labour Board heard the 
union's complaint late in May and subsequently ruled in favour of the Steel- 
workers. 

The contest between the two unions for bargaining rights for International 
Nickel Company employees at Sudbury, Ont., remained undecided by the end 
of June, although on June 1 1 the Ontario Labour Relations Board had counted 
the ballots cast at a pre-hearing representation vote in February. The count was 
ordered by the Board after extensive investigation into Mine, Mill and Smelter 
Workers charges that the Steelworkers had resorted to forgery and misrepresen- 

This review is prepared by the Collective Bargaining Section, Labour-Manage- 
ment Division, of the Economics and Research Branch. 

802 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



tation in their campaign to enroll Inco employees. The Board ruled, however, 
that the evidence reviewed indicated no pattern of irregularity on the part of 
the Steel workers. 

The ballot count disclosed 7,182 votes for the Steelworkers — 15 more than 
required for certification. The Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers challenged the 
vote, contending that 32 ballots did not carry the official stamp of the Board, 
that four spoiled ballots should be discarded and that there were five ballots 
more than the number of listed voters. 

The Ontario Labour Relations Board also conducted a representation 
vote among the employees at the Wabasso Cotton Company at Welland, where 
the United Textile Workers were challenging the bargaining rights of the 
Canadian Textile Council. When the majority of eligible employees indicated 
their preference for the United Textile Workers, the Canadian Textile Council 
contested the vote on the grounds that the number of votes did not equal the 
number of voters, that the company had supported the campaign of the Textile 
Workers, and that the intervening union had engaged in electioneering during 
a 72-hour period of silence ordered by the Ontario Labour Relations Board. A 
Board hearing was set for July 9. 

On June 25 the Supreme Court of Canada dismissed, by unanimous deci- 
sion, the CPR-operated Royal York Hotel's appeal against the ruling of Chief 
Justice McRuer and the Ontario Court of Appeal (L.G., May, p. 518) over the 
right of management to discharge striking employees. A detailed account of 
the Supreme Court of Canada decision will appear in the Labour Law section 
of a forthcoming issue of the Labour Gazette. 

After almost a year of discussion, the CNR signed an agreement with the 
Order of Railroad Telegraphers designed to establish greater flexibility by 
reducing the number of seniority districts across Canada from eleven to five. 
The agreement, covering approximately 5,000 telegraphers, train despatchers 
and station agents, is similar in principle to that signed by the company and 
the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, Transport and General Workers in 
April (L.G., May, p. 519). 

Throughout June, approximately 9,000 truck drivers and other workers 
represented by the Teamsters union continued their strikes against highway 
trucking firms in Ontario and companies operating out of Montreal. 



In future, the narrative part of the Collective Bargaining Review will appear 
quarterly instead of monthly, with the first quarterly article scheduled for the 
October number. Parts I, II and III of the "Collective Bargaining Scene" will 
continue to be published each month, and the tables summarizing wage settlements 
will appear as heretofore on a semi-annual basis. 



Collective Bargaining Scene 

Agreements covering 500 or more employees, 
excluding those in the construction industry 

Part I— Agreements Expiring During July, August and September 

(except those under negotiation in June) 

Company and Location Union 

Abitibi Power & Paper, Northern Ontario Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 

CIO/CLC) 

Bata Shoe, Batawa, Ont Shoe Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Bathurst Power & Paper, Bathurst, N.B Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC), Pulp & 

Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & 

others 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 803 

58736-0— 3J 



Company and Location Union 

Can. & Dom. Sugar, Montreal, Que Bakery Wkrs. (CLC) 

Canadair, St. Laurent, Que Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Car, Ville St. Pierre, Que Railway Carmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Consolidated Paper, Grand'Mere, Que Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) & Pulp 

& Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Consumers Glass, Ville St. Pierre, Que Glass Bottle Blowers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Continental Can, Chatham, Toronto, Ont. & 

Vancouver, B.C Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Steel & Coal, Sydney, N.S Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Steel & Coal (Cdn. Bridge), Walkerville, 

Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dryden Paper, Dryden, Ont Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Duplate Canada, Oshawa, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

DuPont of Can., Maitland, Ont Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Fraser Cos., Atholville, Edmundston & New- 
castle, N.B Pulp & Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

General Steel Wares & Easy Washing Machine, 

London, Toronto, Ont. & Montreal, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Great Lakes Paper, Fort William, Ont Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Great Western Garment, Edmonton, Alta United Garment Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

K.V.P. Company, Espanola, Ont Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Kimberley-Clark & Spruce Falls Paper, Kapus- Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 

kasing & Longlac, Ont CIO/CLC) 

Marathon Corp., Port Arthur, Ont Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Maritime Tel. & Tel., company-wide I.B.E.W. (AFL-CIO/CLC) (traffic empl.) 

New Brunswick Telephone I.B.E.W. (AFL-CIO/CLC) (traffic empl.) 

Northern Forest Products, Port Arthur, Ont Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Outboard Marine, Peterborough, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Que. North Shore Paper, Baie Comeau, Que Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) & Pulp & 

Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

St. Lawrence Corp., East Angus, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

St. Lawrence Corp., Nipigon, Ont Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Sask. Government Sask. Civil Service (Ind.) (classified services) 

Sask. Govt. Telephone Communications Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Sask. Wheat Pool (Elevator Div.), Ont., Man., Sask. Wheat Pool Empl. (CLC) (office & 

Sask. & B.C salaried empl.) 

Sask. Wheat Pool (Country Elevator Div.), Sask. Wheat Pool Empl. (CLC) (operating 

Sask empl.) 

Toronto Star, Toronto, Ont Newspaper Guild (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Part II— Negotiations in Progress During June 

Bargaining 

Company and Location Union 

American Motors, Brampton, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Asbestos Corp. & others, Thetford Mines, Que. Mining Empl. Federation (CNTU) 
Assn. des Marchands Detaillants (Produits 

Alimentaires), Quebec, Que Commerce Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

B.C. Hotels Assn. Vancouver, B.C Hotel Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

B.C. Hydro & Power Authority Street Railway Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

B.C. Shipping Federation, various ports Longshoremen & Warehousemen (CLC) 

Breweries (various), Winnipeg, Man Brewery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

C.N. Newfoundland Steamship Service Railway, Transport & General Wkrs. (CLC) 

Cdn. Acme Screw & Gear, Monroe Acme & 

Gait Machine, Toronto, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Car, Fort William, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cascapedia Mfg. & Trading, Gaspe Peninsula, 

Que Woodcutters, Farmers' Union (Ind.) 

Cloak Mfrs. Assn., Toronto, Ont Ladies Garment Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Clothing Mfrs. Assn., Farnham, Quebec & 

Victoriaville, Que Clothing Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Consolidated Paper, Les Escoumins, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Consolidated Paper, Port Alfred, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Consolidated Paper, Ste-Anne de Portneuf, Que. Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Consumers' Gas Co. System, Ont Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Courtaulds Canada, Cornwall, Ont Textile Wkrs. Union (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

David & Frere, Montreal, Que Empl. Assn. (Ind.) 

DeHavilland Aircraft, Toronto, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dominion Glass, Montreal, Que Glass & Ceramic Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dow Brewery, Montreal & Quebec, Que Brewery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

East. Can. Newsprint Grp., Que. & N.S Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC), Pulp & 

Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & 
others 

804 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



Company and Location Union 

Eastern Can. Stevedoring, Halifax, N.S Railway Clerks (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Edmonton City, Alta Public Empl. (CLC) (clerical empl.) 

Gaspesia woods contractors, Chandler, Que Woodcutters, Farmers' Union (Ind.) 

Glove Mfrs. Assn., Loretteville, Montreal, St. 

Raymond & St. Tite, Que Clothing Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Hotel Chateau Frontenac (C.P.R.), Quebec, 

Que Railway, Transport & General Wkrs.. (CLC) 

Hotel Chateau Laurier (C.N.R.), Ottawa, Ont. Railway, Transport & General Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotel Empress (C.P.R.), Victoria, B.C Railway, Transport & General Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotel Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C Railway, Transport & General Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotels & taverns (various), Toronto, Ont Hotel Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) (beverage 

dispensers) 
Interior Forest Labour Relations Assn., South- 
ern B.C Woodworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

International Harvester, Chatham, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Lake Asbestos of Que., Black Lake, Que Mining Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

Men's Clothing Mfrs. Assn., Toronto, Ont Amalgamated Clothing Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/ 

CLC) 

John Murdock, St. Raymond, Que Woodcutters, Farmers' Union (Ind.) 

National Harbours Board, Montreal, Que Railway Clerks (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Okanagan Shippers' Assn., Okanagan Valley, 

B.C CLC-chartered local 

Ottawa City, Ont Public Empl. (CLC) 

Price Bros., Dolbeau, Kenogami & Shipshaw, 

Que Woodcutters, Farmers' Union (Ind.) 

Price Bros., Kenogami & Riverbend, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Sask. Power Corp Oil Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

St. Raymond Paper, Desbiens & St. Raymond, 

Que Woodcutters, Farmers' Union (Ind.) 

T.C.A. Canada-wide Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

University of Sask., Saskatoon, Sask CLC-chartered local 

Conciliation Officer 

B.C. Telephone & subsidiaries B.C. Telephone Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Bldg. mtce. & window cleaning contractors, 

Vancouver, B.C Bldg. Service Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Can. Iron Foundries, Three Rivers, Que Moulders (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Can. Wire & Cable, Leaside, Ont U.E. (Ind.) 

Cdn. Celanese, Sorel, Que Textile Wkrs. Union (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dairies (various), Vancouver & New West- 
minster, B.C Teamsters (Ind.) 

Dom. Rubber (Tire Div.), Kitchener, Ont Rubber Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

DuPont of Can., Kingston, Ont Mine Wkrs. (Ind.) 

E. B. Eddy, Hull, Que Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC), Pulp & 

Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & 

others 
Food Stores (various), Vancouver, Victoria & 

New Westminster, B.C Retail Clerks (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Howard Smith Paper, Cornwall, Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) & Pulp & 

Papers Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

International Nickel, Port Colborne, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

K.V.P. Company, Espanola, Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC), Pulp & 

Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & 

I.B.E.W. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 
Motor Trans. Ind. Relations Bureau (north. 

general freight), Ont Teamsters (Ind.) 

North. Interior Lumbermen's Assn., B.C Woodworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Power Super Markets, Hamilton, Oshawa & 

Toronto, Ont Butcher Workmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Que. Iron & Titanium, Sorel, Que Metal Trades Federation (CNTU) 

Shawinigan Chemicals, Shawinigan, Que CNTU-chartered local 

Toronto Metro. Municipality, Ont Public Empl. (CLC) (inside empl.) 

Conciliation Board 

Acme, Borden's & other dairies, Toronto, Ont. Teamsters (Ind.) 

Brewers' Warehousing, province-wide, Ont Brewery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

C.N.R., C.P.R. & other railways, system-wide .. 15 unions (non-operating empl.) 

C.P.R., system-wide Trainmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dominion Glass, Hamilton, Ont Glass & Ceramic Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Structural Steel, Montreal, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Fisheries Assn. & Cold Storage Cos., BC United Fishermen (Ind.) & Native Brother- 
hood (Ind.) (shore wkrs.) 

Fisheries Assn., B.C United Fishermen (Ind.) (tendermen) 

John Inglis, Toronto, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Phillips Electrical, Brockville, Ont I.U.E. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Safeway, Shop-Easy & others, Victoria, Van- 
couver & New Westminster, B.C Butcher Workmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 805 



Company and Location Union 

Steep Rock Mines, Steep Rock Lake, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Victoria Hospital, London, Ont Building Service Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Post-Conciliation Bargaining 

Building material suppliers, Vancouver & 

Fraser Valley, B.C Teamsters (Ind.) 

Garment Mfrs. Assn., Winnipeg, Man Amalgamated Clothing Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/ 

CLC) 

Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Que Service Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

Noranda Mines, Noranda, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Normetal Mining, Normetal, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Quemont Mining, Noranda, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Arbitration 

Assn. Patronale des Services Hospitaliers (5 
hospitals), Drummondville & other points, 

Que Service Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

Associated Clothing Mfrs., Montreal, Que Amalgamated Clothing Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/ 

CLC) 

Hospitals (11), Montreal & district, Que Service Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

Hotel Dieu St. Vallier, Chicoutimi, Que Service Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

Ontario Hydro, company-wide Public Service Empl. (CLC) 

Ottawa Civic Hospital, Ottawa, Ont Public Empl. (CLC) 

Quebec City, Que Municipal & School Empl. Federation (Ind.) 

(inside empl.) 
Quebec City, Que Municipal & School Empl. Federation (Ind.) 

(outside empl.) 

Work Stoppage 

Dom. Engineering Works, Lachine, Que. Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Kingsway Transport, Smith Transport & others, 

Ont. & Que Teamsters (Ind.) 

Motor Trans. Ind. Relations Bureau, Ont Teamsters (Ind.) (drivers) 

Motor Trans. Ind. Relations Bureau, Ont Teamsters (Ind.) (mechanics) 

Part III— Settlements Reached During June 1962 

(A summary of major terms on the basis of information immediately available. Figures 
on the number of employees covered are approximate.) 

Aluminum Co., Kingston, Ont. — Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC): 2-yr. agreement 
covering 1,500 empl. — wage increases of 50 an hr. retroactive to Mar. 4, 1962 plus 50 an hr. 
erf. May 8, 1963; 4 wks. vacation after 25 yrs. of service (previously no provision); company 
to pay Ontario Hospital Insurance premiums (formerly paid by empl.); labourer's rate after 
May 8, 1963 will be $1.96 an hr. 

Canada Steamships Lines, Ont. & Que. — Seafarers (AFL-CIO): 2-yr. agreement covering 
1,000 empl. — weekly hrs. of work reduced from 44 to 42 in 1962 and to 40 in 1963 with main- 
tenance of pay; company contribution to welfare plan increased to 450 per man per day 
(formerly 300). 

Cdn. Johns-Manville, Asbestos, Que. — Mining Empl. Fed. (CNTU): 3-yr. agreement 
covering 1,700 empl. — wage increases of 3i% retroactive to Feb. 1, 1962, 2\% eff. Feb. 1, 1963 
plus 3% eff. Feb. 1, 1964; evening and night shift premiums (previously 50 and 80 respectively) 
increased to 60 and 100 in 1962, 70 and 110 in 1963 and to 80 and 120 in 1964; bereavement 
leave provision introduced; compulsory check-off supersedes voluntary check-off; labourer's 
rate after Feb. 1, 1964 will be $2.09 an hr. and rate for skilled trades will be $2.69 an hr. 

Cdn. Marconi, Montreal, Que. — Empl. Council (Ind.): 3-yr. agreement covering 600 
empl.— settlement pay of $3 a wk. (for 3 wks.); wage increases of 4.35% in 1962, 3.48% in 
1963 plus 3.17% in 1964; 3 wks. vacation after 10 yrs. of service (formerly after 15 yrs.); sick 
leave changed to 1 day per mo. up to 30 days (formerly \ day per mo. up to 15 days plus 1 
day per mo. up to 15 days additional). 

Cdn. Sugar Factories, Picture Butte, Raymond and Taber, Alta. — CLC-chartered 
local: 1-yr. agreement covering 200 permanent empl. and 800 seasonal empl. — wage increase of 
3%; permanent yard and factory labourer's rate will be $1.94 an hr. and seasonal labourer's rate 
will be $1.34 an hr. 

Coal ' Operators' Assn., Alta. & B.C. — Mine Wkrs. (Ind.): 2-yr. agreement covering 
1,200 empl. — wage increase of 200 a day; contributory group life insurance and weekly indem- 
nity plan to be adopted at the option of the union membership. 

Dom. Glass, Redcliff, Alta. — Glass & Ceramic Wkrs. ( AFL-CIO/CLC ) : New agreement 
covering 570 empl. — terms of settlement not immediately available. 

Edmonton City, Alta.— I.B.E.W 7 . (AFL-CIO/CLC): 2-yr. agreement covering 550 empl.— 
wage increases of 2% retroactive to Jan. 1, 1962, 2% eff. July 1, 1962 plus 2i% eff. Jan. 1, 1963. 

Electric Auto-Lite, Sarnia, Ont. — Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 3-yr. agreement 
covering 500 empl.— wage increases of 20 an hr. retroactive to Mar. 1, 1962, 40 an hr. eff. Mar. 
1, 1963 plus 40 an hr. eff. Mar. 1, 1964; 8 paid holidays (formerly 7); company to pay Blue 
Plan premiums; labourer's rate after Mar. 1, 1964 will be $2.19 an hr. 

806 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



Forest Industrial Relations, B.C. coast — Woodworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) : 2-yr agree- 
ment covering 27,000 empl. — wage increases of 80 an hr. eff. June 15, 1962 and June 15, 1963; 
4 wks. vacation after 20 yrs. of service (previous maximum was 3 wks. after 5 yrs.); labourer's 
rate after June 15, 1963 will be $2.08 an hr. 

Fry-Cadbury, Montreal, Que. — Bakery Wkrs. (CLC): 3-yr. agreement covering 650 
empl. — wage increases of 30 an hr. retroactive to Oct. 16, 1961, 30 an hr. eff. Oct. 15, 1962 
plus 20 an hr. eff. Oct. 21, 1963; adjustments in wage rates of 16 job classifications; 4 paid 
holidays — New Year's Day, St. Jean Baptiste, Dominion Day and- Christmas Day to • be ob- 
served on Friday or Monday if they fall on week-ends (formerly only New Year's and Christ- 
mas); annual vacations revised as follows: 2 wks. vacation after 2 to 9 yrs. of service (formerly 
2 wks. after 2 to 4 yrs., 2 wks plus 1 day after 5 to 9 yrs.); 3 wks. vacation after 10 yrs. of 
service (formerly 2 wks. plus 2 days after 10 to 14 yrs. and 3 wks after 15 yrs.); empl. with 
less than 1 yr. of service will continue to get £ day per mo. of service and empl. with 1 yr. of 
service will continue to get 1 wk. vacation; labourer's rate after Oct. 21, 1963 will be $1.68£ 
an hr. 

B.F. Goodrich, Kitchener, Ont. — Rubber Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. agreement 
covering 900 empl. — wage increase of 50 an hr. retroactive to June 1, 1962; wage adjustments in 
specified job classifications. 

Kelly, Douglas & Co., Vancouver and other centers, B.C. — Empl. Assn. (Ind.): 2-yr. 
agreement covering 700 empl. — wage increases of 50 an hr. retroactive to Dec. 1, 1961 plus 
7i0 an hr. eff. Dec. 1, 1962 for warehouse empl.; wage increases of 2i0 an hr. retroactive to 
Dec. 1, 1961 plus 50 an hr. eff. Dec. 1, 1962 for office and female factory empl.; 4 wks. 
vacation after 15 yrs. of service (formerly after 20 yrs.); factory packer's rate after Dec. 1, 
1962 will be $1.68i an hr. and office and mail service empl. salary will be $52.50 a wk. 

Kimberley-Clark Paper, Terrace Bay, Ont. — Pulp & Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 
& I.B.E.W. (AFL-CIO/CLC) : 1-yr. agreement covering 500 empl. — wage increase of 40 an 
hr. retroactive to May 1, 1962; evening and night shift premiums increased to 70 and 100 
(formerly 60 and 90) respectively; 3 floating holidays (formerly 2); 4 wks. vacation after 23 
yrs. of service (formerly after 25 yrs.); company contribution to group welfare plan increased 
to $4.75 a mo. (formerly $3.75) for married empl.; improvements in retirement and group life 
insurance plan; sick leave clause amended to provide for a maximum of 3 normal wks. earnings 
for empl. who have not claimed sick leave during the previous 2 yrs. (formerly 2 wks. earnings 
for empl. not claiming benefits in the previous yr.); labourer's rate will be $2 an hr. and first- 
class mechanic's rate will be $2.71 an hr. 

Ladies Cloak & Suit Mfrs. Council, Montreal, Que. — Ladies Garment Wkrs. (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) : 2-yr. agreement covering 2,500 empl. — wage increase of 1% eff. Aug. 1, 1962; 
Thanksgiving Day to be observed as a paid holiday in 1963 making a total of 6 paid holidays; 
sample operator's rate will be $2.20 an hr. 

MacMillan, Bloedel & Powell River & others, B.C. coast — Paper Makers (AFL- 
CIO/CLC): 1-yr. agreement covering 1,100 empl. — wage increase of 3£%; 4 wks. vacation 
after 20 yrs. of service (formerly after 23 yrs.); labourer's rate will be $2.10 an hr. 

MacMillan, Bloedel & Powell River & others, B.C. coast — Pulp & Paper Mill Wkrs. 
(AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. agreement covering 5,200 empl. — wage increase of 3i%; 4 wks. 
vacation after 20 yrs. of service (formerly after 23 yrs.); labourer's rate will be $2.10 an hr. 

Marathon Corp., Marathon, Ont. — Pulp & Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. 
agreement covering 500 empl. — wage increase of 40 an hr. retroactive to May 1, 1962; 3 floating 
holidays (formerly 2); evening and night shift premiums increased to 70 and 100 (formerly 
60 and 90) respectively; company contribution to group life, accident and sickness insurance 
plan increased by $1.50 a mo. for married empl. and by 500 a mo. for single empl.; labourer's 
rate will be $2 an hr. and first-class mechanic's rate will be $2.71 an hr. 

Provincial Paper, Thorold, Ont.— Pulp & Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. 
agreement covering 540 empl. — wage increase of 50 an hr. eff. May 1, 1962; evening and night 
shift premiums increased to 60 and 110 (formerly 50 and 100) respectively; company contri- 
butions to group hospitalization, surgical and medical plans increased to $5.47 a mo. (formerly 
$4.97) for married empl. with company contribution for single empl. remaining at $4.97; 
labourer's rate will be $1.90 an hr. and first-class mechanic's rate will be $2.59 an hr. 

Rio Algom Mines (Milliken Mine); Elliot Lake, Ont. — Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/ 
CLC): 3-yr. agreement covering 500 empl. — settlement pay of $15 for empl. on payroll as of 
Jan. 1, 1962 and still on payroll as of May 16, 1962; wage increases of 30 an hr. eff. May 15, 
1962, 40 an hr. eff. May 15, 1963 plus 50 an hr. eff. May 16, 1964; eff. May 16, 1962, company 
will contribute 50 per straight-time hr. worked towards a retirement savings plan; labourer's 
rate after May 16, 1964 will be $2.10 an hr. 

Rio Algom Mines (Nordic Mine), Algoma Mills, Ont. — Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/ 
CLC): 3-yr. agreement covering 600 empl. — settlement pay of $15 for empl. on payroll as of 
Jan. 1, 1962 and still on payroll as of May 16, 1962; wage increases of 30 an hr. eff. May 15, 
1962, 40 an hr. eff. May 15, 1963 plus 50 an hr. eff. May 16, 1964; eff. May 16, 1962, company 
will contribute 50 per straight-time hr. worked towards a retirement savings plan; labourer's 
rate after May 16, 1964 will be $2.12 an hr. 

Union Carbide (Metals & Carbon Div.), Welland, Ont. — U. E. (Ind.): 3-yr. agreement 
covering 750 empl. — terms of settlement not immediately available. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 807 



91st Annual General Meeting of the 

Canadian Manufacturers' Association 

Industrial relations conference, one of seven at the meeting, held sessions 
on "Building Industry through Better Labour Relations" and on "Building 
Manpower to Build Industry." Over-all theme: "Build Industry— Build Canada" 



The 91st annual general meeting of the 
Canadian Manufacturers' Association, held 
on June 3, 4 and 5 at Montreal, had as its 
theme, "Build Industry — Build Canada." 

In addition to the general business ses- 
sions, there were seven conferences: a 
plenary conference with the theme, "Agenda 
for Decision"; a public relations conference 
with the theme, "Private Enterprise — A 
Positive Approach"; a taxation conference 
with the theme, "Taxation in a Growing 
Economy"; a transportation conference, a 
world trade conference, and an industrial 
research and development conference. 

The seventh, an industrial relations con- 
ference, was in two sessions. The theme of 
the morning session was "Building Industry 
through Better Labour Relations," and of 
the afternoon session, "Building Manpower 
to Build Industry." 

The industrial relations conference and 
the plenary conference are the only ones 
fully reported here. 

President's Address 

"By 1970, our national labour force will 
be far bigger than it is today. A good part 
of the onus for finding productive jobs for 
a high proportion of the young and new 
Canadians who will enter the labour force 
will be on manufacturing industry. 

"In fact, in this eight-year period, we 
must provide something like 400,000 new 
jobs in manufacturing if we are to maintain 
our living standards and avert chronic 
unemployment," said F. D. Mathers, retir- 
ing CMA President, in his address to the 
annual meeting. He was discussing Canada's 
dependence on success in selling "job- 
producing manufactured goods" in world 
and domestic markets. 

The new jobs should be created through 
increased processing of our own raw 
materials. "An incalculable proportion of 
our annual imports are still our own raw 
materials coming back to us in finished 
form," ne pointed out. To reduce this 
proportion should be the "foundation stone 
of national policy." 

We should also encourage the manufac- 
ture in Canada of products now being im- 
ported in abundance, he said. 

Mr. Mathers began his address by evaluat- 
ing present employment and industry con- 
ditions. At the halfway mark of 1962, "the 



domestic economy is still showing evidence 
of satisfactory strength. The number of 
persons gainfully employed is at an all-time 
high, despite the disquieting evidence of 
considerable unemployment." 

Capital expenditures are providing a direct 
stimulus and qualified forecasts are that 
the gross national product this year will 
show its largest real increase in quite some 
time. 

But the present economic situation can 
change. 

And Canada is not going to become 
self-sufficient in the foreseeable future, he 
said. "Even this continent as a whole can 
no longer remain an island unto itself." The 
United States, which until recently "called 
the economic tune in the Old World, is 
now forced to respond to the decisions of a 
dynamic common market in Europe." 
Canada is similarly affected because of her 
close geographic and market ties to the 
United States. 

The U.S. President has asked for powers 
that could conceivably result in a remark- 
able liberalization of trade among the 
western nations. 

Although freer trade has appeal for 
consumers, any unusual drastic reduction in 
tariffs could be a severe blow to Canadian 
industry, "which directly provides one quar- 
ter of our country's labour force with gain- 
ful employment" and indirectly provides 
many additional jobs in other industries. 

"A flood of goods from low wage, mass 
production countries, and from the United 
States, with whom we have such an adverse 
balance of trade, could force many a Cana- 
dian manufacturer to the wall. 

"Unless we are prepared for a period of 
austerity and are willing to accept a drastic 
scaling down of our living levels, we must 
maintain a national tariff structure that will 
allow the Canadian manufacturing industry 
equality of opportunity in the domestic mar- 
ket, which, in the last analysis, is our chief 
market." 

Mr. Mathers believed Canada should "go 
along" with proposals for freer international 
trade if they were consistent with the well- 
being of Canadian industry and the national 
economy. Canadian manufacturers can win 
an increasing share of the great new 
markets now rapidly opening up in Western 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY J 962 



Europe, South America, Asia and Africa, 
provided tariff and quota levels and other 
obstacles are kept within reasonable limits. 

The gap between Canadian production 
costs and those of foreign competitors has 
already been crossed by some Canadian 
manufacturers. 

Discussing tariffs further, he continued: 
'There are still far too many countries, and 
I would certainly include that vast and 
rich market to the south of us, which do 
a much better job of shutting out our manu- 
factured products than we do of shutting 
out theirs. For all the closeness of our ties 
with the U.S.A., we in this country have 
never been particularly successful in per- 
suading Washington to relax its barriers 
against our factory goods." 

Opportunities for Canadian goods should 
develop favourably in the European Com- 
mon Market, however, because improving 
living standards and resultant higher labour 
costs in Europe are improving our ability 
to compete. 

The loss of Canadian markets in Britain 
that may follow her entry into the European 
Common Market can be more than offset 
by increased sales to the Common Market 
itself. 

He pointed out that within eight years, 
Western Europe's population will have 
climbed to an estimated 320 million, living 
standards will have moved closer to our 
own, and production costs may be expected 
to rise. By keeping our manufacturing costs 
down to approximately those of Europe, 
we should be able to take maximum advan- 
tage of this large, developing market. 

Mr. Mathers then charted the major 
steps that will have to be taken to make 
the most of this improved situation. "Cana- 
dian management, labour, government and 
consumer will all have to contribute some- 
thing," he said. Management will have to 
display bold, imaginative salesmanship in 
the marketing of quality, well-designed 
products; organized labour will have to 
realize the importance of allowing produc- 
tivity to rise faster than wages; and govern- 
ment — at all three levels — will have to 
recognize the influence of taxes on costs 
and afford appropriate reliefs and incen- 
tives. 

In addition, Canadians will have to show 
preference for Canadian-made products, he 
said. 

And Canadians must not overlook a basic 
weakness, our small and scattered popula- 
tion. "We still need an even greater flow 
of skilled and knowledgeable people to our 
shores." Canada as a nation is obliged to 
provide the opportunities to attract such 
people. 



CMA Officers, 1962-63 




Carl A. Pollock, President, Dominion 
Electrohome Industries Limited, Kitchener, 
Ont., was elected President of the Canadian 
Manufacturers' Association for 1962-63. He 
succeeded F. D. Mathers, of New West- 
minster, B.C. 

Other officers elected were: 

First Vice-President, H. Roy Crabtree, 
President, The Wabasso Cotton Company 
Limited, Montreal, Que. 

Second Vice-President, A. A. Cumming, 
President, Union Carbide Canada Limited, 
Toronto, Ont. 

Treasurer, T. A. Pace, International Har- 
vester Company of Canada, Limited, Hamil- 
ton, Ont. 

Elected Chairman of the Industrial Rela- 
tions Committee was P. M. Draper, Vice- 
President (Administration), Canada Iron 
Foundries Limited, Montreal, Que. 



Examining the Canada-United States 
relationship, he asserted that Canada has 
much to gain from her association with the 
U.S., but that we must follow our own 
international trading and other policies. "If 
there is one thing that both English and 
French-speaking Canadians are agreed upon, 
it is surely our refusal to be absorbed into 
the American union." 

The less internal dissension and industrial 
strife there is in Canada, the better our 
positon to consolidate our national status. 
Speaking of industrial relations, Mr. Mathers 
noted with satisfaction that, for the past 
two years, we have had no serious, nation- 
wide strikes. He saw this as evidence of an 
improved labour-management relationship. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

58736-0—4 



• JULY 7962 



809 



"There is nothing new in the recent state- 
ment of one prominent union leader that 
strikes are outmoded (L.G., June, p. 621). 
What is profoundly significant is that a 
respected union chief could give public 
expression to this viewpoint before an 
audience of unionists and that it should 
receive the measure of acceptance by them 
that it did." 

"Let us, management and labour together, 
build on this foundation of common sense, 
for, assuredly, it is more true than ever 
before that we are all in the same boat 
and that we will either sink or stay afloat 
in the choppy waters of world competition." 

General Manager's Report 

"Canadian manufacturers have continued 
to face heavy competition both from low 
wage and mass production countries," stated 
CMA Executive Vice-President and Gen- 
eral Manager J. C. Whitelaw, Q.C., in his 
report to the annual meeting. Although the 
record exports of 1961 produced the first 
favourable merchandise trade balance since 
1952, imports in 1961 were also a record. 

In his report, Mr. Whitelaw summarized 
the Association's activities during the past 
year. He also dealt with the state of Can- 
ada's economy; reviewed legislation deal- 
ing with taxation, corporation and union 
matters; analysed world trade blocs; and as- 
sessed events and trends affecting the manu- 
facturing industry and the country as a 
whole. 

The growth of manufacturing offers the 
best prospect for increased employment of 
Canadians and the expansion of the Cana- 
dian economy, and this fact is becoming 
increasingly recognized, said Mr. White- 
law. Government action in the monetary, 
taxation and export fields has been helpful 
to manufacturers. 

Describing the devaluation and stabiliza- 
tion of the Canadian dollar as "the biggest 
event of the past year," he added that man- 
ufacturers have generally welcomed the step 
as improving the competitive position for 
a number of manufactured products, al- 
though it was also accompanied by some 
problems. 

"There has been less public concern about 
inflation, until recently, but the lower for- 
eign exchange rate has complicated the 
outlook. A few prices have already moved 
up because of the lower value of the dollar, 
and the general outlook for domestic prices 
is at the moment uncertain. 

"Many manufacturers, because of unused 
capacity in their industries and competitive 
pressure, have been absorbing cost increases 
from this and other causes, but it remains 
to be seen how long this can continue. 



"The consumer price index this April was 
about 0.9 per cent ahead of the same time 
last year. Prices of fully and chiefly manu- 
factured goods were 1.1 per cent higher 
at the beginning of this year than a year 
earlier; average hourly earnings in manu- 
facturing at the end of last year were 3.3 
per cent higher than a year earlier." 

In commenting on the Association's "Buy 
Canadian" program, which is now four 
years old, Mr. Whitelaw stressed that it 
must receive increasing emphasis "in the 
interests of fuller employment and improved 
economic self-sufficiency." 

Manufacturing, "by far the most im- 
portant of the production industries, should 
have at least an equal voice at Cabinet 
level with agriculture, mining, fishing and 
forestry, each of which is represented by a 
Cabinet Minister." This could be accom- 
plished by redesignating the Minister and 
the Department of Trade and Commerce as 
the Minister and the Department of Industry 
and Commerce, "with appropriate altera- 
tion in emphasis of duties and responsibili- 
ties," Mr. Whitelaw suggested. 

"Encouragement for immigration at a 
time when unemployment is high seems to 
be paradoxical," said the General Man- 
ager. There is, however, a shortage of 
skilled persons even though unemployment 
is high. Canada should promote immigra- 
tion on a selective basis, emphasizing tech- 
nical and professional qualifications. 
Taxation 

Taxation problems came in for con- 
siderable attention in the report. Mr. White- 
law reviewed the recent tax incentives the 
federal Government had provided: incen- 
tives for modernization, for research, and 
deferred profit sharing plans. 

The Association has again submitted, 
however, that both corporation and per- 
sonal income tax rates are too high "for 
either the short-term or the long-term 
development of the Canadian economy". 
Manufacturers' incomes are actually taxed 
twice, he pointed out — first on corporation 
income, then on shareholders' dividends. 

Corporation taxes add to the cost of fin- 
ished goods and have a pyramiding effect on 
prices, he contended. They also make it 
more difficult for the Canadian manufac- 
turer to compete with foreign manufac- 
turers, both here and abroad. 

He also asserted that the highly progres- 
sive rate structure of personal income taxes 
was discouraging the initiative and pro- 
ductive effort of Canadians. 

Increased capital cost allowance should 
be expanded as a means of encouraging 
national development and providing em- 
ployment. 



810 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



Noting that finished manufactured goods 
still make up more than 75 per cent of 
Canada's total imports, the Association is 
pressing for specific appropriate tariff and 
quota measures to keep imports of com- 
petitive goods within reasonable bounds. 
It has asked the Government to make re- 
newed efforts to legislate on the "class or 
kind" question, for improved customs pro- 
cedures, and for mandatory marking of fully 
manufactured imported goods with the 
country of origin. 

The CMA has asked for clarification or 
modification of certain provisions of the 
Corporations and Labour Unions Returns 
Act "to provide parity with respect to 
reporting requirements between companies 
and unions.* 3 

The Association also protested strongly 
about the increasing volume of reports and 
statistics required by the Government. 

The CMA's Industrial Relations Com- 
mittee continued to study the implications 
of the use of funds obtained through check- 
off in support of political parties, Mr. 
Whitelaw reported. 

The Committee on Vocational Training 
"has been concerned with the search for 
ways in which the increased federal funds 
now available to the provinces . . . can be 
effectively used to supply industry with the 
skilled workers it requires," the General 
Manager reported. This committee has 
worked closely with H. L. Shepherd of the 
Canadian Westinghouse Company Limited, 
who has been on loan to the Department 
of Labour to carry out a special study "for 
relating the Government's program for 
vocational training with the requirements 
of industry" (L.G., Dec. 1961, p. 1214). 

Hon. Jean Lesage 

Premier Jean Lesage of Quebec, one of 
the dinner speakers at the CMA annual 



meeting, outlined his Government's plans 
for exploiting the province's resources 
through formation of a financing corpora- 
tion. The necessary financial capital was 
not lacking collectively in Quebec, he said, 
but it was necessary to bring together the 
available capital of individuals to make it 
effective and to direct it toward a com- 
mon goal. 

The General Investment Corporation, to 
be established shortly, would be partici- 
pated in by the provincial Government and 
would encourage investment by the public 
through apparent and reasonable guaran- 
tees. It would be "an undertaking which 
will be likely to promote an unprecedented 
economic expansion in our province," the 
Premier said. Capital investment from Que- 
bec and outside institutions would also be 
accepted and welcomed, he said, adding 
also that "there will be no question of the 
General Investment Corporation plunging 
into any risky projects." 

He stated that the view of his Govern- 
ment was that it should take part in the 
country's economic life, but by "co-oper- 
ation with private enterprise and not by 
imposing its views upon it in a dictatorial 
manner." Economic progress thus becomes 
the result of joint action, he emphasized. 

Although the financing body "will be- 
come an essentially dynamic factor in Que- 
bec's progress," the Premier also pointed 
out and stressed that "human capital" was 
not being neglected, and Quebec was tak- 
ing the necessary action in the education 
field. "The Government knows that one of 
the best ways to fight unemployment is to 
raise the educational level of the population 
as a whole," he stated. 

Co-operation between all the interested 
parties — capital, labour and government — 
would be the basis for building the future 
of the province, the Premier said. 



Industrial Relations Conference 



Judge A. H. McKinnon 

Many are becoming concerned about 
trends that are discernible in labour legis- 
lation, said Judge A. H. McKinnon, author 
of the recent Report on Labour Legislation 
for the Nova Scotia Government (L.G., 
May, p. 507). He was speaking at the 
industrial relations conference on "Legis- 
lative Balance in Labour Relations." 

"We can foresee with some certainty," 
he said, "that it will not be long until 
the different jurisdictions of this country 
will regulate all aspects of management- 
labour relations through a codified body of 



laws administered and policed by the State; 
and free collective bargaining, which all of 
our labour legislation was enacted to foster, 
will be sacrificed on the altar of 'the pub- 
lic interest'." 

That public interest requires such inter- 
vention is now the announced policy of the 
Government of the United States, he pointed 
out, quoting from an address last Febru- 
ary by U.S. Secretary of Labor Arthur J. 
Goldberg: 

Hitherto Government intervention in labour- 
management disputes has been aimed merely 
at mediating the issues in disputes and bring- 
ing about a settlement. From now on, it will 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

58736-0— A\ 



• JULY 7962 



811 



be concerned with the character of the set- 
tlement. It will be intent on seeing that the 
terms of the agreements follow the Govern- 
ment's guide lines. (See box, below). 

Judge McKinnon then quoted from an 
article in the New York Times Magazine 
by A. A. Berle, Jr., Professor of Corpora- 
tion Law at Columbia Law School: 

Briefly stated, the emerging relationship is 
this: When the wage and price levels markedly 
affect, or threaten to upset, the economy of the 
country, the Government claims power to step 
in on behalf of the "public interest." 



The difficulty is, Prof. Berle's article 
continued, that the words "public interest" 
have to be denned. There are no denned 
criteria where wages and industrial prices 
are concerned, "nor can there be." 

In the past, the reserve power of the 
Government to intervene was restricted to 
situations of extreme emergency, but it is 
now being adopted as an acceptable measure 
in any situation, "on the theory that any 
labour-management dispute affects the pub- 
lic interest," Prof. Berle wrote. 



Guides for Non-inflationary Wage and Price Decisions* 



If, as a point of departure, we assume 
no change in the relative shares of labour 
and non-labour incomes in a particular 
industry, then a general guide may be 
advanced for non-inflationary price be- 
haviour. Both guides, as will be seen, are 
only first approximations. 

The general guide for non-inflationary 
wage behaviour is that the rate of increase 
in wage rates (including fringe benefits) in 
each industry be equal to the trend rate 
of over-all productivity increase. General 
acceptance of this guide would maintain 
stability of labour cost per unit of output 
for the economy as a whole — though not 
of course for individual industries. 

The general guide for non-inflationary 
price behaviour calls for price reduction if 
the industry's rate of productivity increase 
exceeds the overall rate — tor this would 
mean declining unit labour costs; it calls 
tor an appropriate increase in price if the 
opposite relationship prevails; and it calls 
tor stable prices it the two rates of pro- 
ductivity increase are equal. 

These are advanced as general guideposts. 
To reconcile them with objectives of equity 
and efficiency, special modifications must 
be made to adapt them to the circum- 
stances of particular industries. If all of 
these modifications are made, each in the 
specific circumstances to which it applies, 
they are consistent with stability of the 
general price level. 

Public judgments about the effects on 
the price level of particular wage or price 
decisions should take into account the mod- 
ifications as well as the general guides. The 
most important modifications are the fol- 
lowing: 1. Wage-rate increases would ex- 
ceed the general guide rate in an industry 
which would otherwise be unable to attract 
sufficient labour; or in which wage rates 
are exceptionally low compared with the 
range of wages earned elsewhere by similar 
labour because the bargaining position of 
workers has been weak in particular local 
labour markets. 

2. Wage-rate increases would fall short 
of the general guide rate in an industry 
which could not provide jobs for its entire 
labour torce even in times of generally full 
employment; or in which wage rates are 

* Excerpt from the Annual Report of the Council 
of Economic Advisers transmitted to the Congress 
with the Economic Report of the President in 
January 1962. 



exceptionally high compared with the range 
of wages earned elsewhere by similar labour 
because the bargaining position of workers 
had been especially strong. 

3. Prices would rise more rapidly, or fall 
more slowly than indicated by the general 
guide rate in an industry in which the level 
of profits was insufficient to attract the 
capital required to finance a needed expan- 
sion in capacity; or in which costs other 
than labour costs had risen. 

4. Prices would rise more slowly, or fall 
more rapidly than indicated by the general 
guide in an industry in which the relation 
of productive capacity to full employment; 
demand shows the desirability of an out- 
flow of capital from the industry or in 
which costs other than labour costs have 
fallen; or in which excessive market power 
has resulted in rates of profit substantially 
higher than those earned elsewhere on in- 
vestments of comparable risk. 

It is a measure of the difficulty of the 
problem that even these complex guideposts 
leave out of account several important con- 
siderations. Although output per man-hour 
rises mainly in response to improvements in 
the quantity and quality of capital goods 
with which employees are equipped, em- 
ployees are often able to improve their 
performance by means within their own 
control. It is obviously in the public interest 
that incentives be preserved which would 
reward employees tor such efforts. 

Also, in connection with the use of 
measures of over-all productivity gain as 
benchmarks for wage increases, it must be 
borne in mind that average hourly labour 
costs often change through the process of 
up or down grading, shifts between wage 
and salaried employment, and other forces. 
Such changes may either add to or subtract 
from the increment which is available for 
wage increases under the over-all produc- 
tivity guide. 

Finally, it must be reiterated that collec- 
tive bargaining within an industry over the 
division of the proceeds between labour 
and non-labour income is not necessarily 
disruptive of over-all price stability. The 
relative shares can change within the bounds 
of non-inflationary price behaviour. But 
when a disagreement between management 
and labour is resolved by passing the bill 
to the rest of the economy, the bill is paid 
in depreciated currency to the ultimate 
advantage of no one. 



812 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



This current development in the United 
States, Judge McKinnon continued, suggests 
that in that country we can look for a 
greater degree of governmental control and 
direction over management-labour relation- 
ships. 

"In Canada, there has also been a recog- 
nition, reflected in legislation, that the 
consequence of free collective bargaining is 
detrimental to the public interest; and that 
industrial peace should not depend on the 
free bargaining in good faith of employers 
and unions. Apparently, there is an insist- 
ence that, in some areas, there be collective 
bargaining but without the threat of strikes 
or lockouts." 

Judge McKinnon then cited, as examples, 
provisions in the labour legislation of 
Alberta, Manitoba and Quebec. 

He then turned to special legislation 
enacted to bring a labour dispute to an 
end, mentioning the federal Maintenance of 
Operation Act and Railways Operation Con- 
tinuation Act, and the British Columbia 
Coast Steamship Service Act. 

We can sympathize with the reason for 
these Acts because the public demanded that 
the country or the province should not be 
inconvenienced by a stoppage of transpor- 
tation facilities, he said, but "we must 
realize that the right to strike is the root 
and base of free collective bargaining; 
without it, under our present system, the 
union has little to bargain with." 

It is interesting to note that leading unionists 
in Canada do state that the "strike" is prob- 
ably an outmoded weapon, but until we are 
successful in changing the direction of manage- 
ment-labour relations, the right to strike must 
remain, unless we wish to abandon collective 
bargaining entirely. 

There are other areas where labour legis- 
lation in Canada has exhibited a trend 
toward a greater degree of regulation. These 
include: certification procedures, determina- 
tion of appropriate units, regulations against 
the altering of wages and conditions of 
employment when negotiations are in prog- 
ress, unfair practices, union security provi- 
sions, and the legal status of trade unions. 

Aside from statutory enactments, "recent 
legal decisions have settled the matter by 
holding that a union is a legal entity which 
may be made liable in damages either for 
breach of the Labour Relations Act or under 
the common law . . . 

"This trend toward state regulation of all 
phases in management-labour relationships, 
thus limiting the scope of free collective 
bargaining, was not, I believe, anticipated 
by the legislatures that passed the original 
enactments," he said. 



Judge McKinnon outlined the history of 
government legislation to assist in settling 
disputes, culminating in the 1940's in legis- 
lation laying down the ground rules within 
which the collective bargaining relationship 
was to operate. Behind this was the desire 
to point the way to the ideal employer- 
employee relationship. 

This envisaged, first, that not only the 
dominant public interest but also that of 
employer, employee and union is preserved by 
industrial peace and that this can best be 
achieved where these parties work in harmony 
and full co-operation in the interest of the 
industry which they operate and manage, on 
the one hand, and in which they are em- 
ployed, on the other. Second, such management- 
employee relationship is fostered where it is 
marked by respect, appreciation, understanding, 
loyal and active co-operation, and devotion to 
their common undertaking Thirdly, volun- 
tary co-operation is essential in achieving the 
best management-employee relationship and the 
maximum return to industry. 

If the adverse factors that have intruded 
since the original concept of the ideal are 
overlooked, "conditions are more favourable 
today for the attainment of that ideal than 
they were some years ago." 

Conditions have gradually developed that 
bind the employees to the enterprise and 
create common interests between employees 
and management. These include: pension 
plans, vacations with pay, benefits related to 
length of service, systems of promotion in 
which experience and familiarity with the 
work are important. Collectively bargained 
seniority rules and other rights and privileges 
that depend on length of service also create 
stronger common interests between em- 
ployers and employees. 

As these common interests grow in im- 
portance, "one would expect that both 
parties would be drawing closer together" 
in an effort to develop them. This has not 
been the case, "partly because of the pre- 
occupation of both parties with guarding 
and fostering their positions in the legislative 
arena, where they are antagonists in a con- 
test to promote or hold statutory rights, 
with the State imposing the rules and acting 
as referee." 

Close co-operation in the union-manage- 
ment relationship would mean that both 
parties would have to abandon some en- 
trenched attitudes. "It may be difficult for 
management and labour to transform their 
attitudes for ones of full and harmonious 
co-operation, but if it is realized that the 
alternative is greater legislative restrictions, 
state intervention and the probable aban- 
donment of free collective bargaining, then 
it should be worth a determined effort." 

In his consultations last year with man- 
agement and labour groups across Canada, 
Judge McKinnon had found fairly general 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



81* 



agreement that the ideal management-labour 
relationship would be achieved with a mini- 
mum of legislative restriction. 

"The general consensus seemed to be 
that if one side could only trust the other 
to deal fairly and above board, both would 
be willing to scrap much of the restrictive 
legislation now existing." 

Generally speaking, where the balance of 
restrictive legislation was considered to be 
anti-union, employer groups expressed them- 
selves as somewhat content but advocated fur- 
ther restrictive measures. Union groups ex- 
pressed themselves as very dissatisfied and were 
convinced that they were the victims of the 
legislation, which greatly lessened their respect 
for governmental institutions. 

Where the situation is reversed and legislation 
is considered to be pro-union, union groups 
were not entirely satisfied with the legislation 
in force but they appreciated that they were 
in a favoured position. The employer groups 
here contended that labour legislation was 
weighted in favour of unions and this had 
placed their industries in a very poor com- 
petitive position with other provinces. The 
employers here stressed that they would like 
to see less compulsion placed on employers 
and more voluntary co-operation between man- 
agement and labour throughout negotiations. 

From these consultations, it was difficult to 
escape the impression that restrictive legislation 
has driven an ever-deepening wedge between 
management and labour, and has made much 
more difficult the voluntary co-operation which 
is vital to the welfare of industry and its 
employees. 

He cited Sweden as an example of how 
the current trend could be changed and 
channelled in the direction of the ideal 
management-employee relationship. 

"I believe it is true to say," Judge Mc- 
Kinnon concluded, "that from public state- 
ments made by leaders in industry and 
labour, there never was a time when both 
parties were more receptive to an arrange- 
ment for closer co-operation and mutual 
action than at present. 

"If such an arrangement is desired, would 
it not be well to at least start a move in 
that direction rather than continue with the 
current trend, which can only result in 
further legislative intervention and a further 
delay in the attainment of the desired rela- 
tionship?" 

George B. Morris, Jr. 

"Labour relations problems are long- 
range problems; what is done today can 
have far-reaching effects for years in the 
future," said George B. Morris, Jr., of the 
personnel department, General Motors Cor- 
poration, Detroit. He was speaking to the 
industrial relations conference on "Long- 
Term Objectives in Collective Bargaining." 



Unions will make demands they know 
management should not grant, he pointed 
out, but once unwise concessions are made, 
they look upon them as vested rights and 
will resist attempts to correct them. Unions 
also demand that contract wording be 
brought up to date to reflect the actual 
practices that have developed under the 
agreement. "Thus, the bad practices of 
today tend to become the poor contract 
clauses of tomorrow." 

Mr. Morris enumerated six management 
objectives in collective bargaining. 

First, a policy approach to labour rela- 
tions is essential. "Labour relations prob- 
lems cannot be handled properly on the 
basis of expediency. Consistent policies are 
needed." Unions recognize the importance 
of a sound and consistent approach by 
management, he said. 

Management must establish a reputation 
for firmness, consistency and credibility. 

Second, there must be full acceptance 
by everyone in management of the role of 
the union as representative of employees in 
the bargaining unit. 

"Acceptance of the role of the union as 
representative of the employees for collec- 
tive bargaining purposes requires willing- 
ness on the part of management to meet 
with the union at any time to discuss prob- 
lems of mutual concern. 

"Unions and management should not com- 
municate with each other only at arm's 
length, as infrequently as possible, and put 
off problems that arise until the often 
hostile atmosphere of contract negotiations. 

"The union-management relationship 
should be a day-to-day proposition, with 
frequent, continuing communication between 
management and union representatives." 

Mr. Morris described the process of com- 
munication between management and union 
at General Motors to illustrate what full 
acceptance of the role of unions implies. 
The process includes formal negotiations, 
subcommittees of company and union repre- 
sentatives to deal with technical areas 
(pensions, insurance and S.U.B., etc.), con- 
tinuous communication at all levels in the 
period between negotiations, high-level 
meetings to discuss matters of mutual in- 
terest, frequent meetings between the union's 
GM department and the company's labour 
relations staff, and meetings of the boards 
of administration that handle problems 
under the pension plan and the supplemental 
unemployment benefit plan. 

Third, management's responsibility to 
manage the business must be maintained. 

Just as management should fully accept 
the legitimate role of the union, it should 



314 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



insist that the union recognize that manage- 
ment has the responsibility to manage the 
business. 

Management cannot operate a business 
effectively if prior consent of the union is 
required before decisions are reached on: 
disciplining of employees, the right to dis- 
charge or discipline for cause, the products 
to be manufactured, the location of plants, 
production schedules, and the methods, 
processes and means of manufacturing. 

Fourth, fair, sound and firm discipline 
must be maintained throughout the organi- 
zation. An undisciplined, disorderly plant is 
rarely an efficient plant. 

"Disciplining employees is a management 
responsibility more than it is a management 
right . . . The union's responsibility is to 
represent the employees once the discipline 
has been assessed by management." 

Fifth, provisions in labour agreements 
that impair manufacturing efficiency must 
be avoided. For example, bad seniority pro- 
visions, limits on the right to set production 
standards, and limitations on subcontracting 
can have a heavy impact on unit production 
costs. 

In labour relations, the easy way would 
often be to ignore the problem and reject 
the union solution "on principle," which is 
another way of saying "duck the problem." 
The real task in labour relations is to find 
mutually acceptable solutions, and finding 
such solutions is the challenge to both 
management and union, Mr. Morris said. 

Sixth, affirmative policies designed to keep 
avenues of technological change free and 
open must be adopted. 

Two kinds of policies are important in 
connection with technological change: (1) 
avoidance of provisions in labour agree- 
ments that could restrict management's 
ability to adopt the most efficient tools and 
methods of production or its freedom to 
determine production standards and to make 
and change work rules vital to efficient 
production; and (2) management's willing- 
ness to adopt measures designed to mini- 
mize the impact on employees of disloca- 
tions caused by technological changes, 
changes in consumer preference, relocation 
of plants, fluctuations in employment or 
other factors that cause real economic 
hardship to employees. 

D. Alan Page 

"The use of strikes as a means of achiev- 
ing collective agreement between labour and 
management in this country is now out- 
moded and something better must be found 
to take their place," said D. Alan Page, 



Director of Personnel, Goodyear Tire and 
Rubber Co. of Canada Limited, at the 
industrial relations conference. 

He was sure that none of his listeners 
found anything particularly startling in that 
statement, but that they would be interested 
to learn that it was recently made by 
William Mahoney of the Steelworkers, that 
he made it to the union policy committee, 
and that he was not criticized by his fellow 
unionists for it. 

Statements like Mr. Mahoney's would 
seem to suggest an awareness on the part of 
the more thoughtful senior union leaders in 
Canada today that relationships between 
management and labour must take on a new 
maturity in the future, he said. He was 
speaking on "What Hope for Harmony?" 

"Is harmony merely a matter of manage- 
ment's agreeing to give the union every- 
thing they ask?" Or would you achieve 
harmony if the union simply agreed to all 
proposals by management? 

Certainly, I do not regard harmony as 
a complete absence of arguments and dif- 
ferences in point of view, Mr. Page said. 
"I think we shall achieve harmony in labour 
relations when management is aware of the 
requirements of the union and its members, 
and at the same time, unions are equally 
aware of the requirements of management." 

True harmony is possible when both sides 
see the requirements of those opposite them 
at the bargaining table and seek to achieve 
means of reconciling the different objectives 
in a working arrangement based on mutual 
respect and understanding of the problems 
of both sides. This pre-supposes the seeking 
and finding of a full and mature realization 
of all the facts of the situation, together 
with a willingness to modify one's own 
demands to advance the cause of the organi- 
zation as a whole. 

Ultimately, hope for harmony must rest 
on the ability of both sides to be able to 
communicate their essential needs to the 
other side in such a way that they are 
properly appreciated and understood. 

Achievement of a truly mature relation- 
ship between union and management is of 
vital concern not only to Canadian industry 
but to the whole of the Canadian economy, 
he continued. Industrial disputes today are 
often of such proportions that a breakdown 
of negotiations in a major industry means 
disruption to the economy of the nation. 
Potential disruption to the convenience and 
well-being of the public is so great in cer- 
tain utilities such as railway and hydro 
electric systems that a strike is "virtually 
non-acceptable" to the public. 

The main obstacles to the achievement 
and strengthening of industrial harmony in 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



815 



Canada, Mr. Page said, are of two kinds: 
those which are union-made and those 
which are created by management. 

Many of today's labour leaders realize 
that without greater productivity, there can 
be no increased returns for the worker, but 
"there are many concepts tenaciously held 
by labour leaders which need revision and 
study in the light of today's changing con- 
ditions." 

Automation is feared in certain quarters 
because of the potential unemployment that 
some people believe it will bring. "I do 
not see it as the source of potential unem- 
ployment, but I do recognize that it is the 
source of far-reaching changes which are 
bound to bring disruption to the work 
force." This disruption need not be too 
harmful if workers are given retraining, if 
they will accept the training and the unions 
will permit it. 

"Yet the unions, whose vital concern 
should be for these workers who will suffer 
displacement, are still showing themselves 
very unwilling to abandon old-time con- 
cepts of seniority so that adequate training 
can be offered to minimize the effect of 
technological displacement. At the same 
time, many unions are forcing the pernicious 
practice sometimes referred to as feather- 
bedding into contracts on the pretext of 
protecting the jobs of their members." 

The labour leaders' awareness of the 
necessity of gearing wage increases to in- 
creases in productivity is not sufficiently 
shared by the rank and file union members. 
If harmony is to be achieved, unions must 
learn to gear their wage and fringe benefit 
demands to the realities of the situation, 
Mr. Page said. 

It is easy for us to be critical of union 
action in their relationships with manage- 
ment, but more difficult for us to turn 
around and examine the actions of manage- 
ment. "Yet we must honestly ask ourselves: 
Has management done all it can, in the 
past, to promote a real sense of harmony 
and purpose with the unions with which 
it deals? I am afraid that the answer is that 
this has not always been done. 

"It is so easy to dismiss some extravagant 
demand on the part of the union as unrea- 
sonable and unthinking and to forget that 
a possible reason for the inclusion of this 
demand is some equally unreasonable action 
on the part of management in contract 
administration during the previous year," 
he said. 

Mr. Page then asked: "If we regard the 
promotion of harmony as of vital import- 
ance, where can we look for help?" 

It has been suggested that this is a function 
of government and, in the sense that it is the 
guardian of the public interest, government has 



a definite stake in industrial harmony. However, 
it is open to serious question, first, as to how 
effectively the government can participate in 
the promotion of harmony, and second, as to 
how much it is desirable that they should 
participate. 

In Canada we believe that the best 
relationships between management and la- 
bour are those which are achieved with the 
minimum of interference by government. 
But, "if we cannot find the answer, the 
freedom of action prized by both manage- 
ment and labour will be sacrificed through 
government concern for the public welfare." 

Government participation in labour rela- 
tions is neither effective nor desirable in 
promoting hope for true harmony, Mr. 
Page said. But "if we ourselves do not 
achieve the solution, we will have something 
thrust on us which neither side will like 
and which will make our problems even 
more complex than they are today." 

He then told the conference what unions, 
management and government could do to 
promote harmony. 

It is essential, he said, that unions under- 
take to disseminate among their members a 
real understanding of the problems facing 
industry today: the realities of competition 
and the need for gearing wage and other 
employee benefit increases to productivity. 

Management must devote a great deal 
of attention to the problem of communica- 
tion with the union, its executive and its 
members. But "any attempt to preach or 
to brain-wash our employee audience would 
undo any good that might be done." 

Government has played an important part 
in labour relations in this country in the 
past, but the best role for government is 
a minimum one. 

We want to see the public protected against 
any unacceptable action that may be taken by 
unions or by management, but a sound labour- 
management relationship can only be attained, 
in the long run, by the parties sitting down 
and working out their problems in an atmos- 
phere of mutual confidence and trust. 

Walter W. Finke 

At the second session of the industrial 
relations conference, Walter W. Finke, Pre- 
sident, Electronic Data Process Division, 
Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co., de- 
livered a paper on automation, a great part 
of which was devoted to electronic data 
processing (EDP). 

Both the United States and Canada, he 
said, are deeply committed to automation. 
Automation is moving forward, with the 
one basic object of achieving economic 
strength at home and abroad. 

The concept of automation embraces 
many tools, he continued, citing the tractor 
on the farm, the bulldozer in construction, 



816 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



electronic process control systems in indus- 
try. Electronic data processing was the 
newest tool of automation in the office. 

No matter what the tool, its primary 
function was to increase man's productivity. 

Electronic data processing, the most 
recent in a long series of inventions designed 
to increase productivity, is "automating the 
clerical tasks out of the office." At the other 
extreme it is automating the processes of 
scientific research, and in between it is 
helping to automate industrial production. 

EDP was probably the most advanced 
form of automation yet devised, he said. 
There was "a perhaps not unnatural fear" 
of automation in the minds of many people. 
They fear it brings job insecurity. 

If the fear that surrounds automation 
retards its progress, the loss in terms of 
economic strength "will be immeasurable." 

If business and industry were static, auto- 
mation might well be a threat to full em- 
ployment. But they are not; they are 
aggressively dynamic, and the technological 
development that leads to automation is 
keeping the economy on the move. A dy- 
namic economy supported by a sophisticated 
technology is continually providing new and 
greater employment opportunities. 

A business that shies away from automa- 
tion presents greater risks to jobs than one 
pioneering in technology. "The history of 
business is littered with the debris of com- 
panies that have died of obsolescence — those 
that failed to take advantage of the new 
tools that are the real source of competitive 
strength," Mr. Finke said. 

In the same way, a national economy that 
fails to support automation will find itself 
at a disadvantage in international com- 
petition. 

Frequently overlooked is the fact that 
automation tends to provide a larger pro- 
portion of jobs requiring greater skills and, 
therefore, commanding higher pay. In the 
United States, the number of unskilled 
workers today is substantially lower than 
20 years ago; but in the same period, the 
total civilian labour force has increased 
some 30 per cent, and the number of pro- 
fessional, technical and management people 
has nearly doubled. 

One of the great lessons history teaches us 
is that the discovery of broad new techniques, 
such as electronic data processing, results in 
long-range benefits in the form of new busi- 
nesses, new services and new employment 
opportunities that far outweigh the transitory 
dislocations. 

EDP is growing into a big employer in 
its own right, Mr. Finke continued. Persons 
engaged in the manufacture, programming 
and operation of electronic computers in 



the U.S. now number well over one hundred 
thousand. By the end of the decade, it is 
estimated that the U.S. will require more 
than 150,000 additional programmers alone. 

There is little evidence that EDP has 
created important employment problems. In 
truth, clerical employment has increased 
18 per cent in the last five years, U.S. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics figures show, 
while non-clerical employment has increased 
only 5 per cent and total civilian employ- 
ment by about 6 per cent. 

He was not implying that EDP would 
not displace people on a job-for-job basis; 
this is one of the primary objectives of 
electronic data processing. The important 
point is that most EDP users, by careful 
planning and training programs, have been 
able to absorb their displaced workers in 
other areas of their organizations. "Even 
so, the rising demand for clerical help con- 
tinues to outpace the progress of office 
automation." 

The problems of office automation are 
quite different from those brought about 
by automation in coal mines or in petroleum, 
steel and automobile industries, where there 
was an actual reduction in the numbers at 
work. 

"We must squarely face the problems 
created by our use of the tools of auto- 
mation . . . We are faced with a dual obliga- 
tion: we have a clear responsibility to make 
the fullest use of the new tools of economic 
strength; on the other hand we have an 
equally clear responsibility to employ what- 
ever means we have at hand to alleviate 
the temporary hardships that may arise 
through their use." 

Here Mr. Finke quoted from an article in 
the April issue of the Harvard Business 
Review by Prof. Benjamin Selekman: 

This does not necessarily mean that he [the 
businessman] must initiate and develop a com- 
plete program in his own enterprise to provide 
for all the contingencies attendant on the 
onward sweep of technology — a goal not finan- 
cially feasible. It does mean, however, that he 
must acquire a positive attitude toward such 
programs, and participate actively in their 
development both in industry and in the com- 
munity. 

Mr. Finke is convinced that the solution 
lies in education, "the training of people 
in the skills of the new technologies and 
the retraining of displaced people for useful 
work in labour shortage areas." It is an 
interesting fact in both Canada and the 
United States, he commented, that there is 
a labour shortage in some areas while there 
is substantial unemployment in others. 

"By and large, the unemployment exists 
in the unskilled labour markets. The short- 
ages for the most part are in the higher 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



817 



skills. This obviously points to the need 
for further education and retraining." 

An impressive amount of retraining is 
being undertaken in computer-using com- 
panies to prepare people to work with EDP 
or train them for new work. Computer 
manufacturers, too, are training people in 
the various skills associated with electronic 
computation. 

This educational movement must con- 
tinue to grow, he said. "EDP is on the road 
to becoming as basic to our way of life 
as the typewriter and the printing press. 
It is entirely possible that it will soon be 
as vital in the business and scientific worlds 
as reading, writing and arithmetic. It is 
indispensable to the continued build-up of 
our economic strength." 

The threat of the recurrence of the kind 
of thinking that led factory workers of 
early days to try to stop the Industrial 
Revolution by wrecking the machinery "is 
far more alarming than any threat the new 
machinery could possibly pose," Mr. Finke 
concluded. 

Very Rev. Georges Henri Levesque 

"Ethics and Morality in Shop and Office" 
was the subject of an address to the indus- 
trial relations conference by the Very 
Reverend Georges Henri Levesque, Superior 
of the Maison Montmorency, Courville, 
Que. 

In order to build a prosperous and power- 
ful industry, there must be adequate man- 
power, and "this manpower consists of 
competent and qualified men, physically and 
mentally healthy, but also basically good 
and strong, that is, with a deep and exten- 
sive moral value," Father Levesque said. 

He did not plan to lay out a complete 
code of moral rules that would point out 
exactly what should be forbidden, allowed 
or recommended. Far more important than 
the small details of good conduct recipes 
were the fundamental principles that should 
inspire them, he said. 

"The first and most important of these 
principles is the transcendent value of each 
human person." An office or a shop is, 
most of all, a team of men and women 
working together, and "teamwork demands 
respect of the nature of those taking part." 
And these, a"bove all, are individual human 
beings. 

"This fact is extremely important, as it 
demands that business relationships be pri- 
marily and fundamentally human, that is, 
moral ... It impels employers and employees 
to always give each other the consideration 
and treatment a man deserves . . . 



"It is now more important than ever 
to stress this principle because of the 
mechanization of labour and the impera- 
tiveness of efficiency which are more and 
more inclined to depersonalize the worker." 

Father Levesque then went on to define 
"what exactly is a person." A person is a 
free and responsible individual human being, 
he said. 

Because every one of us is primarily a 
free individual, no firm has the right to 
impose on us its own views in fields outside 
business matters. The worker, having freely 
taken on the obligations of his employment, 
should fulfil his duties just as freely. "When 
obedience is required on his part, he must 
do so as a free man and not as a slave." 

Secondly, everyone is responsible. "If an 
individual demands that we respect his rights 
to freedom, he must in return be prepared 
to accept the duty of his responsibility." 
And if we impose on the firm the duty to 
respect its employees' freedom, we must 
also recognize the firm's privilege to count 
on their trustworthiness. 

Where would freedom and responsibility 
lead without control and direction by means 
of powerful and wise discipline? Discipline 
signifies respect for order. Order is the 
essential condition that provides stability 
and efficiency to a firm. Without order the 
business would become paralyzed or be 
threatened by disintegration. Respect for 
order is a serious obligation "which we 
define as discipline." 

The second fundamental principle con- 
cerns the value of work. The accomplish- 
ment of a job, work, is a human act. Work 
has social value, as its highest aim is to be 
useful to society. By working, a worker 
acquires a right to remuneration. 

"Work deserves our sincere, constant and 
universal respect, which should be especially 
proved by establishing working conditions 
suitable to his [man's] human dignity," said 
Father Levesque. It also deserves that we 
devote ourselves to it fervently and com- 
petently. "When we chose to work for our 
living, we then become professional workers 
and work itself become our state of life." 

Finally work deserves a reward, a re- 
muneration that allows the worker and his 
family to lead a proper life. 

Concluding, Father Levesque mentioned 
two indispensable virtues that should ex- 
ist in any shop or office: justice and charity. 
"Justice considers our neighbour as another 
person, a separate and distinct individual, 
whereas charity sees in our neighbour a 
being very closely joined to us. Justice ad- 
justs one and another by ordering each 
one to respect the other's property, to leave 



818 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



him what is his and give him what he 
owns. Charity, on the other hand, joins one 
another in fraternal feelings and insists 
on kindness, mutual help and devotion." 

Dr. Hans Seiye 

The final speaker at the industrial re- 
lations conference was Dr. Hans Selye, Di- 
rector of the Institute of Experimental 
Medicine at the University of Montreal, 



who spoke on "The Stress of Technology 
— Can Man Adjust?" 

He defined stress as the rate of wear 
and tear in the body. The unprecedented 
development of technology in this century 
has created many new sources of stress 
while at the same time largely eliminating 
others such as diseases and malnutrition. 
We must learn to live with our newly 
acquired sources of stress. 



Plenary Conference 



Hon. Donald M. Fleming 

"There is no magic formula for economic 
growth," said Hon. Donald M. Fleming, 
Minister of Finance, whose address on 
"The Contribution of Fiscal Policy to Eco- 
nomic Expansion and Growth" opened the 
plenary conference. He defined economic 
growth as the measure of success in our 
individual and joint efforts to meet the 
economic challenge of the world around us. 

"Everyone in a free society has a role 
to play in the achievement of economic 
growth; and the task cannot be accom- 
plished by one group alone, whether it be 
business, labour, the farmer, or govern- 
ment," he added. 

Among other things, government is ex- 
pected to contribute to economic stability 
by stimulating production and employment 
when the country's economic resources are 
not being fully utilized and, conversely, by 
restraining excesses when the country's 
resources are being pressed beyond their 
limits. 

Fiscal policy is one of the instruments 
available to government for the promotion 
of economic growth. Another is tariff policy. 

Before dealing with fiscal policy, tax 
policy and tariff policy, the Minister re- 
viewed the economic environment in the 
postwar period. 

Since the war, developments that have 
had a strong influence on the Canadian 
economy were hidden for a time during the 
period of shortage of goods and equipment, 
"a period when inflationary forces were 
constantly in the ascendant." During this 
period, Western Europe and Japan rebuilt 
their economies, newly emerging countries 
were attempting to achieve self-sustaining 
economic growth, the pace of scientific and 
technological development accelerated rap- 
idly, the free world dismantled direct con- 
trols on the movement of goods and capital 
and thus has grown much more inter- 
dependent. 

The result has been that competition in 
world markets has become much more 



intense and the need for greater efficiency 
has been forcefully underlined, Mr. Fleming 
said. 

Over the past few years Canada has 
experienced an excess of production facili- 
ties and far less stimulus to develop her 
resource industries. At the same time, Cana- 
dian manufacturing industries met, for the 
first time in several decades, intensified 
international competition. As a result, the 
rate of private investment slowed down and 
the role of investment as a stimulus to 
the economy declined. 

"In this situation," Mr. Fleming said, 
"what is required is a shift of both human 
and material resources into other uses . . . 
Transfers of resources require flexibility in 
the economy and mobility of the labour 
force . . . 

"The skills of our people, the moderniza- 
tion of our industry, the volume and quality 
of our scientific research had to be enhanced 
if we meet the new forces of world com- 
petition and to continue our strong pace of 
economic growth." 

Fiscal Policy 

At a time when various forces are depress- 
ing the level of demand, an expansionary 
fiscal policy can play an important role in 
stimulating production and employment, the 
Minister of Finance continued. When there 
is excess productive capacity and idle man- 
power, deficit budgets can provide a useful 
stimulus and, when appropriately timed, 
encourage higher output, income and sav- 
ings without inflation. 

Fiscal policy alone cannot solve all our 
economic problems; the productive and dis- 
tributive functions of the economy must be 
made more modern, more efficient and more 
flexible. 

The Minister referred to increases in the 
conditional and unconditional grants to 
provinces and municipalities, and in trans- 
fer payments to individuals. A third type 
of federal expenditures, those for acquisi- 
tion of goods and services, have been 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



819 



growing less rapidly, and the growth in the 
number of government employees has 
slowed. 

From the savings achieved, he said, the 
Government has expanded its outlays "on 
programs designed to contribute directly 
to economic growth and development," for 
example, assistance to technical and 
vocational training, contributions to research 
in universities, direct assistance in industrial 
research and development, help in develop- 
ment of the resources of the North, develop- 
ment and expansion of air flight safety 
systems, assistance to ship construction. 

Tax Policy 

Federal tax policies have been designed to 
stimulate the Canadian economy and ensure 
a satisfactory rate of growth, Mr. Fleming 
said. The reduction in the personal income 
tax in 1957 left an additional $146 million 
in the hands of individual taxpayers, and 
this increase in purchasing power "at a 
time when the momentum of the economy 
had slackened" provided an important stim- 
ulus for recovery and renewed growth. 

Adjustments in commodity taxes have 
assisted the economy. Perhaps the most 
important change was the removal of the 
special excise tax on passenger automobiles. 

Canada depends essentially on private 
enterprise to provide new opportunities for 
production and employment. Therefore tax 
measures to stimulate the economy have 
been directed to an important extent toward 
fiscal relief for business enterprises. 

But instead of general capital cost allow- 
ances measures, the Government has in- 
creased allowances in a selective way. One 
area of great promise was the development 
of new products and the increased process- 
ing in Canada of our own natural resources. 
Therefore a program was announced to 
allow double depreciation for one year on 
assets acquired to produce a product new 
to Canada or new to an area designated a 
surplus manpower area. 

Tariff Policy 

The customs tariff is one of the principal 
instruments available to government for 
influencing the course of industrial expan- 
sion and economic growth. "The main- 
tenance of a reasonable level of tariff 
protection for soundly based and efficient 
industries, and the provision of adequate 
safeguards against destructive dumping, are 
essential to a healthy, expanding Canadian 
economy". 

The Minister said it was his view that 
"government policy in respect of tariffs and 
related customs matters should be designed 



to meet the legitimate needs of Canadian 
industry, to protect our producers and work- 
men against certain unfair trading practices, 
and to promote the diversification and 
balanced development of the Canadian 
economy". 

In all tariff negotiations we have adopted 
a selective approach, he explained, and 
have made it clear that we were not pre- 
pared to consider across-the-board reduc- 
tions in tariffs without regard to the impact 
on individual Canadian producers. 

About the deficit on international current 
account, he said such deficits may be appro- 
priate when the capacity of the economy is 
strained, but are unnecessary and undesir- 
able when there are unused resources readily 
available. 

"We need to stimulate our economy 
through the expansion of exports and by 
developing domestic efficiency so that our 
own producers can successfully meet com- 
petition from abroad." 

He said that Canadian manufacturers 
had assured him that under the new stable 
exchange rate they would be producing 
products hitherto imported, and that they 
were planning their purchases in order to 
buy in Canada many components which it 
is now cheaper to produce in Canada. 

Current Economic Situation 

In recent years Canada has experienced 
better economic growth than either Great 
Britain or the United States, Mr. Fleming 
said. "From 1957 to the end of 1961 we 
had greater increases than either of those 
countries in industrial production, exports 
and employment, and our prices increased 
less." 

Employment has increased substantially, 
and in contrast to 1960, when all of the 
gain in employment took place in the service 
industries, much of the increase over the 
past year occurred in manufacturing. Most 
of the increase was in male employment, 
whereas earlier, women had accounted for 
almost all the growth. 

Concluding, the Minister of Finance said 
it was important that the Government follow 
a policy that will promote sound economic 
progress. "It is no less important that 
management and labour should co-operate 
in attaining increasing efficiency in pursuit 
of the objectives of growth and prosperity." 

H. George De Young 

"We are so used to excusing ourselves by 
pointing to small runs that we have not 
really moved to correct this [problem]. We 
have spent so much time talking about the 
competition's advantage that we have not 
looked at ours enough. 



820 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY J 962 



"A large segment of Canadian industry 
can compete now — a larger segment can 
become competitive," said H. George De 
Young, Chairman of the National Produc- 
tivity Council, in an address entitled "Can 
We Meet the Test of the Marketplace?" 

Most countries who are competing with 
Canada are not industrializing on the 
strength of their home market. They are 
doing it on the strength of export markets, 
he pointed out. 

As an example, he mentioned that the 
Japanese cutlery industry has a capacity of 
about 24 million dozen pieces annually but 
the market for cutlery in Japan is 3 million 
dozen pieces. Exports account for more than 
20 million dozen pieces a year. 

"We need more companies and groups of 
companies who attack the problem of 
world competition on a world basis," Mr. 
De Young said. 

Primary industries will not absorb our 
growing labour force. Nor will the service 
industry or government, unless the economy 
grows. It is the manufacturing industry that 
must employ the growing labour force. 

Seven to ten per cent of Canadian indus- 
try is meeting the criteria of the price in 
the market. Our target should be 20 or 30 
per cent of our industry in the optimum 
class, of the right size. 

"Let's take an example of the stove, 
refrigerator and washing machine indus- 
tries, where a market for about 280,000 
units of each exists in Canada — and about 
20 manufacturers are importing parts or 
the entire unit. Why not an optimum sized 
plant to meet the market and export too? 
Why not have 20 marketing companies 
drawing from one or two sources? Can 
American-owned competing subsidiaries 
adjust to the needs of Canada under new 
conditions?" 

People would like a magic formula for 
wage settlements, and hope that a produc- 
tivity formula will be it. "Perhaps it might 
be, if we could agree on the formula . . . 
I have had little hope of finding a magic 
productivity formula." 

A good productivity measure can indicate 
that something needs to be done, and how 
much, to insure continued success in pass- 
ing the final test, meeting the price in the 
market place. To be useful, a Canadian 
productivity measure "must come from an 
accepted unbiased source using factors 
agreed upon by management, labour and 
government." 

Canadian plants can be built under the 
concept of export as a basis of enlarging 
the market. This should be in co-operation 



with Canadian plants having equipment al- 
ready in place so as to avoid duplication. I 
am convinced that it is the way to succeed in 
Canada in the future . . . 

"This sort of co-operation is discouraged 
in Canada, if not because it's illegal, because 
of the fear that it might be. This fear is very 
real and more effective than the law. A clear 
delineation of the rules under which Canada 
is to fight in the competitive game is absolutely 
necessary. We must know whether we are to 
continue to fight each other while we point 
with shame at our statistics, or will we form 
a team and compete for the market under 
rules which give us a chance to win. 

The Canadian Labour Congress, Mr. De 
Young told the meeting, has come out 
definitely for change in laws on combines. 

Remedies have been suggested for our 
industries. Some of them are: planning at 
a government level, labour-management 
communications like those in the European 
Common Market. "I cannot imagine taking 
the Common Market countries' solutions 
directly to Canada. We are spread across 
great distances and are not a series of com- 
pact units. 

"We do not have a unified employers' 
club, nor a unified labour club. We do not 
even have unity in individual unions. 

"We do not have a long history of a 
government interested in manufacturing 
industry as a major economic support." 

At the Kingston conference of manage- 
ment and labour, labour indicated that they 
expect management to sit down with a 
unified voice and discuss the new conditions 
and work for solutions. "Well, managers 
and employers, who will speak for you?" 

We have in common with labour and the 
Government the goals of achieving eco- 
nomic growth, maintaining price stability, 
establishment of optimum sized industry, 
establishment of communications and co- 
operation, so as to compete in world and 
domestic markets under liberalized condi- 
tions, Mr. De Young said. 

In the establishment of communications we, 
as managers, must get on discussing terms with 
each other and with the representatives of 
labour. This cannot be delegated. We should 
include labour representatives in the many 
conferences held in Canada now exclusively 
for management. Someday we must study 
economics from the same book. If you wish 
to set the national economic climate for 
negotiations it must be done through regular 
communications by top people. It will not 
be done by rugged individuals or their per- 
sonnel men at 1,000 separate wage negotia- 
tions. 

We must develop two new types of senior 
leaders, Mr. De Young thought. The two: 
management men and labour men who can 
discuss and build together. "We have plenty 
in both ranks who can fight each other. 
Let's get some who can fight together." 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



821 



John de M. Marler, Q.C. 

John de M. Marler, Q.C, Chairman of 
the Board of Governors of the Canadian 
Tax Foundation, examined the nature and 
weight of taxation in Canada and the need 
for basic changes "if we are to achieve a 
satisfactory rate of economic progress and 
development." 

The weighty Canadian tax structure is 
said to inhibit growth by reducing savings, 
by discouraging risk and by blotting out 
incentive. It has been said to also cause all 
current economic difficulties, including un- 
employment, idle plant capacity and lower 
productivity. 

And it has been said that high rates of 
income tax prevent the accumulation in 
private hands of even modest wealth and 
therefore deprive Canadians of most of the 
opportunity they should have of investing 
in the growth and development of their 
country. 

In connection with calls for general 
reform of the tax structure, certain observa- 
tions must be made, Mr. Marler said. First, 
charges of excessive taxes fail to take into 
account the benefits derived by the people 
from the Government's spending of the 
money yielded by those taxes. Second, the 
fact that any tax system is nothing more 
than the means of raising the money re- 
quired for the type of government wanted 
by the people is often overlooked. 

"It seems to me that it will be exceedingly 
difficult, if not impossible, to lighten the 
total tax burden," he said. But the total tax 
burden can be redistributed in such a way 
that it will no longer deter productivity, 
investment and consumption, and extinguish 
the rewards of effort. 

He then explained two methods of redis- 
tributing the tax burden: the tax incentive 
approach and the broader tax base approach. 

Two forms of tax incentive are: (1) the 
investment reserve allowance, which per- 
mits the taxpayer to set aside a percentage 
of income in an investment reserve, the 
whole of which is deductible in determining 
taxable income; and (2) the depreciation in- 
vestment allowance, which permits a tax- 
payer to deduct through depreciation an 
amount in excess of the cost of the depreci- 
able capital asset. 

The tax incentive approach can be criti- 
cized because, in the beginning at least, 
it increases the tax burden on all who 
cannot qualify for the incentive relief. 

The broader tax base approach seeks 
major increases in the tax base in order to 



permit reduction of tax rates without di- 
minishing the total yield of the tax. The 
granting of exemptions and deductions 
under the Canadian income tax has greatly 
narrowed the tax base. To broaden the 
Canadian tax base would mean cancellation 
of most of the exemptions and deductions; 
this would be politically difficult. 

But application of the broader tax base 
approach to the sales tax might not be 
so controversial. One obvious way of 
broadening the base would be to revise the 
list of non-taxable articles in order to 
recapture most of them for taxing. Another 
way would be to extend it to services. 

Mr. Marler said he preferred the broader 
tax base approach to tax reform. 

He was convinced of two things: (1) it 
is an exceedingly difficult task to reform 
a tax system, and (2) there is a wealth of 
material available for any study of taxes 
and tax reform. It was his hope that such 
a study would be undertaken for the gov- 
ernments of the country by the most intel- 
ligent and skilled professional experts that 
can be found. 

J. A. Fuller 

In time of war, business, government 
and labour joined together and accomplished 
their objectives with zeal, fervour and faith, 
but today this faith in our system seems to 
have withered. "Today, in North America, 
business, government and labour are at 
odds when all should be working together 
to keep our countries strong and prosperous," 
said J. A. Fuller, Chairman of the Sha- 
winigan Water and Power Company. 

The "image" of the competitive free en- 
terprise system is poor, he said. The public 
does not fully understand the workings and 
advantages of the free enterprise system. 

Discussing some of the problems facing 
the free enterprise system, he said the 
foremost problem was to do its part in 
working with government and labour to 
produce the optimum benefits for the econ- 
omy. 

"Whether we like it or not, government 
is a partner, and the interests of manage- 
ment and labour are mutual, even if they 
rarely appear to be so on the surface." 

The radical changes in the trading posi- 
tions of both Canada and the United States 
arising out of the establishment of the 
European Common Market would inevit- 
ably force greater co-operation between 
business, government and labour, he thought. 



822 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY J962 



Other Conferences 



Public Relations Conference 

At the public relations conference of the 
CMA annual meeting, speaking on "The 
Producer and Private Enterprise," Leonard 
Hynes, President of Canadian Industries 
Limited, Montreal, observed: "To a large 
extent, the old battle-cry of "private enter- 
prise versus state control" is no longer 
relevant. We live today in what is called 
a mixed society, a blend of private enter- 
prise and state direction, participation and 
control. 

"We are vitally concerned with the mix, 
however. Government today is expected to 
be the promoter of national aspirations — 
commercial as well as cultural — and to 
perpetuate the climate in which such aspira- 
tions thrive." 

Frederick G. Gardiner, Q.C., former 
Chairman of Metropolitan Toronto, dealing 
with "Government and Private Enterprise," 
said that economic events on this continent 
during the past 29 years had proved that 
the planning of government and its under- 
taking to manage the national economy had 
not resulted in full employment, except for 
a few years of war. 

"It would now appear that the Keynesian 
theories were wrong in the first place and 
that redistribution of income by taking it 
from the 'haves' and giving it to the 'have 
nots' has not solved our problems. We have 
made the fatal mistake of believing that 
spreading the wealth is the same thing as 
creating wealth." 

He said that it was at last obvious that 
wages of workers, the prosperity of industry, 
and the economic growth of the country are 
all related to the amount of capital invested 
for the purpose of modernizing and extend- 
ing plants, machines and techniques of pro- 
duction. The only source of capital is the 
profits of successful enterprises, and per- 
sistent unemployment is "evidence of the 
steady erosion of the attractiveness of invest- 
ment," Mr. Gardiner asserted. 

"A continuation of the cold war, the 
establishment of the European Common 
Market, the probable entry of the U.K. into 
the European Common Market and the 
U.S. tariff changes will have an enormous 
impact on Canada's future. In this aspect 
of the situation, business, labour and govern- 
ment — all have an important role to play," 
he stated. 

Dr. William H. Peterson, Associate Pro- 
fessor of Economics, Graduate School of 
Business Administration, New York Uni- 
versity, spoke on the topic, "Why Apologize 
for Enterprise?" 



"My thesis is simple: no entrepreneurs, no 
progress; and no business growth — especially 
no corporate growth — then no economic 
growth," he said. 

Capital formation is virtually the sole 
determinant of economic growth and hence 
of the national welfare. "Thus, greater 
capital equals greater wages and job oppor- 
tunities." 

"The critical shortage in the under- 
developed world is not of planners and 
bureaucrats — it is short of businessmen, 
entrepreneurs, and homegrown capitalists." 

He concluded his address by saying that 
the businessman's job was a thankless one, 
and that perhaps some day he would be 
given recognition by the observance of a 
Business Day in the way that Labour Day 
is now celebrated. 

Taxation Conference 

Speaking on "Lessons from European 
Taxation" at the taxation conference, John 
G. McDonald, Q.C., of McDonald, Davies 
& Ward, Toronto, first observed that taxa- 
tion is only one factor in economic policy, 
and "that a revival of Canadian expansion 
and growth cannot be achieved simply by 
saying 'open sesame' with tax changes." 

Canadian income taxes undoubtedly have 
an inflationary effect on product prices, he 
said, and a selective reduction of tax rates 
would probably stimulate business. 

Favourable tax laws as an incentive to 
the manufacturing industry have long been 
recognized in several European Countries, 
Mr. McDonald pointed out, in reviewing 
taxation policies of various countries. Coun- 
tries offering such tax incentives "not only 
want expanding employment opportunity — 
they want to increase skilled occupations to 
build their prosperity." 

Stating that our unemployment problem 
can be solved only by conscious stimulation 
of secondary industry, Mr. McDonald sug- 
gested such tax reforms as: reduced tax 
rates for export profits; generous allow- 
ances for plant construction or moderniza- 
tion; tax exemption of manufacturing divi- 
dends and interest; and permanent tax 
reduction for increased sales, using 1961-62 
as a base year. The Government was pro- 
viding some alleviation, but this was not 
enough, he said. 

The federal Government's main concern 
should be to promote manufacturing in 
Canada, to "make manufacturing in Canada 
pay more than manufacturing behind the 
EEC tariff wall, and make Canada a tax 
shelter to match the best in Europe," the 
speaker contended. In conclusion, he stated: 
"It seems clear, however, that a Canadian 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



823 



manufacturer can arrange, under current 
law, to produce and sell his product in 
Europe at an over-all tax cost much below 
the Canadian equivalent." 

"Taxes — a Trick or a Treat?" was the 
topic of an address by Trevor F. Moore, 
Vice-President and Director, Imperial Oil 
Limited, Toronto. He stated that a brief 
comparison of European and Canadian cor- 
poration tax policies "is rather dangerous 



because of the variety of qualifications that 
arise." For example, some European coun- 
tries levy tax on "increased net worth" 
rather than "net income." 

Most of the specially developed European 
tax policies are obviously designed to serve 
some particular objective, said Mr. Moore, 
also pointing out that European countries 
place greater reliance than we do on the 
turnover or consumption type of tax. 



Industrial Fatalities in Canada 

during the First Quarter of 1962 

Deaths from industrial accidents numbered 174 during first quarter of 1962 f 
a decrease of 100 from previous quarter and of 76 from same quarter of 1961 



There were 174* industrial fatalities in 
Canada during the first quarter of 1962, 
according to the latest reports received by 
the Department of Labour. This is a de- 
crease of 100 from the previous quarter, in 
which 274 were recorded, including 39 in a 
supplementary list. In the first quarter of 
the previous year, 250 fatalities were re- 
corded. 

During the quarter under review, one 
accident resulted in the deaths of three or 
more persons. On January 16, eight em- 
ployees of a pipeline company died in the 
explosion of a line that was being purged 
by a test crew. This accident occurred 45 
miles north of Edson, Alta. 

Grouped by industries (see chart page 
825), the largest number of fatalities 
occurred in mining and manufacturing, each 
accounting for 31. 

In the mining industry, of the 31 fatali- 
ties recorded, 20 were in metal mining, 6 
in non-metallic mineral mining and 5 in 
coal mining. For the same period of the 
previous year, 26 fatalities were recorded: 
18 in metal mining, 6 in non-metallic 
mineral mining and 2 in coal mining. During 
the 1961 fourth quarter, 33 fatalities were 
listed: 19 in metal mining, 8 in non-metallic 
mineral mining and 6 in coal mining. 

In the manufacturing industry, 31 fatali- 
ties also were reported: 9 of those were in 
wood products, 4 in iron and steel products, 



* See Tables H-l and H-2 at back of book. The 
number of fatalities that occurred during the first 
quarter of 1962 is probably greater than the figures 
now quoted. Information on accidents that occur 
but are not reported in time for inclusion in the 
quarterly articles is recorded in supplementary lists 
and statistics are amended accordingly. The figures 
shown include 35 fatalities for which no reports have 
been received. 



4 in transportation equipment, 3 in food and 
beverages and 3 in textile products. During 
the first quarter of 1961, 36 fatalities were 
recorded: 8 in wood products, 8 in iron and 
steel products, 5 in non-ferrous metal prod- 
ucts, 3 in food and beverages, 3 in trans- 
portation equipment and 3 likewise in non- 
metallic mineral products. During the fourth 
quarter of 1961, 41 employees lost their 
lives in the manufacturing industry. Eleven 
died in wood products manufacturing, 5 in 
food products, 5 in iron and steel products, 

5 in transportation equipment, 4 in paper 
products, 3 in non-metallic mineral prod- 
ucts and 3 in miscellaneous manufacturing 
industries. 



The industrial fatalities recorded in these 
quarterly articles, prepared by the Work- 
ing Conditions and Social Analysis Section 
of the Economics and Research Branch, 
are those fatal accidents that involved per- 
sons gainfully employed and that occurred 
during the course of, or arose out of, 
their employment. These include deaths 
that resulted from industrial diseases as 
reported by the Workmen's Compensation 
Boards. 

Statistics on industrial fatalities are com- 
piled from reports received from the 
various Workmen's Compensation Boards, 
the Board of Transport Commissioners and 
certain other official sources. Newspaper 
reports are used to supplement these data. 
For those industries not covered by work- 
men's compensation legislation, newspaper 
reports are the Department's only source of 
information. It is possible, therefore, that 
coverage in such industries as agriculture, 
fishing and trapping and certain of the 
service groups is not as complete as in 
those industries that are covered by com- 
pensation legislation. Similarly, a small 
number of traffic accidents that are in 
fact industrial may be omitted from the 
Department's records because of lack of 
information in press reports. 



824 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES IN CANADA 
First quarter of 1962 



90 100 



Mining and Quarrying 
Manufacturing 

Transportation, Storage 
and Communication 




Struck by Machinery, 
Moving Vehicles, etc. 



Collisions, Derailments, 
Wrecks, etc. 
Conflagrations, Temperature 
Extremes and Explosions 
Caught In, On or Between 
Machinery, Vehicles, etc. 
Inhalations, Absorptions, Asphyx- 
iation and Industrial Diseases 

Over- Exertion 

Miscellaneous Accidents 

Electric Current 



BY CAUSE 



Striking Against or 
Stepping on Objects 



SOURCE: ECONOMICS AND RESEARCH BRANCH, DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



825 



There were 30 fatalities in the transpor- 
tation, storage and communications industry 
during the quarter: 15 of these were in 
local and highway transportation, 11 in 
railway transportation, 3 in water trans- 
portation and 1 in air transportation. Fatali- 
ties recorded for the same period in 1961 
numbered 40, of which 19 were in local 
and highway transportation, 9 in water 
transportation, 8 in railway transportation, 3 
in telegraphs and telephones and 1 in street 
and electric railways. During the last quar- 
ter of the previous year, 41 persons were 
killed in this industry: 16 in railway trans- 
portation, 11 in local and highway trans- 
portation, 8 in water transportation, 3 in 
air transportation, 2 in storage and 1 in 
telegraphs and telephones. 

In the construction industry, 27 persons 
lost their lives during the quarter. Of these, 
10 were in buildings and structures, 4 in 
highways and bridges and 13 in miscel- 
laneous construction. For the same period 
of the previous year, 35 fatalities were 
reported: 25 in buildings and structures, 5 
in highways and bridges and 5 in miscel- 
laneous construction. Accidents during the 
fourth quarter of 1961 resulted in 62 
deaths: 22 in buildings and structures, 15 
in highways and bridges and 25 in miscel- 
laneous construction. 

The 19 fatalities in logging during the 
quarter represented a substantial decrease in 
comparison with the 34 fatalities recorded 



during the same period of the previous year 
and the 27 fatalities reported in the last 
quarter of 1961. 

An analysis of the 174 fatalities during 
the first quarter of 1962 (see chart page 
000) shows that 52 (30 per cent) were 
caused by being "struck by" different 
objects: 41 were in the category "other 
objects," 7 were caused by "moving vehicles" 
and 4 were the result of being struck by 
"tools, machinery, cranes, etc." Thirty-six 
fatalities were caused by "falls and slips," 
all but 3 of these by falls to different levels. 

Twenty-four fatalities were under the 
heading "collisions, derailments, wrecks, 
etc."; 16 involved automobiles and trucks, 
4 involved tractors and loadmobiles, 3 
involved aircraft and 1 involved mine and 
quarry cars. Seventeen fatalities were caused 
by being "caught in, on or between." Of 
these, 5 involved tractors and loadmobiles, 
4 involved machinery, 4 involved hoisting 
or conveying apparatus, 2 involved auto- 
mobiles and trucks, 1 involved trains and 
other railway vehicles and 1 involved mis- 
cellaneous objects. 

By province of occurrence, the largest 
number of fatalities, 67, occurred in On- 
tario. This was followed by British Columbia 
with 32 fatalities, Alberta with 29 and 
Quebec with 15. 

During the quarter under review, there 
were 76 fatalities in January, 46 in Feb- 
ruary and 52 in March. 



British Conference Delves Into Automation, Computation 



The rapid development of automation 
and computation, both closely related tech- 
nologies, will have a wide impact on tech- 
nical, economic and social aspects of life 
in Britain. It will also lead to big changes 
in the occupational structure of the labour 
force. 

These forecasts are made in a memoran- 
dum by the British Conference on Auto- 
mation and Computation to a Government 
committee on higher education. 

The BCAC is a newly created body con- 
cerned with all aspects of automation. 
British trade unions are represented on it 
by the Trades Union Congress, which is 
taking an Active part in this research and 
is stressing the importance of gearing educa- 
tion to these modern trends. 

"The impact of these developments will 
be increasingly felt in every corner of 
industrial, commercial and social life," 
stated the Conference, adding the warning 
that "the future of industrially developed 



nations will depend much on their readi- 
ness and ability to exploit the new tech- 
niques which are becoming available." 

The memorandum gave details on some 
of the demands that the development of 
automation will bring in its wake. It pointed 
out the shortage of advanced technicians 
required to maintain complex computer 
and automation equipment, and recom- 
mended the "block release" system to pro- 
vide the necessary training. 

This system combines practical instruc- 
tion in the plant with an annual "block" 
period of theoretical education at a tech- 
nical college. This release system contrasts 
with the more common one of one day a 
week at school and the remainder of the 
week at the plant. 

The memorandum stressed the shifts in 
the labour force due to automation "The 
proportion of less-skilled manual and white- 
collar tasks will be greatly reduced while 
the proportion of professional and of highly 
skilled maintenance tasks will rise." 



826 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY J962 



Civilian Rehabilitation 



International Activities in Rehabilitation 

U.N. provides technical assistance, supplies information, assists in training 
of rehabilitation personnel, and co-operates in programs of other world bodies 
ILO sends experts, grants scholarships, supplies equipment, helps with training 



A recent issue of the International Re- 
habilitation Review highlights the many 
activities of international bodies that are 
interested in the problems of the disabled 
and are actively supporting efforts to extend 
rehabilitation services to all countries. 

The United Nations encourages the 
development of services for the disabled 
through the provision of technical assistance 
to governments when requested, assists in 
arranging conferences and seminars and 
gives aid in training of rehabilitation per- 
sonnel. The United Nations also publishes 
information on rehabilitation and carries 
out studies from time to time into various 
problems and aspects of providing ade- 
quate services for the handicapped. 

At the present time, a study into "the 
Legislative and Administrative Aspects of 
Rehabilitation Programs in Selected Coun- 
tries" has just been carried out. Canada is 
one of the countries participating in this 
study. 

The United Nations program conforms to 
the precepts laid out in the 1950 resolution 
of the Economic and Social Council that 
says "plan jointly with the specialized 
agencies, in consultation with the interested 
non-governmental organizations, a well co- 
ordinated programme for the rehabilitation 
of physically handicapped persons." 

The United Nations has assisted with 
many programs that have also been aided by 
the World Health Organization (WHO), the 
International Labour Organization (ILO) 
and the United Nations Children's Fund 
(UNICEF). The United Nations co-operates 
also with the International Society for the 
Rehabilitation of the Disabled. 

Twenty-seven non-governmental organi- 
zations have come together in the Con- 
ference of World Organizations Interested 
in the Handicapped (CWOIH). This group 
joins with the United Nations in planning 
programs for the disabled. 

ILO Activities in Rehabilitation — The 

International Labour Organization and the 
International Society for the Rehabilitation 
of the Disabled co-operated closely in en- 
couraging the development of services for 
the disabled throughout the world. During 



recent years the ILO has given assistance to 
23 countries in this respect. 

The ILO assists by sending experts to 
advise on the establishment and develop- 
ment of services, grants scholarships or 
fellowships to permit rehabilitation per- 
sonnel to study in other countries, supplies 
equipment and helps with training courses 
and seminars. 

During 1960 and 1961, ILO experts were 
supplied to a number of countries to advise 
on the development of rehabilitation serv- 
ices. Argentine received such assistance in 
setting up a national vocational rehabilita- 
tion program and a pilot vocational reha- 
bilitation centre. Ethiopia received assistance 
in investigating problems of blindness and 
other disabilities, and advice on ways of 
developing rehabilitation, training, placement 
and other facilities. 

In Pakistan also, an ILO expert was 
provided to help in developing rehabilitation 
services, and in Portugal, another pilot pro- 
ject was established and assistance given in 
developing rehabilitation services for the 
blind. Experts were also provided to Viet- 
nam and Thailand for similar purposes. 

During this same period, fellowships were 
awarded to personnel from the following 
countries: Brazil, Ceylon, Greece, Indonesia, 
Philippines, Poland, Tunisia and Yugoslavia. 
These people are thus enabled to travel 
to other countries to study and observe 
rehabilitation programs. Countries to which 
they go include: United States and Canada, 
United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Poland, 
Norway and the Federal Republic of Ger- 
many. 

Forty Years Service to the Disabled. The 
International Society for Rehabilitation of 
the Disabled in 1961 celebrated the 40th 
anniversary of its founding. Originally 
known as the International Society for 
Crippled Children, it has twice changed 
its name. In 1939 it became known as 
The International Society for the Welfare 
of Cripples, but in 1960 adopted its present 
name as a reflection of the broadening of 
its interests and of a more dynamic ap- 
proach to the problems of disabled individ- 
uals. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



827 



Older Workers 



Aging and the Economy 



Impact of aging on the economy examined in detail at University of Michigan's 
15th Annual Conference on Aging. Participants included delegates from Canada 



The impact of aging on the economy was 
examined in considerable detail at the 
University of Michigan's 15th Annual Con- 
ference on Aging, at Ann Arbor, Mich., 
last month. Delegates attended from all 
parts of the United States including Hawaii, 
and from Canada. 

The conference was designed to: achieve 
understanding of the relationship of national 
income and wealth to the capacity to sup- 
port an expanding older population; examine 
the work rules of older people in the light 
of the rising population, national security, 
and trends in productivity; evaluate current 
methods and adequacy of supporting the 
retired population and to consider probable 
and desirable trends; study expenditure pat- 
terns and needs of older people in relation 
to varying circumstances and styles of life. 

Among the topics discussed were retrain- 
ing and counselling of mature workers, the 
impact of pension plans, rehabilitation of 
disabled workers, industrial and business 
practices, community planning and pro- 
grams, collective bargaining and several 
other related subjects. 

Many questions of interest to Canadians 
were brought up, such as: 

— To what extent is the cost of living 
less for older persons than for younger 
ones? 

— Should retirement income equal about 
three-quarters of pre-retirement income to 
be reasonable? 

— Should older people have income 
enough to live independently or (a) should 
relatives provide for them, or (b) should 
relatives be required to provide for them? 

— Should employment be encouraged to 
augment pension income? 

Speaking on the subject, "Projections in 
Employment of Middle-Aged and Older 
Workers," Dr. Margaret S. Gordon, of the 
University of California, stressed the need 
for employers and community agencies to 
place more emphasis on continuing educa- 
tion and retraining. She pointed out that 
older workers could often be retrained for 
service occupations when they could not 
qualify for programs aimed at preparing 
displaced workers for skilled jobs. 

Charles R. Sligh, Jr., Executive Vice- 
President of the National Association of 
Manufacturers, warned against putting an 
excess burden on an economy by increasing 
taxes to support a large public assistance 



program. He suggested that a national policy 
should preclude the imposition of programs 
for the supposed benefit of the aged that 
had such burdensome costs that they pre- 
vented citizens from providing for their 
own old age. Instead he endorsed private 
solutions such as pension plans. 

Rev. Paul P. Harbrecht, S.J., Project 
Director, The Twentieth Century Fund, 
Washington, D.C., speaking on the economic 
power of pension funds, suggested that a 
proportion of the capital created by pension 
funds be used for the benefit of the aging 
through such means as housing projects and 
institutions. 

From retirement data and discussion on 
the subject it appeared that definite plans 
for retirement were closely associated with 
education, occupation, and race. Those with 
college educations often planned earlier 
retirement than those who had not com- 
pleted high school. Farmers reported sig- 
nificantly fewer plans to retire than did 
others. This lack of retirement plans may 
stem from farmers' self-employed status, 
their general exclusion from compulsory 
retirement programs, and their irregular 
hours of work. 

A survey had shown that those with plans 
to retire were much more likely to state 
that they would be able to get along finan- 
cially during the retirement years than those 
who said that they were uncertain or would 
never retire. Four out of five of those who 
planned to retire before age 65 expected to 
be able to get along financially during retire- 
ment. Those who planned to retire between 
ages 65 and 70 were only slightly less 
optimistic. Among those who did not plan 
to retire or were uncertain about it, only 
56 per cent thought they would be able to 
manage financially. 

Although the data concerning retirement 
plans was taken from surveys made in the 
United States, it is quite probable that 
similar attitudes prevail in Canada. 

Many delegates favoured the idea of 
encouraging people to work either full time 
or part time beyond normal retirement 
ages. Apart from the necessity in many 
cases of augmenting insufficient retirement 
income, continued activity was often con- 
ducive to mental and physical health, it 
was argued. At the same time the right of 
the individual to retire at an age he con- 
sidered suitable was upheld. 



828 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



Women's Bureau 



Day Care for Children of Working Mothers 

International Children's Centre submits to United Nations Commission on 
the Status of Women its recommendations concerning day nurseries. They 
deal with staff, licensing, enrolment, health care and accident prevention 



A report on creches and day nurseries 
from the International Children's Centre 
was among the documents submitted this 
year to the United Nations Commission on 
the Status of Women. The Centre is main- 
tained by the Government of France in 
co-operation with UNICEF to train persons 
from various agencies and geographical 
regions in the varied aspects of child care. 

The report includes the findings of a 
seminar held in Paris under the auspices 
of the Centre in December 1960. Present 
were people from various disciplines con- 
cerned with child care: doctors, social work- 
ers, psychologists and educators. They had 
come from 25 countries in North and South 
America, Europe, Africa and the Middle 
East. A summary of their main conclusions 
follows. 

Definition — The agreed definition of a 
creche or day nursery was "an establish- 
ment set up for the purpose of taking care 
of healthy children of less than three years 
of age while their mothers are at work." 

A child should not be entrusted to creche 
control until it is at least three months old; 
the mother herself should care for her child 
at this early age and receive an allowance 
to compensate her for loss of earnings. Day 
care in kindergartens should be available 
for children after the age of three. 

Staff — The staff of a creche should 
include a supervisor who is a specialist in 
child care, a nurse, at least one assistant for 
every five children who cannot walk, and 
one assistant for every eight older children. 
A pediatrician should be attached to the 
creche and a psychologist available for con- 
sultation. A cook, a cleaning woman, a 
laundress and a janitor are required for 
essential services. 

The training program for the assistants 
should include theoretical instruction in 
child care, child psychology and practical 
work with children. Regular discussions with 
the supervisor should be a part of con- 
tinuing education for the assistants. 

Licensing — Minimum standards with re- 
spect to physical aspects of the premises, 
number and qualifications of staff, and 
medical examination of the children should 
be prescribed by law. Creches must be 
licensed and be under the supervision of 
the health authorities. 



Enrolment — Before a child is admitted, 
the home is visited by the creche nurse. The 
creche pediatrician is required to give each 
child a medical examination and any neces- 
sary inoculations. 

Health care and accident prevention — 

Each day on their arrival at the creche 
the nurse is required to examine the children 
to see if they are in good health. To cope 
with slight ailments the creche should have 
one or two isolation rooms available. The 
mother should not be forced either to stop 
work in unexpected and inconvenient cir- 
cumstances or to send her child to a hospital 
for a slight and passing complaint. 

"Taking a calculated risk, within limits, 
is part of the intellectual and emotional 
development of every normal child. The 
fear of accidents should not develop into 
a fear psychosis." 

Accident prevention should take three 
forms: (1) Adaptation of equipment and 
premises to eliminate accident risks. (2) 
Education of the staff, and detection of 
undiscovered pathological conditions in the 
children. (3) Education of the children. 

Broad aims — The creche should be more 
than a temporary shelter for the child. It 
should provide the most favourable con- 
ditions for his progress, physically, intellec- 
tually and emotionally. The child should 
not suffer because of his mother's absence. 

The creche has an educational function 
in relation to the child's parents. For exam- 
ple, parents' committees have been formed 
to organize social and educational evenings. 
Sometimes staff of the creche have spon- 
sored showings of films on child care and 
development, followed by discussion periods. 

Such meetings have been found a useful 
means of giving parents a better understand- 
ing of the role of the creche. They have 
also fostered co-operation between parents 
and the staff. They have helped to establish 
continuity in attitudes as between the family 
and the creche toward such problems as 
feeding, toilet training and display of emo- 
tions, and have enabled parents to rid 
themselves of feelings of guilt and to adopt 
a more relaxed attitude once they found 
that they had the same problems as many 
other families. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



829 



INTERNATIONAL 
LABOUR ORGANIZATION 



46th International Labour Conference 

Head of Canadian delegation and Canadian Worker Delegate address Conference 
during debate on ILO Director-General's Report. Two of twenty resolutions on 
matters not on agenda are submitted by Canadian delegates. Session continues 



The 46th Session of the International 
Labour Conference opened in Geneva on 
June 6, with about 360 delegates and 630 
advisers in attendance, representing 92 of 
the 102 member countries of the ILO. Five 
countries were represented by observer 
delegations, and one by an observer. The 
Conference was expected to last until 
June 28. 

John Lynch, Irish Minister for Industry 
and Commerce, was elected President of 
the Conference. 

The head of the Canadian delegation and 
the Canadian Worker Delegate have spoken 
in the debate on the ILO Director-General's 
report, the first item on the agenda. (For 
the composition of the Canadian delegation 
and the agenda of the Conference, see 
L.G., June, p. 650.) 

George V. Haythorne 

There has been too great a tendency to 
consider the problems of older workers as 
separate and distinct from "larger issues 
facing us in the employment and man- 
power field," said George V. Haythorne, 
Deputy Minister of Labour, who is head 
of the Canadian delegation and Govern- 
ment Delegate. Speaking in the debate on 
the Director-General's report, he suggested 
that the concerns of older workers should 
rather be treated as "a continuous series of 
problems facing us throughout life". 

The "winds of change," he admitted, 
cause more serious disturbance in the lives 
of older people than in those of the young. 
He went on to speak of the need for em- 
ployers, unions and governments to keep 
a watch over the industrial changes that 
are continually taking place. This would 
"provide advance warnings of those shifts 
which are bound to have repercussions in 
industrial organizations for members of 
their work force." 

He said that the responsibility for mak- 
ing such assessments rested with the em- 
ployers, but that the support and co-opera- 



tion of the unions was also essential, and 
that governments had an important part 
to play. 

Practical programs for dealing with the 
effects of technological change on employ- 
ment included training and retraining, voca- 
tional rehabilitation, and measures to im- 
prove labour mobility. Here again the main 
responsibility for action rested with indus- 
try, particularly the employers, though the 
active support of the workers was needed 
and governments must provide efficient em- 
ployment placement services and do their 
part in developing and co-ordinating train- 
ing and rehabilitation programs. 

"What is needed is a positive attack on 
the problem of training for older, as well 
as younger, workers," Mr. Haythorne said. 

Dealing particularly with older workers, 
he said that there were three fields in which 
research and action were needed in Canada. 
The first was the removal or reduction of 
disabilities facing older workers, the second 
the performance of older workers compared 
with younger workers, and the third the 
encouragement of creative types of employ- 
ment for our senior citizens. 

The first two of these were of especial 
concern to those older workers who were 
still some years away from retirement. 
The third was of concern to both, but 
especially to those who had already retired 
or were about to do so. 

Regarding performance at work, studies 
made in a number of countries, Mr. Hay- 
thorne said, had clearly shown that older 
workers compared favourably with younger 
ones. As more evidence of this accumulated 
the attitudes of employers would change, 
"and, what is even more important, atti- 
tudes of older workers toward their own 
abilities and limitations will change." 

Creative employment for older workers, 
the Deputy Minister said, was closely con- 
nected with the question of retirement. In 
Canada, the attitude toward retirement had 
of late years become more flexible. "The 



830 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



earlier concept of a fixed and arbitrary 
date for retirement is giving way to a 
recognition that workers, after they reach 
a specified age, usually in their sixties, 
should be entitled either to retire and draw 
a pension that will provide financial security, 
or to continue to work if this fits in appro- 
priately with the total needs of the estab- 
lishment and their capabilities." 

Another matter of importance to older 
workers was that of industrial pension 
arrangements, and improvements were being 
made in those arrangements that were 
helping to remove financial worries after 
retirement. 

The ILO could do much to further the 
kind of activities he had been talking about, 
Mr. Haythorne said, by giving encourage- 
ment and by facilitating the exchange of 
information between member countries. 

Joseph Morris 

"1 suomit to you that the most effective 
answer we can find to the employment 
problem of the older worker is an economy 
of full employment," said Joseph Morris, 
Canadian Worker Delegate, during the 
debate on the Director-General's report. 

High unemployment means trouble for 
the older worker in finding a job; on the 
other hand, when the demand for labour is 
good "the older worker is as much in 
demand on the labour market as any other 
worker," Mr. Morris pointed out. 

He agreed with the remark of the 
Director-General in the section of his report 
on "Age of Retirement and Pensionable 
Age," that "ideally, perhaps, the pension- 
able age should be fixed individually in 
each case . . ." 

But he disagreed with the qualification 
which followed that "this is hardly pos- 
sible — at least today — under a general social 
insurance scheme." 

He contended that it was "essential that 
the retirement age should be fixed in- 
dividually in each case," adding that "we 
must bend our efforts to develop a yard- 
stick more realistic than what the calendar 
provides." 

The Canadian Worker Delegate insisted 
on the need for adequate pensions, and 
said that in Canada many workers still do 
not enjoy the protection of a pension plan, 
while in other cases the pension is insuf- 
ficient. 

A great deal of research and experiment 
would be required before positive solutions 
would be found to the problems of retired 
people, he said. He suggested that the ILO 
could play a decisive role in this matter, 
"as well as in the fulfilment of its tradi- 
tional task, that of bringing up to date the 



standards which it has adopted in previous 
years as well as formulating new ones." 

Earlier in his address, Mr. Morris, 
referring to the Director-General's state- 
ment that "full, productive and freely chosen 
employment" should be a prime objective, 
had said that the workers of Canada con- 
sidered this "a first priority in our con- 
tinuous efforts to bring about a better life 
for the people of Canada." 

The work of the ILO in promoting 
freedom of association and the abolition 
of forced labour should be strengthened, 
Mr. Morris said. In spite of the valuable 
work done by the Committee on Freedom 
of Association of the Governing Body of 
the ILO, that work suffered at times from 
undue delays and from lack of publicity. 
"Some of the complaints take many years 
to process and by the time the Committee 
reaches a decision on them they are often 
of little practical significance," he remarked. 

As a step toward eliminating these weak- 
nesses, the Canadian delegation was sub- 
mitting a resolution concerning extension 
of the procedure of the Committee on 
Freedom of Association. "This resolution 
would give the Committee authority to 
conduct on-the-spot investigations whenever 
it is unable to reach a decision on the basis 
of written and oral evidence submitted 
during its sessions in Geneva. When adopted 
and implemented, this resolution should 
help to strengthen the machinery which the 
ILO has been developing in the field of 
human rights and trade union freedoms," 
Mr. Morris said. 

He commended the ILO for the progress 
it had made during the past year in expand- 
ing its program of operational activities. 
Full support for the work of the ILO in 
regard to co-operatives was expressed by 
Mr. Morris. He suggested that Canadian 
experience in National Labour Co-operative 
Committee might be useful to many other 
countries. 

Canadian Resolutions 

Among the 20 draft resolutions concern- 
ing matters not on the agenda, two were 
submitted by Canadian delegates, one by 
George V. Haythorne, Government Dele- 
gate, and one by Joseph Morris, Worker 
Delegate. 

The resolution submitted by Mr. Hay- 
thorne concerned the strengthening of re- 
search in the labour field. It invited the 
Governing Body to consider the need for 
reallocating and strengthening its research 
resources, and requested member states 
to strengthen their own research in the 
labour field, to co-operate readily with the 
ILO in supplying information in connection 
with approved studies, to allow field mis- 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



831 



sions of the ILO to make investigations on 
the spot, and to encourage the free ex- 
change of information on labour matters. 

It also urged member states and em- 
ployers' and workers' organizations to en- 
courage universities and other institutions 
to extend their activities in training suitable 
students in labour economics and related 
fields of social science, through scholar- 
ships and research grants and in other 
ways. 

The resolution submitted by Mr. Morris 
invited the Governing Body to consider an 
extension of the established procedure con- 
cerning the Committee on Freedom of 
Association that would allow the Com- 
mittee, in cases where it believed that a 
complaint had been substantiated but that 
more evidence was required, to ask a 
government to invite the Committee's 
representatives to make an investigation on 
the spot. 

Director-General's Report 

"Much of the ILO's work in the course 
of 1961, as in recent years, has been directed 
toward social and economic development 
needs and the implications of technical 
progress". 

With these words David A. Morse, 
Director-General of the International La- 
bour Office, introduces the second part of 
his Report to the 46th Session of the Inter- 
national Labour Conference. Part I of the 
Report concerns "Older People — Work and 
Retirement" (L.G., June, p. 636). The 
Report is the first item on the agenda. 

In the second part of his Report, the 
Director-General reviews current ILO activ- 
ities. He examines the work done to 
ensure continued improvement in living 
and working conditions, and devotes the 
final section of his Report to the ILO's 
efforts to strengthen institutional arrange- 
ments for social progress. These efforts 
bear notably on labour-management rela- 
tions, labour administration and workers' 
education, and include the activities of the 
International Institute for Labour Studies. 

The Report stresses the continued expan- 
sion of the Organization's technical co-oper- 
ation activities. The ILO provides technical 
assistance under four programs: the United 
Nations Expanded Program of Technical 
Assistance, the United Nations Special 
Fund, the ILO's Regular Budget Program, 
and Funds in Trust. 

The Expanded Program still encompasses 
the greatest number of projects in the widest 
geographical area. During 1961-62, the ILO 
will spend an estimated $8.2 million on 
field projects in some 79 countries under 
this program. In 1961 alone total net 
expenditure exceeded $3.5 million. 



The number of expert assignments 
carried out in 1961 under the various 
technical co-operation programs was 386, 
of which 272 related to Expanded Program 
projects. Up to September 1961, the re- 
cruitment area had covered 58 countries 
and almost 18 per cent of the experts had 
been provided by communities that were 
themselves in the process of development. 

In addition, 543 fellowship awards, in- 
cluding study grants for seminars and 
worker trainees, were made in 1961. 

Regarding the program under which 
skilled workmen are given an opportunity 
to improve their proficiency by periods of 
work in factories abroad, the Report notes 
that 1,883 trainees have taken advantage 
of this scheme since 1952. 

The operational activities undertaken 
under the United Nations Special Fund 
have also increased. The number of Special 
Fund projects for which the ILO has been 
named executing agency rose from 20 in 
May 1961 to 31 in January 1962. These 
projects, the duration of which varies from 
three to five years, are mainly concerned 
with the establishment and running of train- 
ing institutes. 

Employment and Manpower 

The Report notes that the ILO is con- 
cerning itself to an increasing degree with 
employment and unemployment problems. 

Although the ILO's main activities in the 
employment field have been directed to the 
particularly urgent problems of developing 
countries, continued attention has also been 
paid to questions of a more general nature. 
The study of the changes in the employ- 
ment structure brought about by economic 
and technical progress has been pursued, 
with particular reference to measures pro- 
ducing other employment for workers 
affected by the decline of certain sectors 
of the economy as a result of technical 
innovations or new forms of competition. 

The activities of the ILO in the field 
of manpower planning and organization 
have undergone major changes during the 
past year. The widespread interest now 
being focussed on human resources as a 
factor in economic development has made 
more apparent than ever the need for 
comprehensive and long-range manpower 
planning in relation to economic and 
social development. To meet this need, 
the organizations of the United Nations 
family have established closer co-ordinating 
arrangements during the past year for their 
manpower activities. The ILO has been 
designated as the pivot of these arrange- 
ments. 



832 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



TEAMWORK 
in INDUSTRY 



Hospital Administrator John Mclntyre de- 
clared recently that Winnipeg's Municipal 
Hospitals — The King George, the King 
Edward Memorial and the Princess Eliza- 
beth — have derived more benefit from their 
Labour-Management Co-operative Commit- 
tee than from their all-management com- 
mittee. 

"Our operation is spread through 10 
buildings, some of them widely scattered," 
he explained. "Formerly we were merely 
little units competing separately for effi- 
ciency. The LMCC has been a good medi- 
um for pulling us together and co-ordin- 
ating our efforts. We always managed to 
cope with the major, obvious problems," 
he added, "but it's the little ones that 
seethe and irritate and ruin relations. It 
took our committee to bring them out in 
the open." 

Mr. Mclntyre indicated that it was not 
easy to get a labour-management com- 
mittee running smoothly. "Our employees 
are not as strongly vocal as people in in- 
dustry," he said. "They need encouragement 
to get on their feet and speak their minds, 
particularly in the beginning. Today, em- 
ployee members of our LMCC pick man- 
agement's brains as often as we pick theirs." 

Device workshop technician John Tettero, 
an employee of Winnipeg Municipal Hos- 
pitals, thinks all business and service en- 
terprises of any size in Canada should set 
up labour-management committees. "Speak- 
ing from the union standpoint," he said, "I 
think it is preferable to talk and reason 
something out than just get NO! written 
across a piece of paper.*' 

Mr. Tettero also insists that any reason- 
ably intelligent person will accept a reason- 
able answer. Friendly discussion promotes 
understanding, he believes, and under- 
standing leads to teamwork and accom- 
plishment. Even if the occasional meeting 
attains no material gain, employers will at 
least be making it possible for the em- 
ployees' elected representatives to feel they 
are a necessary part of the organization. 
"Employers should never underestimate the 
importance of this sense of participation in 
the mind of the worker," he said. 

Besides serving as a member of the 
hospitals' LMCC, Mr. Tettero is Chairman 
of the financial committee of his union 
hospital unit, Federation of Civic Em- 
ployees (CLC). 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 
58736-0—5 



Joint consultation at Grandview Lodge 
home for the aged, Fort William, Ont., 
covers the whole range of the institution's 
activities, according to Superintendent J. 
L. Hughes. Although a labour-management 
committee was established at Grandview 
less than a year ago, Mr. Hughes reports 
that there has been "a distinct improve- 
ment in relations." The LMC's success has 
received so much attention that other locals 
of the Building Service Employees' Inter- 
national Union (AFL-CIO/CLC) are 
pressing for similar committees. 

Walter Ellard, President of the home's 
LMC and a member of Local 268, is 
equally enthusiastic. Mr. Ellard stated that 
before the committee was set up, rumours 
and gossip were always floating around. 
"Now all this has stopped," he said. "All 
of the employees feel they can bring any 
problem to the LMC and get an answer." 

Ray Pudas, the union's Business Agent, 
said: "Since the committee started at 
Grandview, my troubles have been reduced. 
I used to be out there all the time over 
trivial complaints. I rarely visit Grandview 
now," he said. 

* * • 

Jack McDonald, recently retired Gen- 
eral Agent of the CNR's Winnipeg express 
department, recalled that in the 10 years 
it has been functioning, the department's 
labour-management committee has: (1) 
improved efficiency in operation; (2) bet- 
tered service to the public; (3) reduced 
absenteeism. 

Companies should go out of their way 
to establish good two-way communications 
with employees, he declared. Management 
doesn't know exactly what is happening to 
equipment and actual operations because it 
isn't that close to the picture. "Our em- 
ployees must tell us. . . Management's job 
is to build up morale to such a point that 
no employee would hesitate for a moment 
to make a statement or ask a question." 

Mr. McDonald suggested that one way 
to improve morale was to develop the habit 
of emphasizing not "who did this?" but 
rather "how did it happen?" — the idea 
being to eliminate the problem, not em- 
barrass the employee. 



Establishment of Labour-Management 
Committees is encouraged and assisted by 
the Labour-Management Co-operation Serv- 
ice, Industrial Relations Branch, Depart- 
ment of Labour. In addition to field rep- 
resentatives located in key industrial centres 
who are available to help both managements 
and trade unions, the Service provides 
various aids in the form of booklets, post- 
ers and films. 



833 



INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 
AND CONCILIATION 



Certification and Other Proceedings before 

the Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Canada Labour Relations Board met 
for two days during May. The Board issued 
one certificate designating a bargaining agent, 
rejected one application for certification and 
granted one application for revocation of 
certification. During the month the Board 
received three applications for certification, 
and one request under Section 61(2) of the 
Act for a review of an earlier decision. It 
allowed the withdrawal of one application 
for certification. 

Application for Certification Granted 

Dairymen, Warehousemen, Cartagemen, 
Truckers and Helpers, Local Union No. 
987 of the International Brotherhood of 
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and 
Helpers of America, on behalf of a unit 
of drivers, shopmen and swampers employed 
by Tiger Transfer Ltd., Calgary, Alta. (L.G., 
June, p. 653). 

Application for Certification Rejected 

Cape Breton Projectionists* Union Local 
No. 848 of the International Alliance of 
Theatrical Stage Employees and Moving 
Picture Machine Operators of the United 
States and Canada, applicant, and Atlantic 
Television Company Limited, Antigonish, 
N.S., respondent (L.G., June, p. 653). The 
application was rejected for the reason that 
it was not supported by a majority of the 
employees affected in the representation vote 
conducted by the Board. 

Application for Revocation Granted 

The Board granted an application for 
revocation of certification affecting Lome 
Shepherd, et al, applicants, Frontenac 
Broadcasting Company Limited, Kingston, 



Ont., respondent, and the International Al- 
liance of Theatrical Stage Employees and 
Moving Picture Machine Operators of the 
United States and Canada, respondent (L.G., 
June, p. 655). 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, Inc., 
on behalf of a unit of deck officers em- 
ployed by the Papachristidis Co. Ltd., Mont- 
real, Que. (Investigating Officer: R. L. 
Fournier). 

2. Office Employees' International Union 
Local 131, on behalf of a unit of office 
employees of Smith Transport Limited, 
Oshawa, Ont. (Investigating Officer: A. B. 
Whitfield). 

3. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers on behalf 
of a unit of marine engineers employed 
by Deeks-McBride Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. 
(Investigating Officer: G. H. Purvis). 

Request for Review under Section 61(2) of Act 

Request for review of the certificate is- 
sued by the Board December 19, 1961, af- 
fecting the Canadian Maritime Union, 
applicant, and the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way Company, Montreal, Que., respondent 
(unlicensed personnel aboard the S.S. Kee- 
watin and S.S. Assiniboia). (L.G., Feb., 
p. 155). 

Application for Certification Withdrawn 

General Truck Drivers' Union, Local 879 
of the International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Help- 
ers of America, applicant, and Hill the 
Mover (Canada) Limited, Hamilton, Ont., 
respondent (L.G., June, p. 655). 



This section covers proceedings under the Industrial Relations and Disputes Investi- 
gation Act, involving the administrative services of the Minister of Labour, the Canada 
Labour Relations Board, and the Industrial Relations Branch of the Department. 



834 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

Before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officers Appointed 

During May, the Minister of Labour 
appointed conciliation officers to deal with 
the following disputes: 

1. British Columbia Telephone Com- 
pany, Vancouver, and Federation of Tele- 
phone Workers of British Columbia (Traf- 
fic and Clerical Divisions) (Conciliation 
Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

2. Radio-Laurentides Inc. (CKJL), St. 
Jerome, Que., and National Association of 
Broadcast Employees and Technicians (Con- 
ciliation Officer: C. E. Poirier). 

3. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 
Montreal, and Building Service Employees' 
International Union, Local 298 (Concilia- 
tion Officer: C. E. Poirier). 



4. National Harbours Board, Prescott, 
Ont, and Civil Service Association of Can- 
ada (Conciliation Officer: T. B. McRae). 

5. Viking Tugboat Co. Ltd., Vancouver, 
and Marine Engineers Local 425 of the 
Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, Trans- 
port and General Workers (Conciliation 
Officer: G. R. Currie). 

6. Canadian Arsenals Limited (Small 
Arms Division) Long Branch, Ont., and 
United Steelworkers of America (Concili- 
ation Officer: T. B. McRae). 

7. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 
and Locals 204, 183 and 308 of the Build- 
ing Service Employees' International Union 
(Conciliation Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 



Scope and Administration of Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 



Conciliation services under the Industrial 
Relations and Disputes Investigation Act are 
provided by the Minister of Labour through 
the Industrial Relations Branch. The branch 
also acts as the administrative arm of the 
Canada Labour Relations Board, in matters 
under the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on Sep- 
tember 1, 1948. It revoked the Wartime 
Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 1003, 
which became effective in March, 1944, and 
repealed the Industrial Disputes Investigation 
Act, which had been in force from 1907 
until superseded by the Wartime Regulations 
in 1944. Decisions, orders and certificates 
given under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime Labour 
Relations Board are continued in force and 
effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, shipping, 
interprovincial railways, canals, telegraphs, 
interprovincial and international steamship 
lines and ferries, aerodromes and air trans- 
portation, radio broadcasting stations and 
works declared by Parliament to be for the 
general advantage of Canada or two or 
more of its provinces. Additionally, the Act 
provides that provincial authorities, if they 
so desire, may enact similar legislation for 
application to industries within provincial 
jurisdiction and make mutually satisfactory 
arrangements with the federal Government 
for the administration of such legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is directly 
responsible for the appointment of con- 
ciliation officers, conciliation boards, and 
Industrial Inquiry Commissions concerning 
complaints that the Act has been violated 
or that a party has failed to bargain collec- 
tively, and for application for consent to 
prosecute. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 



the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the certi- 
fication of bargaining agents, the writing of 
provisions — for incorporation into collective 
agreements — fixing a procedure for the final 
settlement of disputes concerning the mean- 
ing or violation of such agreements and the 
investigation of complaints referred to it by 
the minister that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively and to make every 
reasonable effort to conclude a collective 
agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regulations 
made under the Act, and the Rules of 
Procedure of the Canada Labour Relations 
Board are available upon request to the 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: (1) 
Certification and other Proceedings before 
the Canada Labour Relations Board, and 
(2) Conciliation and other Proceedings 
before the Minister of Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the De- 
partment of Labour are stationed at Vancou- 
ver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, 
Fredericton, Halifax and St. John's, New- 
foundland. The territory of four officers 
resident in Vancouver comprises British 
Columbia, Alberta and the Yukon and 
Northwest Territories; two officers stationed 
in Winnipeg cover the province of Saskat- 
chewan and Manitoba and Northwestern 
Ontario; four officers resident in Toronto 
confine their activities to Ontario; five 
officers in Montreal are assigned to the 
province of Quebec, and a total of three 
officers resident in Fredericton, Halifax and 
St. John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. The 
headquarters of the Industrial Relations 
Branch and the Director of Industrial Rela- 
tions and staff are situated in Ottawa. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

58736-0— 5i 



• JULY 7962 



835 



8. Vancouver Barge Transportation Lim- 
ited and Marine Engineers Local 425 of 
the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers (Concila- 
tion Officer: G. R. Currie). 

9. CKSO Radio Limited, Sudbury, Ont., 
and National Association of Broadcast Em- 
ployees and Technicians (Conciliation Of- 
ficer: T. B. McRae). 

10. Pacific Western Airlines Limited, 
Vancouver, and Canadian Air Pilots' As- 
sociation (Conciliation Officer: G. R. Cur- 
rie). 

11. Vancouver Barge Transportation 
Limited and Canadian Merchant Service 
Guild, Inc. (Conciliation Officer: G. R. 
Currie). 

Settlements Reported by Conciliation Officers 

1. Rio Algom Mines Limited (Nordic 
Division and Milliken Division), Elliot Lake, 
Ont., and Local 796 of the International 
Union of Operating Engineers (Concilia- 
tion Officer: T. B. McRae) (L.G., May, 
p. 533). 

2. Robin Hood Flour Mills Limited, Cal- 
gary, Alta., and Local 326 of the United 
Packinghouse Workers of America (Con- 
ciliation Officer: D. S. Tysoe) (L.G., May, 
p. 533). 

Conciliation Boards Fully Constituted 

1. The Board of Conciliation and In- 
vestigation established in April to deal with 
a dispute between British Columbia Tow- 
boat Owners' Association (C. H. Cates & 
Sons, M. R. Cliff, Deeks McBride, Gulf of 
Georgia Towing, Harbour Services, King- 
come Navigation Co., McKenzie Barge Co., 
Quatsino Navigation and Straits Towing), 
Vancouver, and Seafarers' International 
Union of North America, Canadian Dis- 
trict (L.G., June, p. 655), was fully con- 
stituted in May with the appointment of 
R. J. S. Moir of Vancouver as Chairman. 
Mr. Moir was appointed by the Minister 
on the joint recommendation of the other 
two members, T. E. H. Ellis, Q.C., of 
Vancouver, and Joseph Whiteford of Bur- 
naby, who were previously appointed on 
the nomination of the Association and 
Union, respectively. 

2. The Board of Conciliation and Investi- 
gation established in April to deal with a 
dispute between British Columbia Towboat 
Owners' Association, Vancouver, and Ma- 
rine Engineers Local 425 of the Canadian 
Brotherhood of Railway, Transport and 
General Workers (L.G., June, p. 656) was 
fully constituted in May with the appoint- 



ment of W. E. Philpott of Vancouver. Mr. 
Philpott was appointed by the Minister on 
the joint recommendation of the other two 
members, T. E. H. Ellis, Q.C. of Van- 
couver and John E. Berry of New West- 
minster, who were previously appointed on 
the nomination of the Association and 
Union, respectively. 

Conciliation Board Report Received 

Motor Transport Industrial Relations 
Bureau, (representing 47 companies within 
federal jurisdiction), Toronto, and Locals 
879, 880 and 938 of the International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, 
Warehousemen and Helpers of America 
(L.G., May, p. 534). The text of the Re- 
port is reproduced below. 

Board Reports of Settlements Received 

1. Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
(Atlantic, Eastern, Prairie and Pacific Re- 
gions, including the Quebec Central Railway 
Company and Dominion Atlantic Railway 
Company) and the Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Firemen and Enginemen. (L.G., 
Oct. 1961, p. 1040). The text of the Re- 
port is reproduced below. 

2. Rio Algom Mines Limited (Nordic 
Division and Milliken Division), Elliot Lake, 
Ont., and United Steelworkers of America 
(L.G., June, p. 656). The text of the Re- 
port is reproduced below. 

Settlement Reached following Board Procedure 

Canadian National Railways and Broth- 
erhood of Railroad Trainmen (L.G., June, 
p. 656). 

Strike Action following Board Procedure 

Motor Transport Industrial Relations 
Bureau (representing 47 companies within 
federal jurisdiction), Toronto, and Locals 
879, 880 and 938 of the International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, 
Warehousemen and Helpers of America 
(L.G., May, p. 534). Strike commenced 
May 29. 

Disputes Lapsed 

1. Canadian Freightways Limited, Cal- 
gary, Alta., and Local 605 of the Interna- 
tional Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf- 
feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America (L.G., Jan., p. 53). 

2. General Enterprises Ltd., Whitehorse, 
Y.T., and Local 2499 of the United Brother- 
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of America 
(L.G.. March, p. 333). 



836 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Motor Transport Industrial Relations Bureau 

and 

International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, 
Warehousemen and Helpers of America 

Your Board of Conciliation consisting of 

His Honour Judge J. C. Anderson, Chair- 
man, Michael O'Brien, company nominee, 

and Paul Siren, union nominee, met with 

the parties at the Four Seasons Motel in 

Toronto on April 17, and the meeting was 

continued on April 18. The Board again 

met with the parties in Toronto at the 

Royal York Hotel on the 27th, 28th and 

29th of April. 

At these meetings the Motor Transport 

Industrial Relations Bureau was represented 

by: 

H. G. White — Hanson Transport Limited 

L. G. Teakle — Smith Transport Limited 

W. R. Henderson — Kingsway Transport Lim- 
ited 

F. W. Murray — Motor Transport Industrial 
Relations 

J. E. Taylor — Overland Express Limited 

O. J. Doerr — Wood's Transport (Hespeler) 
Limited 

S. A. Bacon — Mc Anally Freight- Ways Com- 
pany Limited 

W. H. Male — Direct Winters Transport Lim- 
ited 

C. V. Hoar — Hoar Transport Limited 

M. D. Davis — Inter-City Truck Lines Limited 

J. A. Donaldson — Motor Transport Industrial 
Relations Bureau. 



During May, the Minister of Labour re- 
ceived the Report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation and Investigation established to 
deal with a dispute between the Motor 
Transport Industrial Relations Bureau, To- 
ronto, and Locals 879, 880 and 938 of 
the International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and 
Helpers of America. The Bureau repre- 
sented some 47 companies within federal 
jurisdiction. 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of His Honour Judge J. C. Anderson of 
Belleville, Ont. He was appointed by the 
Minister on the joint recommendation of 
the other two members, Michael O'Brien 
and Paul Siren, both of Toronto, nomi- 
nees of the companies and union, respec- 
tively. 

The Report was signed by all three mem- 
bers, but Messrs. O'Brien and Siren sub- 
mitted addenda. 

The Report and addenda are repro- 
duced here. 



And the Union was represented by: 
Local 879 {Hamilton) 
R. Taggart, President, Union Co-Chairman 
J. Hassett 
John Compton 
A. L. Wilson 
H. Byford 
R. Arnold 
S. Shantz 
J. Contardi 
C. Bricker 
Local 141 

J. Fischer, President 
R. Hall 
Wm. Kennedy 
Wib. Hooper 
Local 91 
Gerry Miles 
Local 880 (Windsor) 
W. Sefton, President 
R. L. Wilson, Union Chairman 
J. Wayne 

F. A. Lucier 
Chas. Remsik 
Neilson Reid 
Jas. Shaw 

Local 938 (Toronto) 
K. G. McDougall, President, Union 
Co-Chairman 

G. Griffin 
C. Thibault 
F. Thompson 
P. Hegarty 



P. Mone 

C. Walker 

Frank Godley, Recording Secretary. 

In addition to the representatives of the 
Unions, Casey Dodds, Canadian Director 
of the Teamsters International Union, was 
present, and Frank Fitzsimmons, Vice- 
President of the International Union, was 
present during part of the time of the 
meetings in the Royal York Hotel. 

The same Board was appointed by both 
the Federal and Ontario Departments of 
Labour, and although most of the operating 
transport companies are under federal cer- 
tification, there are a number of the trans- 
port companies that are under provincial 
certification only. Appendix "A" contains a 
list of the companies under federal juris- 
diction. 

The issues in dispute were many and 
varied, and need not be listed because they 
are reported upon in detail hereunder. 

One agreement is bargained for and 
entered into on behalf of the Bureau mem- 
bers and the three locals of the Union 
above set out, and the agreement has two 
main sections, one covering maintenance 
employees and the other covering over-the- 
road and local cartage employees. 

After the first meeting, it was apparent 
to the Board that the issues in dispute 
were so many and varied that the parties 
themselves would be expected to enter into 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



837 



direct negotiations, working through com- 
mittees, and that these committees would 
deal with certain separate issues; and under 
the Board's instruction, the parties met 
through their committees between the meet- 
ing of the Board on April 18 and the 
reconvening of the Board on April 27, and 
again on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd of May, 
1962. 

After attempting to render all assistance 
possible to the parties in an effort to con- 
ciliate all the issues in dispute, the Board 
finds that while progress has been made on 
settling some of the issues, that there are 
many issues upon which it must report. 

As a result of the parties' meeting under 
the direction of the Board, and sometimes 
with the assistance of the Board, certain 
issues have been resolved, and therefore 
the Board recommends that the matters 
that have been resolved be contained in 
the forthcoming collective agreement in the 
same form in which they have been tenta- 
tively resolved by the committees, and the 
Board herewith lists these issues and sets 
forth its recommendations in connection 
therewith, and the Board's recommenda- 
tions are exactly as the representatives of 
the parties themselves have, in their con- 
sultations, agreed upon. 

The section of the agreement having to 
do with maintenance, or what is known as 
the maintenance agreement, has been all 
settled except the question of wages and 
other strictly monetary matters, so that the 
maintenance area agreement will be re- 
newed with the following changes upon 
which agreement has been made: 
Maintenance 

The Company agrees to supply washing 
facilities, including hot water, soap and towels, 
at terminals where maintenance personnel are 
employed. On the issue of new equipment, 
management will insure that the maintenance 
personnel involved will receive the necessary 
information and training. 

Personnel designated as lead-hands by the 
Company shall be paid a premium over and 
above their normal rate of pay in recognition 
of their supervisory duties. 

Apprentices 

Apprentices will not be subject to the terms 
of the collective agreement except that they 
must, as a condition of employment, become 
Union members and pay Union dues. 

After forty-five (45) days, the following 
minimum pay conditions shall apply: 
For the 1st" year of employment — 

60% of the journeyman rate 
For the 2nd year of employment — 

65% of the journeyman rate 
For the 3rd year of employment — 

70% of the journeyman rate 
For the 4th year of employment — 

80% of the journeyman rate 
For the 5th year of employment — 

semi-skilled end rate. 



In the over-the-road agreement, the issue 
of statutory holidays has been tentatively 
agreed upon and the Board recommends 
settlement on the basis of the tentative 
agreement, which is as follows: 

Statutory Holidays 

1. The following statutory holidays will be 
observed: 



New Year's Day 
Good Friday 
Victoria Day 
Dominion Day 



Civic Holiday 
Labour Day 
Thanksgiving Day 
Christmas Day 



2. When one of the observed statutory 
holidays falls on a Saturday or a Sunday, 
the day proclaimed shall be the day observed. 
If no other day is proclaimed, employees shall 
be paid the statutory holiday pay in accord- 
ance with the conditions outlined below. 

3. All employees shall be paid their ap- 
propriate hourly rate for the above-mentioned 
statutory holidays, depending upon the length 
of their shift, but no less than eight (8) hours 
and no more than nine (9) hours, providing: 

a. They are available for work on the nor- 
mal shift preceding and following the 
holiday, or when the employee has the 
consent of the Company to be absent not 
in excess of seven (7) days. 

b. They work any time in the week in 
which the holiday occurs (except for 
Christmas and New Year's statutory 
holidays, which will be paid to all em- 
ployees on the seniority list who work 
any time in the month of December and 
who are available for work on their 
normal shift preceding and following 
both statutory holidays). 

c. Personnel who are ill up to five (5) 
working days preceding and/or following 
the statutory holiday shall be paid for 
the statutory holiday providing they 
supply the Company with a doctor's 
certificate if requested. Employees found 
misrepresenting the facts of their illness 
shall be subject to disciplinary action. 

4. If an employee is required to work on 
one of the above-mentioned statutory holi- 
days, he shall receive his normal rate of pay 
for the time worked, in addition to the statu- 
tory holiday pay. 

5. Any of the statutory holidays as listed 
and falling within an employee's annual vaca- 
tion, shall be paid, in addition to the em- 
ployee's annual vacation pay, providing the 
employee is available for work on the normal 
shift preceding and following his annual va- 
cation. 

6. No employee on highway operations shall 
be compelled to accept a dispatch out of his 
home terminal on the eve of a statutory holi- 
day, except in cases of emergency, when re- 
verse seniority may apply. 

7. Senior employees shall be given the first 
opportunity to work on statutory holidays. 
However, they shall have the right to decline 
work, providing a sufficient number of junior 
qualified employees is available. 

8. Personnel who have completed thirty (30) 
days of their probationary period shall be 
qualified for statutory holiday pay subject to 
paragraph 3. 

9. Part-time personnel shall not be entitled 
to statutory holiday pay under any circum- 
stances. 



838 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



Most, if not all the dispute concerning 
the allocation of work has resulted in agree- 
ment, and the Board recommends settlement 
on the basis of the agreement for the areas 
that have been agreed upon, which are as 
follows: 
Allocation of Work 

The Company shall have the authority 
to allocate and assign the work to per- 
sonnel having regard to: (a) the skill 
and efficiency of employees, and (b) the 
seniority of employees. And where the 
qualifications expressed in (a) are rela- 
tively equal among the employees involved, 
seniority shall be the determining factor. 
Subject to the above: 

1. Hourly Rated Operations 

1. On runs designated as "peddle runs" or 
"special operations" by the Company, employ- 
ees shall be allowed to bid and qualify for 
such runs, in conjunction with the annual inter- 
departmental job bid. In all other operations 
the Company shall have the right to allocate 
the work, giving due regard to seniority as set 
out below. 

2. In conjunction with the annual interde- 
partmental job bid, seniority shall prevail as 
to starting times and/or shifts as set out by 
the Company. The Union recognizes that the 
Company must have a nucleus of experienced 
men on each shift. 

3. Senior personnel shall have the prefer- 
ence to work on the first five (5) days of 
the week. 

4. In the event that extra highway trips arise, 
the Company shall assign these trips to the 
most senior, qualified, unassigned drivers avail- 
able. 

5. Any employee taking time off during the 
week shall not be entitled to work on Saturday 
in lieu of short hours during the week except: 

(a) when he is scheduled on six-day operations. 

(b) by seniority rights when all other quali- 
fied employees have completed a (00) hour 
week. 

6. On Saturdays, if the senior men have 
worked (00) hours or less, or if the junior 
men have worked (00) hours or more, then the 
senior men will be called for work. 

2. Highway Operations 
(a) Spare-Board Drivers 

1. The Company shall endeavour at all 
times to arrange runs in a manner that will 
give preference to the senior drivers. 

2. Drivers will not drive in excess of 2,200 
miles per week. However, drivers may book 
off after 1,800 miles, providing other quali- 
fied highway drivers are available. When a 
highway driver's trip is short due to the 
above weekly mileage limitation, drivers will 
be paid on the mileage basis and the 5-hour 
call-in guarantee shall not apply. 

3. Senior personnel shall have the prefer- 
ence to work on the first five (5) days in the 
week, to the extent that it is consistent with 
the foregoing conditions. This work week may 
commence on Sunday. 

4. Each highway driver shall upon con- 
tacting the Company's office, be advised of his 
starting time. If he is not dispatched after re- 
porting for work as ordered, he shall be paid 
at the regular hourly rates for all the time 
held, provided however, that he performs 



any reasonable work requested, except that 
night highway drivers will not be compelled 
to work on the dock for more than two (2) 
hours before being dispatched on a highway 
run. 

5. Everything being equal, senior employees 
will be given the first opportunity to work 
on sixth-day operations. However, in the event 
the work is declined, the Company reserves 
the right to allocate the work in reverse order 
of seniority. 

6. An employee absenting himself from work 
during the week shall not be entitled to work 
on sixth day operations except: (a) when he 
is scheduled on sixth day operations, or (b) 
by seniority rights, when all other qualified 
employees have reached the mileage limitation 
as outlined in Item (2) above. 

7. Drivers will not be compelled to work on 
the dock at a Company terminal away from 
home if they have been on duty for more 
than eight (8) hours. 

8. Drivers on way-freight operations at 
intermediate Company terminals will not be 
compelled to work on such docks if the 
known mileage at the time of dispatch exceeds 
three hundred (300) miles. 

9. If a driver is not dispatched before the 
fourteenth (14th) hour he shall be guaranteed 
two (2) hours pay, and if he is held more 
than two (2) hours, he shall be paid for each 
hour up to ten (10) hours in the first period. 
This pay shall be in addition to the pay to 
which the man is entitled if he is put to work 
at any time within the twenty-four (24) hours 
after the run ends. The same principle shall 
apply to each succeeding twenty-four (24) 
hours. On Sundays and holidays, meals and 
lodgings shall be allowed in addition. 

10. Wherever possible, Sunday night dis- 
patch will be available at least twenty-four 
(24) hours prior to the time of dispatch. 

11. Delete. 

12. Drivers held over at a foreign terminal 
will be given preference on first loads out. 
However, where there are sufficient loads, all 
the held-over spare-board drivers need not 
be dispatched out ahead of regular-run drivers. 

(b) Regular-Run Drivers 
1. At a terminal where regular runs may 
be set up, or where there are special opera- 
tions, it is agreed that the Company and the 
Local Union or Unions involved will meet, 
to establish rules, in writing, governing the 
operation of such regular runs and/or special 
operations, with due regard to the following 
conditions : 
i. Regular runs and special operations shall 
be posted for a period of seventy-two 
(72) hours (Saturdays, Sundays and stat- 
utory holidays excluded). Posting shall 
be made when new regular runs or 
special operations are established, or 
where vacancies occur, and thereafter in 
conjunction with the annual interdepart- 
mental job bid. It is recognized that a 
change in operations may require a 
further meeting between the Company 
and the Local Union or Unions involved, 
as outlined above, 
ii. Drivers will not drive in excess of two 
thousand two hundred (2,200) miles per 
week, 
iii. The work week may commence on Sun- 
day, but where regular runs or special 
operations are established to start on 
a Monday, drivers need not be called in 
for Sunday trips. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



839 



iv. Each highway driver shall, upon con- 
tacting the Company's office, be advised 
of his starting time. If he is not dis- 
patched after reporting for work as 
ordered, he shall be paid at regular hourly 
rates for all time held, provided how- 
ever, that he performs any reasonable 
work requested, except that night high- 
way drivers will not be compelled to 
work on the dock for more than two 
(2) hours before being dispatched on 
a highway run. 
v. If a driver is not dispatched before the 
fourteenth (14th) hour he shall be 
guaranteed two (2) hours pay, and if 
he is held more than two (2) hours, 
he shall be paid for each hour up to 
ten (10) hours in the first period. This 
pay shall be in addition to the pay to 
which the man is entitled if he is put 
to work at any time within the twenty- 
four (24) hours after the run ends. 
The same principle shall apply to each 
succeeding twenty-four (24) hours. On 
Sundays and holidays, meals and lodg- 
ings shall be allowed in addition. 

vi. Wherever possible, Sunday night dispatch 
will be available at least twenty-four (24) 
hours prior to the time of dispatch. 

vii. Delete. 

viii. If a regular run or special operation 
with a lay-over is established, it shall 
be the Company's responsibility to dis- 
patch drivers who have been held over 
at a foreign terminal back to their home 
terminal, and accordingly, they will be 
given first return loads. When no load 
is available, to dispatch driver directly 
home. It is understood that in the ap- 
plication of this condition the Company 
may dispatch a driver in a different di- 
rection than towards his home terminal 
if such a dispatch will result in the 
acquiring of a load destined towards 
his home terminal, and providing the 
whole of such dispatch will return the 
driver to his home terminal. 

There was an issue concerning working 
supervisors, and the Board recommends 
that this be settled in the terms of the 
tentative settlement arrived at by the joint 
committees working on that problem, so 
that the Board recommends that the issue 
as to working supervisors be settled in the 
following terms: 
Working Supervisors 

1. In event of a dispute concerning the 
scope of the bargaining unit, particularly as 
it may be affected by working supervisors, it 
is agreed that such a dispute shall be re- 
ferred to a permanent joint committee estab- 
lished for that purpose, and which shall meet 
monthly (every third Wednesday), if required. 
In the event that this committee is deadlocked, 
the dispute shall be referred to an Arbitration 
Board through the grievance procedure. 

2. A "lead hand" shall be defined as a per- 
son who performs work and directs the work 
of others. He shall not have the authority to 
hire, fire, suspend or otherwise penalize other 
employees, and he shall be a Union member. 

3. When lead hands or foremen are ap- 
pointed, a notice to that effect will be posted 
by the Company. 



The issue between the parties respecting 
the closing or partial closing of terminals 
has been agreed upon by a joint com- 
mittee, and therefore the Board recom- 
mends that the following clauses be 
incorporated in the contract dealing with 
the problem of closure or partial closure 
of terminals. 

Closure or Partial Closure of Terminals 
(As a Subsection of Article 7) 

In the event of the complete or partial 
closures of terminals or operations where 
work is moved to another terminal (s) 
under the jurisdiction of the signatories to 
this agreement, and employees are subject 
to lay-off due to this work being moved, 
the following conditions shall apply: 

1. The Company will give the Union thirty 
(30) days written notice of its intention to 
close a terminal or operation and a meeting (s) 
will be held to arrange any necessary movement 
of personnel under the conditions outlined in 
this section. 

2. In the case of a partial closure, a meet- 
ing^) will be held within thirty (30) days of 
partial closure to arrange any necessary move- 
ment of personnel under the conditions out- 
lined in this section. 

3. If the junior men, who are subject to 
lay-off in the terminal or operation which is 
closed or partially closed, have more Com- 
pany seniority than any of the men in the 
terminal to which the work is being moved, 
then an opportunity to move with the work 
will be posted and bid on and, subject to 
qualifications, the most senior men bidding 
to move will be allowed to do so. 

4. Personnel moving under the conditions 
in (3) will retain their seniority at the ter- 
minal moved from for a period not exceeding 
twelve (12) months from the date of the 
move. 

5. The Company will have the sole authority 
for the allocation of work of employees mov- 
ing under the conditions of (3) for a period 
of six (6) months from the date of the 
move or until the date of the next job bid, 
whichever comes later. 

6. Persons moving under the conditions of 
(3) will dovetail their seniority dates with 
those persons already employed at the terminal 
to which they moved. 

The joint committee of Teamsters and 
the Bureau recommends that the issues aris- 
ing out of this next problem be settled 
according to the following statement, and 
which the Board also unanimously recom- 
mends. 

General Rules and Regulations Governing 
the Actions of all Employees 

The following Rules and Regulations, 
and the penalties to be charged for their 
violation, are placed in effect with the ap- 
proval of the Companies and the Unions, 
so that all employees of Bureau member 
Companies may know what the Company 
Rules and Regulations require of them in 
the conduct of general Company business. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



Nothing in these Rules and Regulations 
shall deprive the employees of the right to 
challenge a penalty through the regular 
grievance machinery. Existing Company 
rules and penalties shall not conflict with 
those contained herein. In case of conflict, 
it is agreed that the Rules and Regulations 
shall apply. 

Nothing contained herein shall prejudice 
the right of the Company to institute addi- 
tional Rules and Regulations which do not 
conflict with those contained herein, and 
in such case thirty (30) days notice, in 
writing, shall be given to the Union before 
application. 

Should the Union disagree with the 
Company's application of the Rules and 
Regulations, the question may be referred 
to a meeting of the Joint Rules and Regu- 
lations Sub -committee. 

All infractions of the Highway Traffic 
Act and the municipal bylaws shall be the 
responsibility of the drivers except those 
which are, by their nature, the responsibility 
of the Company. 

1. Accidents 

a. Accidents for which the employee is 
at fault, or for which his action or lack of 
action is a contributory factor, will result in 
disciplinary action, which may range from 
"reprimand" to "dismissal" according to the 
seriousness of the accident, the degree of 
negligence or carelessness, and frequency of 
accidents.— AGREED. 

b. Failure to report any accident as soon 
as possible will result in the employee being 
subject to dismissal. — AGREED. 

2. Equipment 

a. (i) Tampering with tachograph, governor, 
or other safety device. Subject to dismissal. — 
AGREED, (ii) Operating power equipment 
with radiator or grille covered, or obstructing 
with unauthorized covering: 1st offense — sub- 
ject to 3 days off; 2nd offense — subject to 
dismissal.— AGREED. 

b. Excess idling of equipment; 1st offense 
— reprimand; 2nd offense — 1 day off; 3rd of- 
fense — 3 days off; 4th offense — 1 week off. 
Subsequent offenses — subject to dismissal. — 
AGREED. 

c. Failure to ensure that units are properly 
hooked up and locking devices engaged and 
trailer support fully raised: 1st offense — 1 day 
off; 2nd offense — 3 days off; 3rd offense — 1 
week off; subsequent offenses — additional time 
off, subject to dismissal. — AGREED. 

d. Intentionally operating equipment with 
tire pressure too low; 1st offense — reprimand; 
2nd offense — 1 day off; 3rd offense — 3 days 
off; subsequent offenses — subject to dismissal. 
—AGREED. 

e. Failure to ensure that power equipment is 
properly serviced for gasoline, oil and water, 
and that all tire pressures are checked before 
leaving the terminal, where required by the 
Company: 1st offense — reprimand; 2nd offense 
— 3 days off; 3rd offense — 1 week off; subse- 
quent offenses — subject to dismissal. — AGREED. 

f. Failure to properly tarp cargo and equip- 
ment: 1st offense — 3 days off; 2nd offense — 
1 week off; subsequent offenses — subject to 
dismissal. — AGREED. 



g. Failure to keep cab interior free of all 
refuse while on duty: 1st offense — reprimand; 
2nd offense — 3 days off; 3rd offense — subject to 
dismissal. — AGREED. 

h. Failure to report mechanical defect in 
equipment, if known; 1st offense — 3 days off; 
2nd offense — 1 week off; subsequent offenses 
— subject to dismissal. — AGREED. 

i. Unauthorized use of Company-owned 
motor vehicles: 1st offense — subject to dismis- 
sal.— AGREED. 

3. Conduct and Behaviour 

a. Consuming intoxicants while on duty or 
on the Company's property: 1st offense — 
immediate dismissal. — AGREED. 

b. Reporting for duty while under the in- 
fluence of an intoxicant: 1st offense — repri- 
mand to one week off; 2nd offense — subject 
to dismissal.— AGREED. 

c. Theft, dishonesty or wilful damage, failure 
to turn in monies collected: 1st offense — im- 
mediate dismissal. — AGREED. 

d. Receipt of garnishees or assignments 
against pay: 1st offense — reprimand; 2nd of- 
fense — reprimand; 3rd offense — subject to 
dismissal.— AGREED. 

e. Discourtesy to a customer (subject to 
investigation) : 1st offense — reprimand; 2nd 
offense — 1 week off; 3rd offense — subject to 
dismissal.— AGREED. 

f. Mishandling or abuse of any Company 
equipment or property, excluding cargo, ac- 
cording to the degree of negligence or care- 
lessness: 1st offense — reprimand to 3 days 
off; 2nd offense — 3 days to 1 week off (after 
investigation); 3rd offense — subject to dismis- 
sal.— AGREED. 

g. Failure to obey instructions of authorized 
personnel (names of persons in authority will 
be posted) : 1st offense — reprimand; 2nd of- 
fense — subject to dismissal. — AGREED. 

h. Flagrant disobedience of orders of author- 
ized personnel: 1st offense — subject to dismis- 
sal.— AGREED. 

i. Failure to make proper collections: 1st 
offense — reprimand; 2nd offense — 1 week off; 
3rd offense — subject to dismissal. — AGREED. 

j. Failure to load and unload properly, or 
mishandling freight: 1st offense — reprimand; 
2nd offense — 3 days off; 3rd offense — subject to 
dismissal. — AGREED. 

(1) If a driver loses his license while oper- 
ating other than Company equipment, 
the Company will not be obligated to 
provide other employment, but it is 
agreed that a meeting will be held within 
seven (7) days between the Company 
and the Union to deal with the indi- 
vidual situation. 

4. Reports 

a. Intentionally punching another employee's 
time card: 1st offense — subject to dismissal. — 
AGREED. 

b. Deliberate falsification of time cards or 
trip reports: 1st ottense — subject to dismissal. 
—AGREED. 

c. Failure to report to dispatcher at specified 
times when required to do so while on duty: 
1st ottense — reprimand; 2nd ottense — repri- 
mand; — 3rd ottense — 3 days ott; subsequent 
offenses — subject to dismissal in aggravated 
cases— AGREED. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

58736-0—6 



• JULY 7962 



841 



5. Driving Behaviour 

a. Failure to follow routings as designated 
or instructed: 1st offense — 3 days off; 2nd 
offense — subject to dismissal — AGREED. 

b. Driving at speeds in excess of government- 
posted speed limits: 1st offense — reprimand; 
2nd offense — 3 days off; 3rd offense — 1 week 
off; 4th offense — subject to dismissal. — 
AGREED. 

c. Unnecessary delays while operating Com- 
pany vehicles: 1st offense — reprimand; 2nd of- 
fense — 3 days off; 3rd offense — 1 week off; 
subsequent offenses — subject to dismissal. — 
AGREED. 

d. Deliberate tail-gating: 1st offense — repri- 
mand to 1 week off; 2nd offense — subject to 
dismissal.— AGREED. 

e. Carrying of unauthorized persons in 
Company vehicles: 1st offense — subject to dis- 
missal.— AGREED. 

6. Attendance 

a. Absence in excess of three (3) successive 
working days without notification will be 
considered as a voluntary quit. — AGREED. 

b. Failure to notify the Company not less 
than one (1) hour before regular starting 
time when unable to report for duty, with a 
reasonable explanation: 1st offense — reprimand; 
2nd offense — reprimand; subsequent offenses — 
subject to dismissal. — AGREED. 

c. Reporting late for work without a reason- 
able explanation: 1st offense — reprimand; 2nd 
offense — 3 days off: 3rd offense — 1 week off; 
4th offense — subject to dismissal. — AGREED. 

d. Failure to report for duty after having 
been instructed to do so: 1st offense — repri- 
mand to 1 week off; 2nd offense — subject to 
dismissal.— AGREED. 

e. Any employee absent due to illness must 
supply substantiating evidence satisfactory to 
the management when required. — AGREED. 

It is also the Board's understanding that 
the issue with respect to seniority of 
stewards, or chief stewards, has been tenta- 
tively agreed upon between the parties, 
and the Board unanimously recommends 
that the new contract include the following 
clause in respect to this matter: 

"Providing it is consistent with management's 
obligation to maintain an efficient working 
force in the event of a shortage of work that 
necessitates a lay-off, the steward or chief 
steward, in the event there is one, shall be 
retained in the work force and he shall only 
be laid off second to the last man." 

The Board also recommends that the 
following clauses under several headings as 
listed below, which have been tentatively 
agreed upon between the parties, be incor- 
porated in the forthcoming agreement. 

Pay Conditions 
1. The interval between paydays shall be no 
longer than two (2) weeks and, in the event 
the Company changes from a one-week pay 
period to a two-week period, three (3) clear 
months notice shall be given by the Company. 
Advances shall be made to employees on re- 
quest, to assist during the adjustment period, 
and such adjustment period shall not exceed 
three (3) months. 



2. The Bureau has agreed in principle to 

the deduction of monies to be submitted to 

the duly chartered credit unions (details to 
be worked out later in committee). 

Loss or Damage to Cargo 
Employees shall not be charged for loss or 
damage to cargo unless clear proof of negli- 
gence is shown. In the event of such loss or 
damage the Company shall have up to fifteen 
(15) days from the date of delivery to regis- 
ter a claim with the employee. Before the 
employee signs an authorization to deduct a 
claim he shall have seven (7) days to register 
a grievance should he fail to agree with the 
Company's claim. In the event the grievance 
is not filed within seven (7) days, the em- 
ployee must authorize the Company to deduct 
the amount of the claim. The Company may 
lodge a claim for loss or damage to cargo up 
to and including one hundred dollars ($100.00). 

Loss or Damage to Equipment 
Employees shall not be charged for loss or 
damage to equipment unless clear proof of 
negligence is shown. In the event of such loss 
or damage the Company shall have up to 
fifteen (15) days from the date such loss 
occurred to register a grievance should the 
employee fail to agree with the Company's 
claim. In the event the grievance is not filed 
within seven (7) days the employee must 
authorize the Company to deduct the amount 
of the claim. The Company may lodge a 
claim for loss or damage up to and including 
twenty dollars ($20.00). 

Seniority — Recall Period 
An employee shall lose his seniority standing 
if he is laid off for a period extending beyond 
twelve (12) consecutive months. 

And Paragraph (2) under Seniority, 
which had been agreed upon prior to the 
Conciliation Board stage, shall have a 
sentence added to it which was agreed 
upon during conciliation, so this whole 
Paragraph (2) under Seniority shall now 
read as follows: 

"The purpose of seniority regulations is to 
provide a policy governing lay-offs and recalls. 
In the event of a lay-off, the Company shall 
consider (a) the experience and efficiency of 
an employee, and (b) the seniority of the 
employee, and where the qualifications ex- 
pressed in (a) are relatively equal, the em- 
ployee's seniority shall be the determining 
factor." 

In all lay-offs where the efficiency of an 
employee is questioned by the Company, such 
employee will be given the opportunity to 
perform the work in question and qualify. A 
lay-off for an employee shall be considered as 
three (3) consecutive days of no work within 
his department, at which time the employee 
must exercise his seniority and move into 
whatever department his seniority entitles him. 
The employee will be notified if there are 
junior men working in another department. 
Such moves shall be considered temporary, 
but lasting until such time as the work force 
requirements for the foreseeable future are 
returned to normal. 

Leave of Absence for Work with the 
Local Union 
Employees will be granted a leave of 
absence of up to one (1) year to work with 
the local Union. 



842 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



Supervisory Personnel Returning to the 
Bargaining Unit 

Those promoted to supervisory positions or 
positions not subject to this agreement will 
retain their seniority after promotion for a 
twelve (12) -month period only. If employees 
are demoted for any reason, or if they volun- 
tarily request reinstatement to their former 
position, the time served in the supervisory 
position shall be included in their seniority 
rating. 

Such employee shall forfeit any and all 
recourse to the grievance procedure as out- 
lined in this agreement should he subsequently 
be discharged in such a position beyond the 
jurisdiction of this agreement. If an employee 
is promoted to a supervisory position and 
such supervisory position is subsequently 
abolished, such employee will revert to his 
former position without loss of seniority. 

Part-Time Employees 
Add the following wording to Clause 20(18) 
of the present agreement: "Regular employees 
who are laid off shall be given the first oppor- 
tunity for part-time work; however, the daily 
guarantee shall not apply." 

Students 
New article to be added to the present agree- 
ment: "Students may be hired on a full-time 
basis for the summer months (May 1 to 
September 30) and shall come under all pay 
regulations in this agreement. They shall pay 
to the support of the local Union the amount 
of the monthly due, which will be checked 
off, but no other provisions of this agreement 
shall apply." 

The Board now proceeds to make recom- 
mendations on certain issues upon which 
there has been no tentative agreement dur- 
ing Board sittings: 

Strikes and Lockouts 

Vacations with Pay 

Hours of Work 

Piggyback and Broker Operators 

Monetary Issues, including 
Welfare, Pensions and Wages. 

There were a number of other issues 
raised by both parties which the Board 
feels are capable of being resolved by the 
parties directly, if the issues upon which 
the Board has recommended generally are 
accepted by the parties. 

Strikes and Lockouts 

The Board was advised that during the 
course of negotiations prior to the con- 
ciliation procedure, it was agreed that the 
clause in the former contract regarding 
strikes and lockouts, namely, "During the 
term of this contract there shall be no 
lockout by the Company or any strike, 
sit-down, slow-down, work stoppage or 
suspension of work either complete or par- 
tial for any reason by the employees," 
should be included in the new contract. 

The Bureau asks that in addition to this 
clause, that the collective agreement be 



amended and added to by the inclusion of 
the following clause: 

"If an employee does, or employees do, 
institute or encourage or participate in a work 
stoppage, the Company shall have the sole 
and complete right to immediately discharge an 
employee participating in any unlawful strike, 
slow-down, walk-out or other cessation of 
work." 

The Bureau ask that this be included, 
because, since the signing of the last 
agreement, there have been a large number 
of strike situations in the industry, the 
loss of thousands of man-hours and hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars in lost wages, 
and therefore it submits that such a clause 
might have a salutary effect on the em- 
ployees and lessen the strike situation as 
hitherto experienced. 

The Board is of the opinion that the 
strike clause suggested by the Bureau, 
while it might give information to the 
employees who read it and warn them of 
the consequences of an illegal work stop- 
page, slow-down or unlawful strike, doesn't 
change the position with respect to strikes 
or lockouts from that existing under the 
terms of the present contract. If the pro- 
visions of the contract agreed upon are 
properly policed and enforced by both sides, 
it should have the effect of reducing or 
eliminating illegal work stoppages, and 
therefore, for these reasons, the Board does 
not see fit to recommend an incorporation 
in the new agreement of the clause re- 
quested by the Bureau. 

Vacations with Pay 

The Bureau proposed that the vacations- 
with-pay provisions remain basically as they 
were in the former agreement. The Union 
has proposed that the schedule be altered 
so as to provide for two (2) weeks after 
two (2) years, three (3) weeks after three 
(3) years, and four (4) weeks after ten 
(10) years. 

Recommendation. In view of the recom- 
mendations hereinafter affecting costs, the 
Board is of the opinion that there should 
be no change in the present vacation- with- 
pay provisions of the contract. 

Hours of Work 

During negotiations, the Bureau proposed 
the following clause dealing with the pay- 
ment of overtime: 

"The Company agreed to pay all hourly 
rated employees at the rate of time and one- 
half for all hours worked at the hourly rate in 
excess of ten (10) hours in any one (1) shift." 

Under the present contract, there is the 
weekly limitation which the Bureau feels 
should be dropped, because it submits that 
the present legislation safeguards employees 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

58736-0— 6* 



• JULY 1962 



843 



from working excessive hours, and that re- 
cently there has been an increasing demand 
for pick-ups and deliveries on Saturdays, 
and the present clause makes work per- 
formed on Saturdays virtually time-and-half 
paid work. The Bureau also proposed other 
changes in an attempt to clarify and stand- 
ardize the hours off duty within the high- 
way driving operations. 

The Union, on the other hand, seeks to 
make the standard work week a 40-hour 
week and the standard guaranteed work day 
8 hours per day. It also seeks a clause 
which would provide all employees with a 
regular starting time and also provide that 
any change in the starting time will be 
posted 72 hours prior to the notice. The 
Union also wants 90 percent of the regular 
employees to be guaranteed a 40-hour 
week, and that all Saturday work be paid 
for at time-and-a-half the employee's hourly 
rate, and certain other amendments, in- 
cluding an increase in the shift bonus. 

While it is no doubt true that in most 
industries the standard work week has now 
been reduced to 40 hours, and that over- 
time applies thereafter in most instances 
and in some instances on the daily basis 
as well: to require highway operators to 
give their employees a standard work 
week of 40 hours of 8 hours per day, to- 
gether with the guarantee that 90 percent 
of the regular employees be guaranteed 
40 hours work or pay, would be putting a 
burden on the operators under present con- 
ditions which would, in many instances, be 
intolerable. 

It may well be that in the course of time 
the standard work week will be reduced 
from a 48- or 45-hour week as presently 
constituted, but with the requests for pen- 
sions and increased pay which the Union 
has made, the Board is of the view that if 
it is to recommend any substantial in- 
crease in costs at all, these recommenda- 
tions should not be found in the area of 
the reduction of the work week or by 
guaranteeing full employment to regular 
employees. Accordingly, in view of these 
factors and of the recommendations here- 
inafter made for increase in wages and 
pensions, the Board recommends that the 
hour-of-work provisions and the overtime 
provisions of the present contract remain 
in force during the term of the forthcom- 
ing contract." 

Piggyback 

The Union submits that the Companies 
should only have the right to subcontract 
their work after they have guaranteed jobs 
for the present number of employees. Pres- 
ently, before piggyback operations are com- 
menced, the Companies have agreed to hold 



meetings with the Union. These meetings 
were designed to attempt to agree upon 
the re-allocation of the men that would 
be affected. 

There is little room for doubt but that 
the piggyback form of transportation is 
here to stay, and will in all likelihood be 
extended. For these reasons, the Com- 
panies should not be put in a straight- 
jacket with respect to subcontracting in 
relation to piggyback operations. At the 
same time, it is understandable that an 
employee who, for instance, might have 
been a driver with considerable seniority, 
and whose position is affected by the intro- 
duction of piggyback, wants to have his 
job guaranteed before such introduction is 
allowed. 

The Board is of the view that the best 
that both parties to the contract can hope 
for is that the senior employees presently 
employed be given the maximum protec- 
tion in the event of the extension of piggy- 
back operations through some form of sub- 
contracting. The Board recommends that 
before the Companies subcontract piggy- 
back loads, meetings should be held with 
the Union and attempts made to re-allocate 
the men who might be affected, and that 
no employee with 5 years or more seniority 
as of June 1, 1962, should lose a job 
through the introduction of piggyback op- 
erations, but that in the event his employ- 
ment as a highway driver is affeoted by the 
introduction of piggyback operations, he 
be entitled to use his seniority to "bump 
down" into lower-paid positions. Also, if 
in turn other employees with lesser senior- 
ity are affected thereby, no one who has 
seniority in excess of 5 years as of June 1, 
1962, is to be laid off as a direct result of 
the introduction of piggyback operations. 
It shall, however, be the prerogative of 
the Company to determine in the first in- 
stance what employees, if any, shall be 
laid off in the event of the introduction of 
piggyback operations. 

Issue as to Brokers 

Some Bureau members employ brokers 
who are self-employed persons owning their 
own vehicles and enter into contracts with 
them to make certain highway trips. The 
Union proposes that owner-operators be 
considered the same as employees and 
operate under the same conditions as em- 
ployees operate in respect to wages, senior- 
ity, Union security, etc. 

The Companies take the view that 
owner-operators are not employees under 
the Labour Relations Act, and that since 
they are employed for the most part in 
operations which are uneconomical for the 
Company to operate through the use of its 



844 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



own equipment, that to require the Com- 
pany to pay these owner-operators the same 
wages and give them the same working 
conditions as the other employees, would 
be simply one way of prohibiting the Com- 
panies from using the services of owner- 
operators for otherwise uneconomical trans- 
portation of certain goods. The Companies 
point out that they are constantly being 
faced with the shipper putting on his own 
trucks, either directly operated by the 
shipper or on a pseudo-lease basis where 
the shipper actually employs a broker him- 
self. 

The problem involved here is easily 
recognizable, but to recommend a solution 
which on the one hand gives the employer 
freedom to use the services of an owner- 
operator if he finds it necessary to do so 
to maintain himself in business, and at the 
same time protect the employees who have 
served the operators over the years, is 
almost an insoluble problem. 

The Union seeks to prohibit the utiliza- 
tion of leased equipment in any manner 
which is used to defeat the purpose of the 
collective agreement. It submits that the 
trucking industry, in its effort to unload the 
risk of operation, has effected a growing 
trend of having the work performed by 
so-called owner-operators, thus avoiding the 
assumption of the risk of the cost of opera- 
tion by placing it upon persons who are 
self-employed as owner-operators. The 
Union feels that the use of owner-operators 
brings about an erosion of the bargaining 
unit and an injurious impact on the con- 
ditions of the workers. The Companies, on 
the other hand, find it necessary on occa- 
sion to use owner-operators if they are to 
maintain the business that they have and 
protect their investments. 

The Board is of the opinion that there 
is an urgent need for some legislative body 
to be set up and to operate which will fix 
at least minimum and maximum rates in 
this industry, and will also regulate other 
working conditions, including minimum 
wages. The Board is of the opinion that 
the lack of some regulatory body to fix 
minimum and maximum rates and regulate 
working conditions, has been at least to a 
considerable extent part of the reason why 
relations between operators and employees 
in this industry have not been as smooth 
as they should be. The Board believes that 
if some regulatory body were set up and 
were operating in the way suggested, that 
many of the points of irritation which have 
plagued the trucking industry and its em- 
ployees would be removed, and it strongly 
urges that a legislative solution to this 
problem be brought about at the earliest 
possible date. 



It may very well be that under the 
agreement made by the Companies with 
owner-operators, that the Canada Labour 
Relations Board, upon application to it, 
would find that such owner-operators were 
in fact employees of the Companies under 
the Act. 

This might prove to be the case if the 
nature of the task undertaken by the owner- 
operator and his employees, and the free- 
dom of action allowed him, are such that 
the right to prescribe the exact work and 
the right to direct the particular work to 
be done, and the conditions upon which 
such work is done, is reserved for the 
Company, and if the owner-operator may 
be bound to devote the whole of his time 
to the work directed and generally to receive 
directions as to the manner in which the 
work should be done. 

If the Companies do in fact exercise such 
complete and far-reaching control over 
owner-operators that for all practical pur- 
poses they discharge their duty in the same 
manner, subject to the same directions, and 
generally under the same conditions as the 
other drivers who are direct employees, 
the Union may have it within its power 
to have the owner-operators certified by the 
Canada Labour Relations Board as em- 
ployees, and thereby bring them directly 
under the terms of the collective bargaining 
agreement. 

If the Board were to recommend that 
the contract provisions contained the re- 
quests of the Brotherhood with respect to 
owner-operators, it would in effect be deter- 
mining as a fact that such owner-operators 
are employees and not independent opera- 
tors actually doing contract work, and the 
Board does not believe that it is within its 
jurisdiction to make such a finding, but 
rather that this is within the province of 
the Canada Labour Relations Board. 

In the meantime, the only recommenda- 
tion the Board is prepared to make with 
respect to brokers is that the agreement 
provide that, before the Companies employ 
owner-operators or brokers, that meetings 
should be held with the Union and an 
attempt made to re-allocate the men who 
might be affected by such operations. Also, 
that no employee with 5 years or more 
seniority as of June 1, 1962, should lose 
a job through the introduction of owner- 
operator business, and that in the event a 
driver's employment is affected by the 
introduction or extension of owner-opera- 
tions, that he be entitled to use his seniority 
to "bump down" into lower positions. And, 
if in turn other employees with less seniority 
are affected thereby, that no one who has 
seniority in excess of 5 years as of June 1, 
1962, be laid off as a direct result of the 



THE LABOUR. GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



845 



introduction of owner-operator business. It 
shall, however, be the prerogative of the 
Company to determine in the first instance 
what employees, if any, shall be laid off 
in the event of the introduction of owner- 
operator business. 

Recognition of Locals at Kingston and 
London 

It was agreed before the Board that 
once an agreement is arrived at between 
the parties — and the present three locals 
request the Bureau to recognize Kingston 
(Local 91) and London (Local 141) — that 
the Bureau will recognize these locals with- 
out it being necessary to have them certi- 
fied by the Labour Relations Board. 

Health and Welfare, Pensions and Wages, 
and Term of Contract 

It is not the intention of the Board that 
the recommendations hereinafter made 
should be a floor from which the Union, 
after the Board report, would seek to 
increase the amounts recommended under 
these monetary headings, nor is it the 
intention of the Board that the recom- 
mendations which follow will be used by 
the operators as a ceiling which must be 
lowered or the contract term lengthened 
before a contract can be agreed upon. 

The last collective agreement expired on 
September 30, 1961, and allowing a mini- 
mum length of time for post-conciliation- 
report negotiations to complete the contract, 
it is the Board's view that the new contract 
will not be entered into prior to June 1, 
1962. Therefore, the Board recommends 
that the forthcoming collective contract be 
entered into for a period of three (3) years, 
commencing June 1, 1962 and concluding 
on May 31, 1965, subject to the following 
changes and amendments with respect to 
welfare, pensions and wages. 

1. The Board recommends that all present 
employees who were employees of the Com- 
panies affected by this agreement on the date 
of the expiry of the last contract, and who 
are presently employees, shall be paid a lump 
sum settlement of sixty dollars ($60.00), and 
that employees who have been engaged by 
the operators since September 30, 1961, receive 
a settlement pay on a pro rata basis. 

2. Commencing on the 1st day of June, 
1962, and upon the first day of each and every 
month thereafter, the employer shall con- 
tribute by cheque payable to the Ontario 
Teamsters Welfare Fund, Health and Welfare 
Account, the "Sum of twelve dollars ($12.00), 
for each employee covered by this agreement 
who has been on the payroll for more than 
thirty (30) calendar days. 

Pensions 
1. On condition that the employees con- 
tribute a like amount at like times, com- 
mencing on the 1st of June, 1962, and on the 
first of each month thereafter up to and 
including the 1st of May, 1963, the em- 



ployers shall contribute to an employee pen- 
sion fund handled by joint trustees and 
administered by an insurance company, the 
sum of three dollars (3.00) for each employee 
covered by this agreement who has been on 
the payroll for more than thirty (30) days. 

2. On condition that the employees con- 
tribute a like amount at like times, commencing 
on the 1st of June, 1963, and on the first of 
each month thereafter up to and including 
the 1st of May, 1964, the employers shall 
contribute to an employee pension fund handled 
by joint trustees and administered by an in- 
surance company, the sum of four dollars 
(4.00) for each employee covered by this 
agreement who has been on the payroll for 
more than thirty (30) days. 

3. On condition that the employees con- 
tribute a like amount at like times, commenc- 
ing on the 1st of June, 1964, and on the first 
of each month thereafter up to and including 
the 1st of May, 1965, the employers shall 
contribute to an employee pension fund 
handled by joint trustees and administered by 
an insurance company, the sum of five dollars 
(5.00) for each employee covered by this 
agreement who has been on the payroll for 
more than thirty (30) days. 

Wages 

1. Commencing on June 1, 1962, there 
shall be for all hourly rated employees or 
hourly paid employees (except dock operators, 
checkers and skilled mechanics) a wage in- 
crease of five (5) cents per hour. 

2. Commencing on June 1, 1962, there shall 
be for dock operators and checkers a wage 
increase of four (4) cents per hour. 

3. Commencing on June 1, 1962, there 
shall be for skilled mechanics a wage increase 
of six (6) cents per hour. 

4. Commencing on March 1, 1963, there shall 
be for all hourly rated employees or hourly 
paid employees (except skilled mechanics) a 
further wage increase of four (4) cents per 
hour. 

5. Commencing on March 1, 1963, there shall 
be for skilled mechanics a further wage in- 
crease of five (5) cents per hour. 

6. Commencing on December 1, 1963, there 
shall be for all hourly rated employees or 
hourly paid employees (except skilled mechan- 
ics) a further wage increase of five (5) 
cents per hour. 

7. Commencing December 1, 1963, there 
shall be for skilled mechanics a further wage 
increase of six (6) cents per hour. 

8. Commencing on September 1, 1964, there 
shall be for all hourly rated employees or 
hourly paid employees (except skilled me- 
chanics) a further wage increase of six (6) 
cents per hour. 

9. Commencing on September 1, 1964, there 
shall be for skilled mechanics a further wage 
increase of seven (7) cents per hour. 

As an alternative basis for settlement, 
the Board makes the following recommen- 
dations: 

A. The same recommendation as con- 
tained above for settlement pay. 

B. No increase in monthly payments to- 
wards the welfare fund. 

C. Pension increase the same as above 
recommended. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



D. Wages: 

1. Commencing June 1, 1962, there shall 
be for all hourly rated employees or hourly 
paid employees (except dock operators and 
checkers and skilled mechanics), a wage in- 
crease of six (6) cents per hour. 

2. Commencing June 1, 1962, there shall be 
for dock operators and checkers a wage in- 
crease of five (5) cents per hour. 

3. Commencing June 1, 1962, there shall be 
for skilled mechanics a wage increase of seven 
(7) cents per hour. 

4. Commencing March 1, 1963, there shall 
be for all hourly rated and hourly paid em- 
ployees (except skilled mechanics), a further 
wage increase of five (5) cents per hour. 

5. Commencing March 1, 1963 there shall be 
for skilled mechanics a further increase of 
six (6) cents per hour. 

6. Commencing December 1, 1963, there 
shall be for all hourly rated and hourly paid 
employees (except skilled mechanics) a 
further wage increase of five (5) cents per 
hour. 

7. Commencing December 1, 1963, there 
shall be for skilled mechanics a further wage 
increase of six (6) cents per hour. 

8. Commencing September 1, 1964, there 
shall be for all hourly rated employees and 
hourly paid employees (except skilled me- 
chanics) a further wage increase of six (6) 
cents per hour. 

9. Commencing September 1, 1964, there 
shall be a further wage increase for skilled 
mechanics of seven (7) cents per hour. 

For drivers who are paid on a mileage 
basis, the wage increases recommended above 
under the first recommendation, which includes 
payments towards the health and welfare fund, 
and under the second recommendation, which 
does not include additional payments into the 
health and welfare fund, shall have on the 
same dates as the general increases for the 
hourly rated employees (except dock operators, 
checkers and skilled mechanics), their mileage 
rates increased by one tenth (Mn) of a cent 
per mile for each four (4) -cent increase in 
the wage rate. 

Thus, where there has been a recommenda- 
tion for an increase in the hourly rate of 
four (4) cents, the mileage rate shall be 
increased by one tenth ( 1 /io) of a cent, and 
where there has been an increase to the general 
hourly rated employees of five (5) cents per 
hour, the mileage rate shall likewise be in- 
creased by 0.125 per cent. Likewise, where 
there has been an increase recommended to 
the general hourly rated employees of six (6) 
cents, there shall be an increase in the mileage 
rate of 0.15 per cent. 

It was the Chairman's original view that 
the total money package should not result 
in end-increased costs above 24 cents per 
hour for a 4-year contract. However, the 
phasing of the increases hereinbefore recom- 
mended will result in an average cost over 
a 3-year contract period from June 1, 1962 
of a somewhat lower average cost than if a 
6-cent-per-hour cost increase at the be- 
ginning of each year for a 4-year contract 
had been recommended. 

The Chairman therefore, for these rea- 
sons, has recommended that the term of 



the contract should be for three (3) years 
from June 1, 1962, with the result that the 
average yearly cost over the full term 
of the contract of 44 months is somewhat 
less than would have been the result under 
a 4-year contract with a 6-cent-per-hour 
increase over that period applied at the 
beginning of each contract year. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 
(Sgd.) J. C. Anderson, 
Chairman 

I concur in all the Report excepting 
those portions dealt with in my adden- 
dum, a copy of which is attached 

(Sgd.) M. O'Brien, 
Member 

I concur in all the Report excepting 
paragraphs subsequent to "Strikes and 
Lockouts" on page 14 [of the original 
report] 

(Sgd.) Paul Siren, 
Member 

Dated at Belleville, Ont., the 12th day 
of May, 1962. 

APPENDIX "A" 

Transport Companies under Federal 
Jurisdiction 
Argosy Carriers Limited 
Battler Cartage Limited 
Bondy Cartage Limited 
Canal Cartage Limited 
Connell Transport Limited 
Consolidated Truck Lines Limited 
Direct Winters Transport Limited 
Roy Duncan Transport Limited 
Fess Transport Limited 
Finch & Sons Transport Limited 
Gill Interprovincial Lines Limited 
Hanson Transport Company Limited 
C. Hinton & Company Limited 
Hume's Transport Limited 
Husband Transport Limited 
Hutton Transport Limited 
Inter-City Truck Lines Limited 
International Cartage Limited 
Jones Transport Limited 
Keystone Transport Company 
Kingsway Transports Limited 
Lawson's Transport Limited 
Lewis Transport Limited 
The Walter Little Limited 
M & P Transport Limited 
Maislin Transport Inc. 
Montreal-Cornwall Express Lines Ltd. 
Montreal Ottawa Express Limited 
Morrice Cartage Limited 
Motorways (Ontario) Limited 
Muirhead Forwarding Limited 
The McAnally Freight-Ways Co. Limited 
McKinlay Transport Limited 
McNeil Transport Limited 
Norman's Transfer Limited 
Northern Transport Limited 
The Overland Express Limited 
Reliable Transport Limited 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY J962 



847 



Scobie's Transport Limited 

Scott Transport Limited 

Simmonds Transport Limited 

Smith Transport Limited 

Star Transfer Limited 

Thibodeau Express Limited 

Toronto-Peterborough Transport Co. Ltd. 

Wallace Transport Limited 

Wilke Mover & Cartage. 

ADDENDUM (PAUL SIREN) 

As a matter of clarity, I would like to 
point out that in addition to my joining 
with the Chairman on matters reported in 
his Report up to and including the "Strikes 
and Lockout" section, I concur in the 
Report with respect to the "Recognition of 
Locals at Kingston and London" section. 

1. Vacations 

The Board was informed that the current 
agreement between the Car Carriers group 
represented by the Motor Transport In- 
dustrial Relations Bureau and the same 
Union involved in this dispute provides for 
3 weeks vacation with pay after 12 years 
of service. There is a growing trend to pro- 
vide long-service employees with 4 weeks 
of vacations in industry generally. 

I recommend that the parties incorporate 
in the terms of the contract a provision for 
3 weeks vacation with pay after 12 years 
employment and four weeks vacation with 
pay after 20 years employment, in addition 
to the existing provisions covering em- 
ployees with less than 12 years employment. 

2. Hours of Work 

The present 48-hour work week in this, 
a major industry in Canada, is an unfair 
burden upon the employees in the industry. 
Almost every major industry, if not all 
major industries, are on a 40-hour work 
week. 

Recognizing that the impact on the in- 
dustry would be quite severe initially if 
the work week were reduced from 48 to 
40 hours at once, I am prepared to recom- 
mend a gradual reduction of the work week. 
Nevertheless, irrespective of the cost that 
may ensue from payment of additional 
overtime (unless the work can be performed 
without such payment) it would be unfair 
to continue to retain the 48-hour work 
week. 

I therefore recommend that the work 
week be reduced by one (1) hour to 47 
hours beginning June 1, 1962. I also recom- 
mend that effective October 1, 1962, the 
work week be reduced by one (1) hour to 
46 hours and effective October 1, 1963, the 
work week be reduced to 45 hours per 
week. This would still leave the employees 
of this industry considerably behind workers 



in Canadian industry generally. This recom- 
mendation would not involve maintenance 
of take-home pay. 

3. Piggyback 

The recommendation of the Chairman is 
a step forward in securing the job rights of 
employees, but with respect to his view, 
I consider that job security is paramount 
in considering this matter. The Union is 
entitled, in my view, to protect the jobs 
of its membership as its trade union func- 
tion and as a duty to the economy of the 
nation. 

While recognizing the continued use of 
piggyback operations, I recommend con- 
tractual provisions that would protect the 
jobs of all bargaining unit employees. In 
other words, introduction of piggyback 
operations should not deprive members of 
the bargaining unit of jobs, and such piggy- 
back operations would be an expansion of 
the work performed by bargaining unit 
personnel. 

4. Brokers or Owner-Operators 

I join with the Chairman in emphasizing 
the urgent need for a legislative regulatory 
body that would establish minimum stand- 
ards for the industry. I concur with the 
views expressed by the Chairman that lack 
of such standards (i.e., minimum wage 
standards) have largely contributed to the 
tensions in employer-employee relations. 
The struggle to maintain wage standards at 
any decent level is a source of great stress 
in relations in the industry. 

I recommend that the parties to the 
agreement provide a contractual provision 
which would assure protection, to all em- 
ployees in the bargaining unit, of jobs 
normally accruing to the bargaining unit. 
Such a provision would give bargaining unit 
employees preference to jobs in the indus- 
try. 

In the event of owner-operators being 
employed by the industry, it is my recom- 
mendation that the agreement spell out that 
such owner-operators come within the juris- 
diction of the collective agreement in all 
respects, including wages, hours, other eco- 
nomic benefits and including the payment 
of union dues. As a further protection to 
ensure that proper wages are being paid, I 
recommend that wages be paid by separate 
cheque, and any expenses or other monies 
paid by the employer to the owner-operator, 
be in the form of a cheque apart from wage 
payment. 

With respect to the matter of jurisdiction 
raised in connection with this matter, it is 
my view that the parties are free to agree 
to such a provision in the contract, and 
in view of this matter being before this 



848 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



Board as a matter in dispute, it is proper 
for the Board to so recommend. 

5. Term 

I recommend the agreement to take effect 
on October 1, 1961, the date subsequent 
to the expiry date of the present agreement. 
I further recommend the agreement be 
entered into for a 3 -year period from 
October 1, 1961, expiring September 30, 
1964. I see no reason why the employees 
should not be entitled to benefits beginning 
with the date following the expiry date of 
the current agreement. 

6. Welfare 

1 concur with the recommendation of the 
Chairman appearing on page 17 of the 
[original] report, item No. 2 [under "Health 
and Welfare, Pensions . . . Contract"], to the 
effect that beginning with June 1, 1962, the 
employer shall contribute the sum of $12.00 
per month for each employee to the On- 
tario Teamsters Welfare Fund, Health and 
Welfare Account. (I am aware that the 
Chairman does not include the above pay- 
ment in his second proposal on wages. My 
recommendation includes payment of the 
$12.00 per month for each employee in 
addition to my recommendation on wages.) 

7. Pensions 

I concur with the recommendation of 
the Chairman as they appear as items Nos. 
1, 2 and 3 on page 18 of the [original] Re- 
port under the heading "Pensions." 

8. Wages 

It is my considered opinion that the 
hourly rate should be no less than $2.00 
per hour during the course of the new 
agreement. Recognizing that my recom- 
mendations in some matters referred to this 
Board are in excess of the recommendations 
of the Chairman of the Board, I do wish to 
concur with the end rate suggested by the 
first wage proposal advanced by the Chair- 
man — namely, a general wage increase of 
22 cents per hour during the life of the 
agreement. 

I do not agree that the dock operators 
and checkers receive less than the drivers, 
and my recommendation for the skilled 
mechanics is in excess of the recommenda- 
tion of the Chairman. My recommendation 
also differentiates, in the application of 
effective dates, from the Report of the 
Chairman. 



My specific wage recommendation is the 
following: 

GENERAL WAGE INCREASE 



Effective 
Date 

October 1, 1961 
October 1, 1962 
October 1, 1963 

Total 



(Except skilled Skilled 

mechanics) Mechanics 

Cents per Cents per 

Hour ■ Hour 



22 



10 

10 

9 

29 



It is my understanding that the above 
recommendation concerning skilled me- 
chanics would bring the mechanics to the 
same rate of pay now paid to mechanics 
under the Car Carriers contract between the 
Bureau and the Union. 

It is not necessary for me to comment 
on the matter of settlement pay in view 
of my recommendation for full retroactiv- 
ity. 

9. Mileage Rate 

I concur with the formula recommended 
by the Chairman on page 19 of the [orig- 
inal] Report (mileage rates to be in- 
creased by 1/10 of 1 per cent per mile for 
each 4-cent increase in the wage rate), 
except that I would apply this adjustment 
on the October 1 dates referred to above 
for the application of the wage increase. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

(Sgd.) Paul Siren, 
Member. 

ADDENDUM (M. O'BRIEN) 

I appreciate having the opportunity of 
discussing the Report in the above-men- 
tioned matter with the Chairman and my 
colleague on the Board. 

I regret that I am unable to agree with 
their reports. 

However, I am in agreement with the 
Chairman's Report in all matters except 
the following: 

1. On "2(b) (viii)" starting at the top of 
page 7 of the [original] report [under "2. High- 
way Operations — (b) Regular-Run Drivers"]. 
It is my information that this item was not 
agreed on by the full committee and needs 
further clarification. I would, therefore, recom- 
mend that the parties clarify this section 
rather than accept it as presently drafted. 

2. The issue as to brokers. I concur in the 
recommendation of the Chariman but am 
not in accord with page 16 starting at line 53 
[of the original report] and continuing to the 
first paragraph beginning on p. 17 [under "Issue 
as to Brokers"]. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



849 



Health and Welfare, Pensions and Wages, 

and Term of Contract 

While I am not in agreement with the 
Chairman as to the overall cost of the 
settlement, I am in agreement that em- 
ployees should match any contribution of 
the employer and I also support the idea 
that in these circumstances, welfare funds 
such as for pensions and insurance should 
be handled by an insurance company or a 
trust company. 

Increased Costs 

There was no justification for any increase 
shown in the Union presentation to the 
Board of Conciliation; on the other hand, 
the presentation of the Bureau to the 
Board clearly set out: 

a. The difficult financial position in which 
the carriers find themselves and the fact that 
the total profits in the industry, as shown in 
DBS reports, would in their entirety pay 
only a very small increase. 

b. The fact that increases over the past years 
in this industry have far exceeded any in- 
crease in the cost of living. 

c. The fact that, on a percentage basis, the 
increase in wages in this industry has ex- 
ceeded the average increases in hourly rates 
in manufacturing since July, 1949. 



d. Settlements made by other industries and 
other unions covering the years 1961-62 and 
1963 ranged from 13 to 18 cents for the 3 
years. 

e. Settlements made by other industries and 
other unions since August 1, 1961, ranged 
upward from 2 cents per hour per year, with 
the great majority in the 3- to 5-cent-per-hour 
range. 

In view of the critical financial position 
of the industry, it seems to me that any 
increase at this time is inadvisable since 
it will undoubtedly work to the disad- 
vantage of employees and employers alike. 

However, the employers have offered an 
increase in an attempt to settle the matters 
in dispute, and in view of all of the cir- 
cumstances and based on the evidence be- 
fore the Board, it is my opinion that their 
offer is fair and reasonable and meets all 
the generally accepted criteria; therefore, 
I am not able to recommend any greater 
increase than proposed by the employers. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

(Sgd.) M. O'Brien, 
Member. 

Dated at Toronto, Ont., the 14th day of 
May, 1962. 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Canadian Pacific Railway Company 

and 

Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen 



This is the decision of the Board con- 
stituted by the Minister of Labour on 
August 3, 1961. 

The Board comprised R. V. Hicks, Q.C., 
representing the Company, Douglas M. 



During May, the Minister of Labour 
received the Report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation and Investigation established to deal 
with a dispute between the Canadian Pacific 
Railway Company (Atlantic, Eastern, 
Prairie and Pacific Regions, including the 
Quebec Central Railway Company and 
Dominion Atlantic Railway Company) and 
the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen 
and Enginemen. 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of His Honour Judge Ren6 Lippe of Mont- 
real. He was appointed by the Minister 
in the absence of a joint recommendation 
from the other two members, R. V. Hicks, 
Q.C., of Toronto, and Douglas M. Fisher 
of Port Arthur, nominees of the company 
and union, respectively. 

The Report is reproduced here. 



Fisher, M.P., representing the Union, and 
was presided over by [His Honour] Rene 
Lippe, District Judge of the Magistrate's 
Court of the Province of Quebec. 

The sittings were held at the Court House 
and at the CPR's main office, in Montreal. 

The members of the Board are pleased 
to inform the Minister that, during con- 
ciliation, the parties have settled their 
differences and that they have signed a 
collective agreement, copy of which is 
attached to the present decision. 

The whole respectfully submitted; Mont- 
real, May 17, 1962. 

(Sgd.) Rene Lippe, 
Chairman 

(Sgd.) R. V. Hicks, 
Member 

(Sgd.) Douglas M. Fisher, 
Member 



850 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



Report of Board in Dispute between 



Rio Algom Mines Limited (Nordic and Milliken Divisions) 

and 

United Steelworkers of America 



This is the report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation which was appointed by you on 
or about the 13th day of March, A.D. 1962. 

The Board met with the parties in Toron- 
to on six different occasions, namely, May 
4, 5, 12, 13, 15 and 16, 1962. 

We are happy to advise that a complete 
settlement was reached by the parties. The 
particulars of the settlement are set out in 
the form of a Memorandum of Agreement, 
copies of which are attached hereto, and 
duplicate originals have been given to each 
of the parties. 

At these meetings the Company was 
represented by: 

Alex Harris, Director of Industrial Relations 
G. M. Godfrey, Mine Manager, Nordic Mine 
E. W. Cheeseman, General Mine Superin- 
tendent, Nordic Mine 
D. A. Macfarlane, Assistant Treasurer 
D. A. Ramsay, Personnel Officer, Nordic 

Mine 
W. V. Piche, Personnel Officer, Milliken 
Mine. 

And the Union was represented by: 

O. Mancini, Area Supervisor 

G. Gilchrist, Representative 

H. Waisglass, Research Dept. Representative 

G. Milling, Research Dept. Representative 

R. Brunelle, President, Local 5615 

N. Bilusak, Vice-President, Local 5615 

G. Huston, Recording Secretary, Local 5615 

K. Eikerman, Treasurer, Local 5615 

L. Barnes, President, Local 5417 

G. Levesque, Vice-President, Local 5417 

J. Whitehead, Recording Secretary, Local 5417 

P. Boychuk, Financial Secretary, Local 5417 

J. Benoit, Treasurer, Local 5417 

The Chairman would like to express his 
thanks and gratitude to the members of 
the Board who worked most diligently in 
assisting the parties to reach agreement. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 
(Sgd.) H. C. Arrell, 

Chairman 
(Sgd.) George S. P. Ferguson, 

Member 
(Sgd.) D. B. Archer, 

Member 

Dated at Hamilton, the 19th day of 
May, 1962. 

MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT 

Memorandum of Agreement signed the 
16th day of May, 1962, between Rio Al- 



gom Mines Limited and the United Steel- 
workers of America: 

The negotiating committee for Rio Al- 
gom Mines Limited, Nordic and Milliken 
Divisions, and the negotiating committee 
for the United Steelworkers of America, 
Locals 5417 and 5615 of Nordic and Milli- 
ken Divisions, hereby agree to recommend 
to their principals the following terms of a 
collective agreement. 

1. The term of the agreement to begin 
May 16, 1962 and to expire on May 16, 
1965. 

2. Wages — Wages and Savings Plan — 
Effective on the 16th day of May, 1962, 
the Company will increase all hourly wage 
rates in effect on the 15th day of May, 

1962 by 3 cents per hour. 

Effective on the 16th day of May, 1962, 
the Company will contribute at the rate 
of 5 cents per straight-time hour worked 
(including time not worked on paid holi- 
days and during the vacation period) per 
employee for the purpose of a retirement 
savings plan under the conditions set out in 
the retirement savings plan agreement which 
is an appendix to and forms part of this 
agreement. 

Effective on the 16th day of May, 1963, 
the Company will increase all hourly wage 
rates in effect on the 15th day of May, 

1963 by 4 cents per hour. Effective on the 
16th day of May, 1964 the Company will 
increase all hourly wage rates in effect on 
the 15th day of May, 1964, 5 cents per hour. 



During May, the Minister of Labour 
received the Report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation and Investigation established to 
deal with a dispute between Rio Algom 
Mines Limited (Nordic Division and Mil- 
liken Division), Elliot Lake, Ont., and 
the United Steelworkers of America. 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of His Honour Judge Hugh C. Arrell of 
Hamilton, Ontario. He was appointed by 
the Minister on the joint recommendation 
of the other two members, George S. P. 
Ferguson, Q.C., and David Archer, both 
of Toronto, nominees of the company and 
union, respectively. 

The Report is unanimous and incorpo- 
rates a Memorandum of Agreement signed 
by both parties in settlement of the dis- 
pute. 

The Report is reproduced here. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



851 



3. The Company undertakes to pay to 
each employee on the payroll as of Janu- 
ary 1, 1962, and still on the payroll as of 
May 16, 1962, the sum of $15.00. 

4. The Union withdraws its request for 
continuity bonus. 

5. The Company will provide the Union 
with a letter concerning Union recognition 
at a third uranium mine which may be 
opened in the Elliot Lake area and also as 
to the application of Company seniority in 
this respect. 

6. (a) All employees presently receiving 
the first-class trades rate shall continue to 
receive the first-class trades rate, (b) The 
Company will review the qualifications of 
the present second-class tradesmen with a 
view of upgrading them to first-class if they 
are qualified, (c) Employees presently re- 
ceiving second-class trades rate will continue 
to receive second-class rate plus any gen- 



eral wage increases as provided in this 
memorandum of agreement. 

7. The attached articles, with the ex- 
ception of Article 22.02 and 26.01, shall 
form part of the memorandum and consti- 
tute the agreement between the parties. 
These two articles will be discussed and 
will be included in the agreement. 

Signed on behalf of the Company 
Alex Harris 

Signed on behalf of the Union 
O. Mancini 
John A. Whitehead 
Roger Brunelle 
G. H. Gilchrist 

Signed on behalf of the Board 
H. C. Arrell 

Dated at Toronto, the 16th day of 
May, 1962. 



Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 
Releases Decisions in Seven Recent Cases 



The Canadian Railway Board of Adjust- 
ment No. 1 has released its decision in 
seven cases heard on various dates between 
November 14, 1961 and February 16, 1962. 

One of the disputes was over a claim 
for a portion of the monthly guarantee by 
an employee who before assuming an as- 
signment was "bumped" by another higher 
in seniority, one case resulted from the 
claim by a yard foreman and a yard 
helper for pay for the time they were held 
out of service while criminal charges against 
them were being settled by the courts; and 
another was about the number of em- 
ployees who should man a trackmobile. 

Four cases concerned claims for extra 
pay. Two different cases involved claims 
by an engineer and a fireman for work that 
they were required to perform en route; 
another a claim by an engineer and a fire- 
man for payment for "lap-back"; and the 
fourth, a claim by an engine crew when 
they were required to use an alternate route. 

The contention of the employees was 
sustained in two cases and was not sus- 
tained in four. In the seventh case the 
decision was a compromise. 

Three of the cases were decided by a 
referee, whose award constituted the deci- 
sion of the Board. 

Summaries of the seven cases, Nos. 781 
to 787, are given below. 

Case No. 781 — Dispute between Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway (S.D. & P.C. Dept.) 



and the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, 
ex parte, over the claim of a buffet car 
steward for 15/30ths of monthly guarantee, 
when bumped by senior employee before 
assuming an assignment he had bid for. 

Two buffet car stewards bid for and were 
awarded an assignment, one on a regular 
and one on a relief crew. The senior of the 
two men took the "A", or first half of the 
month, leaving the relief, or second portion 
for the other. The junior man was due to 
begin his assignment on November 16, but 
on that date, before he had begun to work 
the assignment, he was "bumped" by a 
senior man. He claimed half of the monthly 
guarantee for the period November 1 to 
15 while he was waiting to begin his 
assignment. 

The union contended that since the 
steward was held and was available as a 
relief during the period in question, he 
was entitled to a proportion of the monthly 
guarantee for that period. 

The company contended that in bidding, 
the steward had accepted the conditions 
of the assignment, which included the 
possibility that he might be displaced by a 
senior man. It also argued that the as- 
signment was made under conditions in 
which the union had acquiesced for many 
years without protest. The steward was not 
entitled to a proportion of the monthly 
guarantee for an assignment on which he 
had done no work. 



852 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



It was not an act of the employer that 
had resulted in the steward's losing time, 
but was due to the act of another employee 
in exercising his seniority rights, the com- 
pany continued. It was an accepted principle 
that the operation of seniority rules should 
not result in extra expense to the company. 

The company further stated that it had 
twice asked the union to say on what rule 
it was basing its claim, but without getting 
any reply. It must therefore be concluded, 
the company contended, that there was 
nothing in the present collective agreement 
to support the claim. 

Because there was no rule in the agree- 
ment to support the claim, the Board did 
not sustain the employees' contention. 

Case No. 782 — Dispute between Chesa- 
peake and Ohio Railway (Pere Marquette 
Division) and Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers (ex parte) over a claim for 100 
miles at through freight rate by an engineer 
and a fireman required to perform work at 
a station en route. 

The engine crew of a Chesapeake and 
Ohio freight train running between St. 
Thomas, Ont., and Buffalo, N.Y., over 
New York Central rails was asked by 
the NYC dispatcher at Welland to set out a 
NYC engine disabled by a hot box. This 
task required 1 hour and 45 minutes. 

In accordance with the rule in the agree- 
ment covering extra service, the crew was 
paid continuous time for the trip St. Thomas 
to Buffalo plus two hours, the agreed upon 
minimum, for time consumed assisting the 
NYC train. The engineer and fireman then 
claimed 100 miles at through freight rate, 
citing another rule in the agreement dealing 
with switching. 

The contention of the employees was not 
sustained. 

Case No. 783 — Dispute between Chesa- 
peake and Ohio Railway and Brotherhood 
of Locomotive Engineers over a claim by 
an engineer and a fireman for payment 
for "lap-back" . 

An engineer and a fireman were as- 
signed to turnaround local service with 
two round trips a day between Chatham 
and Wallaceburg, Ont., a total distance of 
91.6 miles. After having made a single trip 
from Chatham to Wallaceburg, they were 
required to return on the same line only 
as far as Dresden, go back to Wallaceburg, 
and then return to Chatham. They claimed 
"lap-back" time for the round trip from 
Wallaceburg to Dresden. 

The union, in its contention, cited the 
rule in the agreement dealing with "desti- 
nation" in support of the claim that the 



journey from Wallaceburg to Dresden was 
a lap-back trip for which the men were 
entitled to extra pay. 

The company, in its contention, said that 
the men on the occasion in question had 
made two turnaround trips within their as- 
signed territory on an assignment that 
called for two such trips within the ter- 
ritory. The men had been paid on a contin- 
uous time basis. The only possible ground 
for complaint, the company said, seemed 
to be that one of the turnaround trips did 
not cover the whole of the advertised ter- 
ritory. 

The company stated that the rule quoted 
by the union was a compromise that had 
been agreed upon by it and the union re- 
garding additional mileage or additional 
turnaround trips made in connection with 
the turn or straightaway trip called for, 
or in addition to the straightaway or turn 
assignment being worked. 

It contended further that the crew in 
making the second turn trip was not making 
what was commonly known as a lap-back 
move, but was rather following the trip 
called for in the assignment. The term "lap- 
back" itself contemplates a trip in addition 
to that bargained for in taking a regular 
assignment, the company explained. 

The fact that only part of the mileage 
contemplated in the assignment was made 
did not serve to bring the lap-back rule 
into play, it contended. 

The contention of the employees was not 
sustained. 

Case No. 784 — Dispute between Cana- 
dian National Railways {Great Lakes 
Region) and Brotherhood of Railroad 
Trainmen over a claim by a yard foreman 
and a yard helper for time held out of serv- 
ice while criminal charges against them 
were being disposed of. 

On August 24, CNR constable arrested 
a yard foreman and a yard helper whom 
he had seen removing lumber from a flat 
car. The next day they were convicted 
and given a six-month suspended sen- 
tence. 

Both men were given notice in writing 
by the company to report for investigation 
of the charges on August 29. The investi- 
gation was postponed until September 7 
to suit the convenience of the men. At the 
investigation they admitted that they had 
been found guilty of the charges, and in 
consequence they were discharged by the 
company. 

The men's lawyer appealed the magis- 
trate's decision and on January 4 the ap- 
peal court quashed the conviction. The 
company was told of this on January 5. 
On January 6 the union moved to have the 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



853 



men reinstated, and one was reinstated, on 
January 9 and the other on January 10. On 
January 17, the two men formally claimed 
pay for eight hours a day at yard rates for 
the time they had been off duty. 

The union stated in its contention that 
when the two men had been arrested 
they were taking the lumber off the car 
because part of the load had shifted and 
was projecting over the end and side of 
the car in a way that was dangerous and 
would have made it impossible to couple the 
car to other cars. The crew members were 
loading the lumber on the running board 
of the engine to take it to the yard office, 
where they intended to report the matter to 
the yardm aster. 

The union contended that the men had 
been unjustly held out of service, and 
were entitled to pay for the time lost. 

Quoting the article in the agreement on 
discipline, the company stated that it had 
strictly complied with all the prescribed 
conditions in investigating the case and 
dismissing the men. The fact that the men 
did not notify the company, within the 
30-day period specified in that article, of 
their intention to appeal the dismissal 
"clearly establishes that there is no basis 
for their claim", the company said. 

"Under the particular circumstances of 
the dispute", the Board sustained the con- 
tention of the employees. 

Case No. 785 — Dispute between Chesa- 
peake and Ohio Railway (Pere Marquette 
District) and Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers, ex parte, over the claim of an 
engine crew for a separate day when re- 
quired to use alternative route between 
Detroit and Windsor. 

The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway and 
the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers 
agreed that, beginning December 1, 1955, 
Detroit terminal yard crews would handle 
in both directions between Rougemere (De- 
troit) yard and the C & O tracks in Wind- 
sor, the transfer of cars not handled by 
Canadian division road crews or by car 
ferry. The C & O tracks were adjacent to 
the Canadian Pacific yards in Windsor. 

During negotiation of this agreement, it 
was made clear that there were two alter- 
native routes between the two points: via 
the Essex terminal, and via Pelton, Ont., 
to Walkerville Junction to the CPR yard. 

From December 1, 1955 to September 
8, 1958, the first route had been used. The 
union therefore argued that this route via 
the Essex Terminal had been settled upon 
and had become "the established negotiated 
practice". 

Then, for a period in 1958, crews were 
required to use the second route, via Pelton, 



which caused them to travel 7 miles farther. 
Contending that this was in violation of a 
clause in the agreement that provided for 
payment of a separate day to engine crews 
required to perform extra road service 
beyond the recognized assignment, an en- 
gineer and a fireman submitted a claim for 
100 miles at yard rate of pay on September 
8 and all subsequent dates on which they 
were required to deliver cars to Pelton. 

The company contended there was no 
support under the rules for the penalty pay- 
ment claimed. 

The Board of Adjustment submitted the 
dispute to a referee, and the referee's award 
became the decision of the Board. 

The referee disagreed with the union's 
contention that the use of the first route 
had become an "established negotiated prac- 
tice." 

In his award he went on to say, "In my 
opinion, both alternatives have to be con- 
sidered as being part of the said section 
[of the agreement], which merely states 
that the Detroit Terminal yard crews will 
handle the cars referred to therein between 
two points, that is, Rougemere and the 
Chesapeake and Ohio tracks in Windsor." 

Holding that either of the routes could 
be used, he argued that "the issue is accord- 
ingly restricted to the following question: 
'Was the company entitled under the second 
alternate route to require the . . . yard crew 
to deliver Windsor local cars via New York 
Central from Rougemere, Detroit, to Pel- 
ton, Ontario?' 

"If I answer this question in the negative, 
it will mean that, under no circumstances 
whatsoever, a yard crew which is ordered 
to operate via this second alternate route 
can be called upon to stop short of the 
said route. Yet, this is exactly what the 
Brotherhood is complaining of in the present 
dispute." 

The referee went on to say that if it 
was open to the company to use either of 
the alternate routes, as he believed it was, 
he failed to see how it could be said "that 
the company violated the letter or the spirit 
of the said section when it called the yard 
crew ... to use the Via Pelton' route, but to 
return upon reaching this point, the whole 
without returning to Walkerville Junction 
and thence to Canadian Pacific Yard." 

For these reasons the referee dismissed 
the grievance. 

Case No. 786 — Dispute between Cana- 
dian National Railways (St. Lawrence Re- 
gion) and Brotherhood of Railroad Train- 
men over the consist of crew on trackmobile 
used in switching in Point St. Charles shop 
yard, Montreal. 



854 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



The claim of the Brotherhood that the 
operation of a trackmobile, manned by 
shop craft employees, for moving cars in 
the defined shop track area at the Point 
St. Charles shop yard was in violation of 
an article in the agreement was upheld 
by the Board in its ruling in Case No. 718 
(L.G., 1960, p. 172). But although the 
Board decided that the trackmobile should 
be operated by yardmen, it stated that the 
number of such men to be assigned per 
shift, was a matter for negotiation between 
the parties. 

Subsequent attempts to negotiate a settle- 
ment of the dispute failing, the matter was 
again referred to the Board for final settle- 
ment, and on the request of the Board 
the Minister of Labour appointed a referee 
to decide the case. 

The referee disagreed with the company's 
contention that since the case was being 
reheard in its entirety, he was empowered 
to alter the former decision of the Board 
and he accordingly decided that the only 
point to be dealt with was that of the num- 
ber of yardmen per shift. 

The employees, in their contention, 
quoted an article of the agreement which 
stated that "a yard crew shall consist of 
not less than one foreman and two helpers," 
except where the present practice is to have 
a foreman and one helper, in which cases 
the present practice will be continued until 
changed by agreement between the parties. 

The union stated that the nature of the 
work and considerations of safety and 
efficiency precluded the use of a one-man 
crew, and it asked that not less than two 
men should be assigned. 

The company recounted the efforts that 
had been made to negotiate the matter of 
the size of the crew. It stated that on May 
16, 1960, it had sent the union representa- 
tive a copy of an agreement, reached be- 
tween it and the Trainmen's union in Win- 
nipeg, to operate a trackmobile at the 
Transcona yards by a yard foreman without 
a helper. 

After the failure of further attempts to 
negotiate the matter, the company stated 
that it had informed the union of its inten- 
tion to have a yard foreman replace the 
carmen helpers operating the trackmobile 
in the Point St. Charles shops. 

The referee, in his award, pointed out 
that the trackmobile in these shops was 
always operated between locked switches, 
and that the operators were instructed not 
to move more than five cars at a time, 
although the capacity of the machine was 
stated to be 12 cars at a time. He reviewed 
evidence as to the number and type of 
operators used on similar machines in six 
industrial railway yards, although he partly 



agreed with the union that no fair com- 
parison could be drawn between industrial 
yards and railroad yards. 

Referring to the union's contention that 
a trackmobile was analagous to a locomotive 
and required the same crew, he noted the 
company's contention that the article in the 
agreement quoted by the union could not be 
held to apply to a trackmobile. He agreed 
that the evidence was conclusive that no 
effective comparison could be made between 
a locomotive and a trackmobile. 

He also noted that the union had re- 
quested an arbitration board to establish a 
"uniform crew consist rule for self-pro- 
pelled machines." 

The referee decided that: "One yard 
foreman assisted by one yardman shall be 
the crew consist in respect of the operating 
of a trackmobile at Point St. Charles be- 
tween locked switches." He stipulated, how- 
ever, that his decision should not preclude 
the parties from making additional repre- 
sentations to the arbitration board dealing 
with the proposed amendment to the exist- 
ing agreement. 

Case No. 787 — Dispute between Chesa- 
peake and Ohio Railway (Pere Marquette 
District) and Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers, ex parte, over the claim by an 
engineer and a fireman for 100 miles at 
yard rate of pay when required to perform 
switching en route. 

A Chesapeake and Ohio engineer and a 
fireman, while en route from Sarnia to St. 
Thomas, were required to deliver the 
Canadian Pacific cars in the train to the 
CPR at Chatham, work that was usually 
performed by the switch engine at Chatham. 
The union contended that the operation at 
Chatham constituted switching. 

It quoted a rule in the agreement which 
stated that an engineer in road service who 
was required to do switching at a point 
where yard crews were employed would be 
paid eight hours at yard rates in addition 
to his road trip. 

The union also stated that on six days of 
the week the delivery of cars to the CPR 
was done by yard employees, but that on 
the seventh day the road crew was required 
to do this work. 

The union claimed payment for 100 
miles for the crew. 

The payment by the company of an 
identical claim made at an earlier date 
was cited by the union as evidence of the 
validity of the claim. 

The company contended that the engine 
crew had not done switching within the 
meaning of the rule quoted by the union, 

{Continued on page 882) 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



855 



LABOUR LAW 



Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 



British Columbia Court of Appeal confirms quashing of arbitration board award 
and of certification order, and quashes order replacing bargaining agent. B.C. 
Supreme Court declines jurisdiction over Canada Labour Relations Board; and in 
another decision awards damages for member's wrongful expulsion from a union 



In British Columbia, the Court of Appeal 
confirmed the quashing of an arbitration 
board award under a collective agreement, 
on the ground that the Board made an 
error in law on the face of the award when 
deciding a question of law not specifically 
submitted to the arbitrators. 

In another decision, the Court of Appeal 
confirmed the quashing of a certification 
order on the ground that the employer was 
denied the right to present evidence and 
make representations when, after having 
reported to the Board the withdrawals from 
the union membership of some employees 
after the application for certification had 
been filed, he was not given an opportunity 
to present evidence and make representa- 
tions that might have resulted in the Board's 
ordering a representation vote. 

In another decision, the Court of Appeal 
quashed the Labour Relations Board's order 
substituting a bargaining agent by an order 
issued under the general powers of the 
Board to vary or revoke its orders, and 
ruled that, as the replacing agent was a 
new union, the Board had to proceed under 
the mandatory provisions of the Labour 
Relations Act dealing with certification of a 
union as a bargaining agent. 

The British Columbia Supreme Court 
declined jurisdiction to hear a certiorari 
application to quash certification decisions 
of the Canada Labour Relations Board on 
the ground that the Board, being located in 
the Province of Ontario, was outside the 
territorial jurisdiction of the British Colum- 
bia Court and was not amenable to the 
orders of the British Columbia Court. 

In another decision, the British Columbia 
Supreme Court declared not valid an expul- 
sion from the union of an employee on the 
ground that the majority report of the trial 
committee was signed by a person who 
replaced another member of the committee 
when the hearings were in progress, also 



because the expelled member was barred 
from the union meetings at which the trial 
committee's report was accepted and later 
ratified. 

British Columbia Court of Appeal. . . 

. . . upholds order that set aside an award of an 
arbitration board under a collective agreement 

On December 11, 1961, the British 
Columbia Court of Appeal upheld the order 
of Mr. Justice Sullivan of the British 
Columbia Supreme Court, who set aside an 
award of an arbitration board (L.G., Feb., 
p. 221). 

S. & K. Limited discharged one of its 
employees. Then a dispute arose between 
Local 1-423 of the International Wood- 
workers of America and the company as 
to whether the discharge had been "for 
proper cause" within Article 2, Section 2 
of the collective agreement between the 
employer and the trade union. The refer- 
ence that was submitted to arbitration read, 
"Was Jack Spencer, an employee of S. & K. 
Limited, discharged on August 17, 1960, 
for proper cause?" 

The arbitration board held, by majority 
decision, that the employee in question was 
not properly discharged and directed that 
he be reinstated and compensated for loss 
of pay. The company moved to quash the 
award, and Mr. Justice Sullivan of the B.C. 
Supreme Court set aside the award. From 
the latter decision, the union appealed. 

The judgment of the Court of Appeal 
was delivered by Mr. Justice Sheppard. The 
arbitration award contained the following 
passage: 

The collective agreement between the parties 
qualifies the company's right to discharge em- 
ployees. There is the requirement of "just 
cause" and an Arbitration Board is empow- 
ered to dispose of a discharge grievance by 
any arrangement which is just and fair in 
the Board's opinion. 



This section, prepared by the Legislation Branch, reviews labour laws as they are 
enacted by Parliament and the provincial legislatures, regulations under these laws, and 
selected court decisions affecting labour. 



856 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



Mr. Justice Sheppard noted that Article 
2, Section 2 of the collective agreement 
gave the employer the right to discharge 
employees "for proper cause." "Proper 
cause," in his opinion, involved two ques- 
tions: (1) a question of law, namely, what 
is the definition of "proper cause"; and (2) 
a question of fact, namely, whether the 
evidence establishes those facts necessary 
to bring the case within the definition of 
"proper cause." 

In the case under review, the arbitration 
board had defined "proper cause" as that 
"which is just and fair in the Board's 
opinion." In Mr. Justice Sheppard's opinion, 
this was incorrect. What is "proper cause" 
is that so declared by the law, and not 
necessarily that "which is just and fair in 
the Board's opinion." Consequently, there 
was an error in law on the face of the 
award. 

As the question of what is "proper 
cause" had not been specifically submitted 
to the arbitrators, the principle applicable 
to the situation at bar was stated in A. G. 
Man. v. Kelly, Kelly v. A. G. Man. (1922), 
1 A.C. 26, where Lord Parmoor said: 

Where a question of law has not specifically 
been referred to an umpire, but is material 
in the decision of matters which have been 
referred to him, and he makes a mistake, 
apparent on the face of the award, an award 
can be set aside on the ground that it con- 
tains an error of law apparent on the face of 
the award. 

Mr. Justice Sheppard referred also to 
Re International Nickel Co. of Canada and 
International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers, Local 637 (L.G. 1960, p. 
75), where Mr. Justice Laidlaw said: 

It appears to me that what the board did 
was to decide whether or not this employee 
should be dismissed in the circumstances; it 
did not decide whether or not there was 
just cause for his dismissal. The matters con- 
sidered and determined by the board were 
beyond its jurisdiction. It was not the func- 
tion of the board to determine whether or 
not the company acted reasonably or in 
proper exercise of its discretion in discharging 
the employee or to determine that the com- 
pany should not have discharged him. The 
board not only exceeded its powers but it 
omitted to clearly determine the real issue 
before it. The award cannot be regarded as 
a proper determination of the issues as clearly 
defined by the parties and in evidence. 

According to Mr. Justice Sheppard, these 
quotations properly defined the error of 
the arbitrators in the award under review 
and therefore, the award was properly 
quashed on the ground of error in law 
appearing on the face of the award. 

The Court of Appeal dismissed the ap- 
peal and upheld the quashing of the award 
by the trial judge. International Wood- 



workers of America, Local 1-423 v. S. & K. 
Ltd., (1962), 31 D.L.R. (2d), Part 6, p. 
463. 

British Columbia Court of Appeal. . . 

. . . upholds judgment quashing certification order 
because employer kept from making representation 

On January 23, 1962, the British Colum- 
bia Court of Appeal dismissed an appeal 
from the judgment of Mr. Justice Wilson 
of the B.C. Supreme Court quashing a cer- 
tification order on the ground that the 
employer was not given an opportunity of 
making written or oral representations, con- 
trary to Section 62(8) of the British Colum- 
bia Labour Relations Act. 

The Bakery and Confectionery Workers' 
International Union of America, Local No. 
468, had applied, pursuant to Section 10 of 
the Labour Relations Act, to be certified 
as a bargaining agent for a unit of em- 
ployees of Rotary Pie Service of Vancouver. 

Upon receipt of the application, the 
Board sent a notice on June 12, 1961 ad- 
vising the employer of the application re- 
ceived and stating that "written submis- 
sions concerning this application will be 
considered by the Labour Relations Board 
if received in the office of the undersigned 
within ten (10) days of the date of this 
notice." 

Following receipt of this notice, the com- 
pany's solicitors, on June 19, 1961, wrote 
to the Board, inter alia: 

We are advised that of a total of nine employ- 
ees, seven employees made application to join 
the Bakery and Confectionery Workers' Union, 
but that four of the seven employees have 
subsequently resigned from the union. We are 
informed that the four employees who have 
now left the union are . . . 

In view of the above may we respectfully 
request that a hearing be held with respect of 
this application. 

In its reply of June 20, 1961, the Board 
wrote: "This will acknowledge receipt of 
your letter of June 19th. . . This will be 
placed before the Labour Relations Board." 

Without further communicating with the 
employer, the Board issued a certificate 
on June 27, 1961, determining that the 
company's employees, except those ex- 
cluded by the Act, office staff and salesmen, 
were a unit appropriate for collective bar- 
gaining, and that the Bakery and Con- 
fectionery Workers' International Union of 
America, Local 468, had complied with 
the requirements of the Act, and certifying 
that union for the purposes of collective 
bargaining as the trade union for all such 
employees. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



857 



The employer challenged the Board's de- 
cision and Mr. Justice Wilson of the B.C. 
Supreme Court quashed the certification 
on the ground that the Board had failed to 
give the employer an opportunity to pre- 
sent oral or written representations, con- 
trary to Section 62(8) of the Labour Re- 
lations Act. 

The judge construed the company's reply 
of June 19, not as a representation, but 
as a request for a hearing at which it 
might present its evidence and make its 
representation and, accordingly, he held 
that granting the certificate without further 
notice to the company withheld from it the 
statutory right to an opportunity to present 
evidence and make representations. 

Mr. Justice Wilson's decision was ap- 
pealed by the Board. 

The Board based its appeal on the ground 
that the company's right was limited to 
presenting evidence and making representa- 
tions as to the facts set out in the solicitors' 
letter of June 19, 1961, and the effect 
thereof on the union's right to certification, 
and that, under Section 12 of the Labour 
Relations Act, it was the situation as it 
existed at the date of the application which 
alone must have been considered by the 
Board, and resignations after that date were 
immaterial. Therefore, the company was not 
deprived of an opportunity to present evi- 
dence or make representations which could 
have had any relevancy to what the Board 
had to determine. 

The material parts of Section 12 of the 
Act, which are relevant to the case under 
review, are as follows: 

Section 12(3). If the Board is in doubt 

(a) as to whether a majority of the em- 
ployees in the unit were, at the date of 
the application, members in good stand- 
ing of the trade union making the ap- 
plication, the Board shall direct that a 
representation vote be taken; 

(b) as to whether a majority of the employ- 
ees in the unit wish to be represented 
by the trade union making the appli- 
cation, the Board may direct that a 
representation vote be taken. 

(4) If, on the taking of a representation vote 
under Subsection (3), a majority of the ballots 
of all those eligible to vote are cast in 
favour of the trade union, or if the Board is 
satisfied that a majority of the employees in 
the unit were, at the date of the application, 
members in good standing of a trade union, 
the Board shall certify the trade union for 
the employees in the unit. 

(5) If 

(a) the Board is satisfied that less than a 
majority of the employees in the unit 
were, at the date of application, members 
in good standing of the trade union; or 

(b) on the taking of a representation vote 
under Subsection (3), less than a major- 
ity of the ballots of all those eligible 
to vote are cast in favour of the trade 
union; or 



(c) the Board is satisfied that the trade 
union has falsely represented member- 
ship in good standing. 

the Board shall not certify the trade union 

for the unit. 

Mr. Justice Davey, in his reasons for 
judgment, noted that the clauses of Section 
12 were not too clear. The Board is re- 
quired to certify a union if it is satisfied 
that the majority of the employees were 
members of the union at the date of appli- 
cation for certification; it is required to re- 
ject certification if it is satisfied that less 
than a majority were members of the union 
at that date. 

Under Clause 3, the Board is authorized 
to direct a representation vote to be taken 
if it is in doubt as to whether a majority 
of the employees were members of the 
union at the date of application for certi- 
fication, or if it is in doubt as to whether 
a majority of the employees want to be 
represented by the union. 

A representation vote under Clause 3(b) 
does not specifically relate the employees' 
wishes to the date of application, and a vote 
can only speak as of the date it is taken. 

If the vote shows a majority of those 
voting to be in favour of the union, the 
Board must certify it; if a majority votes 
against the union, the Board must reject 
the application. It is possible, Mr. Justice 
Davey added, that, for various reasons, a 
majority of the employees voting may 
favour the union, even though a majority 
of them were not members of the union at 
the date of application, and vice versa. 

Thus, on any application where the 
Board directs a representation vote, the 
result of the vote would require the Board 
to certify or refuse certification when, if 
there had been no representation vote, it 
would have been required to do the op- 
posite. Mr. Justice Davey assumed that, 
having directed a representation vote, the 
Board would act on the result of it. He 
thought that the alleged withdrawal of four 
employees from membership in the union 
after the date of application was relevant 
to the situation under review. 

An examination of the written evidence 
and an argument at the hearing before the 
Board as to withdrawal of some employees 
from the union might have created sufficient 
doubt whether the majority of the em- 
ployees wanted the union to represent them 
and might have induced the Board to 
order a representation vote. Such a vote 
might have been against the union and led 
to rejection of its application. 

Mr. Justice Tysoe, in his reasons for 
judgment, pointed out that, pursuant to 
Sections 10 and 12 of the Act, when an 



858 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



application for certification is made, the 
Board should determine three things, 
namely: (1) whether the unit is appro- 
priate for collective bargaining; (2) whether 
a majority of the employees in the unit 
were, at the date of the application, mem- 
bers in good standing of the trade union 
making the application; and (3) whether 
a majority of the employees in the unit 
wish to be represented by the trade union 
making the application. Evidence or repre- 
sentations going to any of these three mat- 
ters would be relevant and should be re- 
ceived by the Board. 

Further, in Mr. Justice Tysoe's opinion, a 
certification should not be granted unless 
the Board is satified that a majority of 
the employees in the unit are: (1) mem- 
bers in good standing of the trade union 
making the application, and (2) wish to be 
represented by the applicant. 

The legislation set out the point of time, 
namely the date of application, to deter- 
mine union membership in good standing. 
The point of time as to determining the 
wish of the employees in the unit to be 
represented by the applicant union has 
not been specifically set out, but clearly 
it is not intended it should be as "at the 
date of the application." When an em- 
ployee casts his ballot in a representation 
vote, he is expressing his wish at that time 
and not as it was at some earlier time. By 
Regulation 14(4), the employees eligible to 
vote are to be the employees in the unit at 
the date of application for certification, 
except where otherwise determined by the 
Board. 

In order to secure industrial peace, the 
union representing a unit must have the 
confidence of a majority of those em- 
ployees. This requires, in Mr. Justice Ty- 
soe's opinion, that consideration be given 
to any material change in the relationship 
of the employees and the union, or in the 
wishes of a majority of the employees 
which may take place between the date of 
the application and the time of the ad- 
judication. It would be contrary to the 
policy of the Act for the Board to ignore 
such events, although they may occur 
after the date of the application. 

Mr. Justice Tysoe concluded that the 
date of the application does not govern as 
to the wishes of a majority of the em- 
ployees regarding representation by the 
union which makes the application for cer- 
tification. Resignations from the union 
may or may not mean that those who have 
resigned do not wish the union to represent 
them, but they are of sufficient significance 
to raise a serious doubt about the matter. 
Such a doubt ought to be resolved. 



Consequently, in his opinion, evidence 
and representations as to the facts set out 
in the letter of the company's solicitors to 
the Board of June 19, 1961, referring to 
the resignation from the union, were rele- 
vant and material to the question of whether 
a majority of the employees in the unit 
wished to be represented by the applicant 
union, which was one of the questions the 
Board was required to determine. 

The Court unanimously dismissed the 
appeal and upheld the lower court's judg- 
ment quashing the certification order. Re 
Labour Relations Board; Re Bakery and 
Confectionery Workers' International Union 
of America, Local 468, (1962), 37 W.W.R., 
Part 8, p. 374. 

British Columbia Court of Appeal. . . 

. . . quashes Labour Relations Board's substitution 
of bargaining agent by varying certification order 

On February 7, 1962, the British Colum- 
bia Court of Appeal, by a majority decision, 
quashed an order of the British Columbia 
Labour Relations Board which had sub- 
stituted a new union as a bargaining agent 
by varying the certification order instead 
of proceeding as for the certification of a 
new union. The majority of the court held 
that the sections dealing with certification 
were special provisions of mandatory char- 
acter and, as such, the Board could not 
detract from these provisions by using its 
general powers. 

In July 1952, the Labour Relations Board, 
acting under the British Columbia Indus- 
trial Conciliation and Arbitration Act 
(since replaced by the Labour Relations 
Act), certified the Fruit and Vegetable 
Workers' Union, Locals Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 
5, 6, 8, 9 and 11, as bargaining agents for 
the employees of 23 employers in the 
Okanagan Valley. 

Thereafter, a jurisdictional dispute arose 
between the Fruit and Vegetable Workers' 
Unions and the Teamsters union, and this 
was finally settled through the good offices 
of the Canadian Labour Congress, which 
agreed to grant a charter to a new union 
to take over all the jurisdictions, rights, 
assets and liabilities of the nine Fruit and 
Vegetable locals and receive such of the 
members of those locals as would transfer 
to the new union. 

In November 1958, the Canadian Labour 
Congress, by charter, established a local 
union known as B.C. Interior Fruit and 
Vegetable Workers' Union, Local 1572, 
with which, by 1959, the locals of the 
Fruit and Vegetable Workers' Union had 
merged, and to which all of the property, 
claims and membership of the locals had 
been transferred. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



859 



Local 1572 then applied to the Labour 
Relations Board to vary the certificate 
under which the nine locals had been ap- 
pointed the bargaining representatives for 
the unit, by changing the name of the 
unions to Local 1572. Notice of the peti- 
tion and full information were given to 
all interested parties, including the Oliver 
Co-operative Growers Exchange. 

This company challenged the petition, 
contending that the petition involved not 
a mere change of name of a continuing en- 
tity, but the substitution of one entity for 
another as the bargaining representative for 
the unit; it submitted that this could only 
be done under Sections 10 and 12 of the 
Labour Relations Act by proceedings for 
the decertification of the appointed entity 
and certification of the new. 

On May 25, 1959, the Board, pursuant 
to Section 65(2) of the Labour Relations 
Act, issued a "Variation of Certificate" 
order by which the certification order of 
July 1952 was varied by deleting the name 
Fruit and Vegetable Workers' Unions, 
Locals Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 and 11, 
and inserting in their place the name of 
B.C. Interior Fruit and Vegetable Workers' 
Union, Local No. 1572. 

The company then moved for a writ of 
certiorari to quash the order on the ground 
that the Board had acted without jurisdic- 
tion. Mr. Justice Brown of the British 
Columbia Supreme Court dismissed the 
motion in November 1960, on the ground 
that, under Section 65(2), the Board had 
jurisdiction to vary a certificate by substi- 
tuting one union for another without going 
through the process of decertification and 
certification under Sections 10 and 12 of 
the Act (L.G., Jan., p. 76). Mr. Justice 
Brown's decision was appealed by the com- 
pany. 

In the Court of Appeal, Mr. Justice 
Sheppard noted that the company con- 
tended that the Board's order of May 1959 
was the certification of a new union and 
therefore outside the powers of the Board 
contained in Section 65(2). Also, he noted 
that the trial judge had found that "there 
was more than a mere change of name" 
of the unions in the situation under review. 
Initially, certification was granted to nine 
distinct locals. The Board's order of May 
1959 cancelled the certification of these 
various locals and certified one local — 
B.C. Interior Fruit and Vegetable Workers' 
Union, Local No. 1572. 

Therefore, those various locals did not 
continue under a new name but, on the 
contrary, were replaced by a new and dis- 
tinct local. The assets were not to remain 
in the original locals continuing under a 



new name, but were to be transferred to 
a newly created local. Also, the member- 
ship in this new local, No. 1572, depended 
upon eligibility and admission. Mr. Justice 
Sheppard concluded that this was not the 
case of a mere change of name, but of the 
certification of a new union. 

Under these circumstances, in his opinion, 
the order of May 1959 was outside the 
powers of the Board under Section 65(2) 
of the Act. Section 65(2) is a general 
provision to the effect that the Board "may 
vary or revoke any such decision or order," 
while Sections 10 and 12 are special provi- 
sions dealing with the certification of a 
union. Consequently, Sections 10 and 12, 
being special provisions, were intended as 
an exception to Section 65(2) and not to 
be derogated by the general powers of 
Section 65(2). 

Section 10(1), Mr. Justice Sheppard con- 
tinued, states the circumstances under which 
a union may be certified, and that is against 
the implication of the power to make such 
certification under other circumstances, and 
therefore against any general power under 
Section 65(2). Section 12 provides, in man- 
datory language, that on an application for 
certification, "the Board shall determine 
whether the unit is appropriate for collec- 
tive bargaining" (Sec. 12(1)), shall make 
certain inquiries (S. 12(2)) and in certain 
events "shall direct that a representation 
vote be taken" (S. 12(3)). These provi- 
sions, being mandatory, must be observed, 
and the failure to observe them would 
nullify any order made in contravention 
of these provisions. 

In Mr. Justice Sheppard's opinion, the 
variation of the certificate in question had 
not only cancelled the certification of the 
various locals previously certified, but also 
had certified Local 1572, and this was 
beyond the powers contained in Section 
65(2). Referring to Re Hotel and Restau- 
rant Employees International Union, Local 
28 (L.G. 1954, p. 561), Mr. Justice Shep- 
pard noted that, after a union had been 
certified for the employees of certain hotels, 
the Board issued an order under Section 
65(2) eliminating from the certification the 
employees of the Alcazar Hotel and the 
order was held valid by the court. 

However, the order in question contained 
no certification within Section 10 or 12. 
The court merely eliminated from the unit 
appropriate for collective bargaining the 
employees of the Alcazar Hotel, but the 
certification initially granted continued 
throughout. Therefore, in Mr. Justice Shep- 
pard's opinion, that case should be distin- 
guished from the situation under review. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



The Board and the union also contended 
that the variation of the certificate in ques- 
tion was a mere change of name within 
Regulation 9(2), which was enacted by 
the Labour Relations Board with the ap- 
proval of the Minister pursuant to Section 
63 of the Labour Relations Act. Section 63 
permits the Board, with the approval of 
the Minister, to make regulations "gov- 
erning its procedure under this Act . . ." 

Mr. Justice Sheppard pointed out that 
Regulation 9A was an enactment of a sub- 
ordinate legislative body with power to 
enact rules of procedure (Section 65) but 
without power to amend any enactment of 
the legislature. The Board, a subordinate 
legislative body, cannot override the ex- 
press provisions of Sections 10 and 12, 
and Reg. 9A must be subject thereto. 

In any event, the regulation provides that 
"in no instance shall the procedure be used 
to change the unit to which the certificate 
relates." The trial judge had already found 
that, in the situation at bar, "there was 
more than a mere change of name." The 
locals originally certified were different from 
Local 1572. It follows that there was a 
certification and variation of certificate in 
the decision of the Board, which went 
beyond the powers of the Board under Sec- 
tion 65(2). In conclusion, Mr. Justice Shep- 
pard would allow the appeal and would 
quash the Labour Relations Board's order 
of May 25, 1959. 

Mr. Justice Tysoe, in his reasons for 
judgment, recalled the wording of Section 
65(2), which is as follows: 

S. 65(2) The Board may, upon the petition 
of any employer, employers' organization, trade 
union, or person, or of its own motion, re- 
consider any decision or order made by it 
under this Act, and may vary or revoke any 
such decision or order . . . 

In Mr. Justice Tysoe's opinion, the word 
"vary" in Section 65(2) does not embrace 
the substitution of another union for that 
set out in a certificate of bargaining author- 
ity, for that would amount to a new and 
different certification — a replacement of one 
union by another. In his opinion, so radical 
a change could be brought about only if 
the requirements of Sections 10 and 12 
were met and complied with and if the 
Board acted under those sections. A differ- 
ent union (and, in his opinion, Local 1572 
was a different union) must apply for cer- 
tification, not for a variation of an existing 
certificate. 

In his opinion, Section 65(2) could not 
be used as a short-cut to certification of a 
union different from that which had been 
already certified. It would be contrary to 
the policy of the Act for another union 



to be certified, under the general power of 
the Board to vary a certificate as bargain- 
ing agent in the place of one already cer- 
tified. If that could be done, the employees 
and employers could be deprived of the 
rights and protection given to them by 
Sections 10 and 12 of the Act. 

Further, Mr. Justice Tysoe found that 
the evidence showed that there was no 
mere change of name and that Local 1572 
was not the same union as Fruit and Veg- 
etable Workers' Unions locals. It was argued, 
however, that this question was one for 
the Board to decide, that it was one of 
the issues of fact which the Board was 
given jurisdiction to determine, and that, 
even if the Board decided wrongly, the 
court could not interfere. 

This contention raised the question 
whether the Board's order varying the cer- 
tificate was based upon an erroneous finding 
as to a collateral or preliminary fact essen- 
tial to the Board's jurisdiction to entertain 
and adjudicate upon the application for 
variation. The rule applicable in this re- 
spect is that an inferior tribunal cannot, by 
a wrong decision with regard to a collateral 
fact, give itself a jurisdiction which it 
would not otherwise possess. 

Mr. Justice Tysoe came to the conclusion 
that the question whether Local 1572 was 
the same union as the Fruit and Vegetable 
Workers' Locals, or a different union, was 
a collateral or preliminary one which had 
to be considered and decided by the Board 
before it could proceed to adjudicate upon 
the petition for variation. In his opinion, 
the jurisdiction of the Board and its power 
to act under Section 65(2) depended upon 
the correct answer to that question. 

As he thought that Local 1572 was not 
the same union as the Fruit and Vegetable 
Workers' Locals but a different union, there 
was no jurisdiction in the Board to make 
the order it did make. He would allow the 
appeal and direct that the order of the 
Board be quashed. 

Mr. Justice Davey, in a dissenting opin- 
ion, held that Section 65(2) of the Act 
conferred a plenary power on the Labour 
Relations Board to vary or revoke a former 
order in appropriate circumstances and was 
intended to supplement the other powers 
expressly conferred upon the Board in order 
to put it fully in command of any special 
situation requiring variation or revocation 
of a former order, and thus to provide 
necessary flexibility. 

He did not consider the case, at bar as 
essentially a matter of decertification of a 
presently certified union and certification 
of another independent union, but rather 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



861 



as a case where, although in law there had 
been a change in the entity, the Board 
found that Local No. 1572 was, by the 
circumstances and its succession, sufficiently 
identified in substance and interest with the 
nine certified locals to justify varying the 
certificate by substituting the new union 
for those it had succeeded. 

In Mr. Justice Davey's opinion, this then 
was a case, not specifically provided for 
by the Act and falling outside the ordinary 
operations of Sections 10 and 12, that might 
properly be dealt with under the power 
conferred by Section 65(2). Therefore, the 
Board had the power to make the order 
in question and the order could not be 
quashed upon certiorari for lack of juris- 
diction. Mr. Justice Davey would dismiss 
the appeal. 

The Court, by majority decision, allowed 
the appeal and quashed the Labour Rela- 
tions Board's order of May 25, 1959. 
Oliver Co-operative Growers Exchange v. 
Labour Relations Board and Okanagan 
Federated Shippers Association and B.C. 
Interior Fruit and Vegetable Workers' 
Union, Local 1572, (1962), 37 W.W.R., 
Part 8, p. 353. 

British Columbia Supreme Court . . . 

... declines jurisdiction over federal Labour 
Relations Board sitting outside the province 

On November 14, 1961, Mr. Justice 
Brown of the Supreme Court of British 
Columbia ruled that the Supreme Court 
of British Columbia had no jurisdiction to 
hear a certiorari application to quash cer- 
tification decisions of the Canada Labour 
Relations Board sitting outside the province 
of British Columbia. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board cer- 
tified three unions as bargaining agents for 
units of employees of Vantel Broadcasting 
Co. Ltd., all concerned residing in British 
Columbia. The employer brought certiorari 
proceedings before the Supreme Court of 
British Columbia to quash the Board's 
decisions. 

Counsel for the Canada Labour Relations 
Board raised a preliminary objection that 
the Court was without jurisdiction to con- 
sider the motion. This submission was based 
on the fact that the members of the Board 
are in Ottawa, which is outside the province 
of British Columbia; that the Board's delib- 
erations take place in Ottawa; and that the 
British Columbia Supreme Court Act does 
not empower the Court to intrude on mat- 
ters of this kind beyond its territorial juris- 
diction. 

Counsel relied on several cases as to the 
refusal of the provincial courts to assert 



jurisdiction over persons in other provinces, 
and particularly on a decision of Mr. Justice 
Davey in Re Bence (1945), 22 CPR (pt. 2), 
1, who refused to grant a writ of prohibition 
against the Restrictive Trade Practices Com- 
mission, a federal body. In his judgment, 
Mr. Justice Davey pointed out that the 
Combines Investigation Act stipulated that 
the Commission's place of business is in the 
City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario, 
and he could not see how the Commission 
could be reached effectively if the Court 
should issue a writ of prohibition and the 
Commission should disregard it. 

The company, in the case under review, 
pointed out that the matter of dispute arose 
entirely in British Columbia, everybody 
affected had been in the province, and all 
the information on which the Board acted 
came from an industrial relations officer of 
the federal Department of Labour stationed 
in Vancouver. 

Further, the company claimed that the 
order of the Court would be valid and 
respected because the matters involved in 
the dispute were, although the Board is in 
Ottawa, property and civil rights within the 
province. If there was any difficulty in 
enforcing an order directed to persons in 
Ontario, the Court could enforce such an 
order by injunction in British Columbia if 
those outside its territorial jurisdiction re- 
fused or neglected to obey. 

The unions involved in the dispute also 
took the position that the British Columbia 
Court had jurisdiction, as a realistic view 
made it clear that, in common sense, it was 
British Columbia alone that was involved. 

The company also argued that the federal 
industrial relations officer residing in Van- 
couver had acted as an agent of the Canada 
Labour Relations Board and that, accord- 
ingly, the Board was in fact represented 
in the territorial jurisdiction of the British 
Columbia Court. Also, a reference was 
made to Section 17 of the rules of proce- 
dure of the Canada Labour Relations Board, 
which defines the duties of the chief execu- 
tive officer of the Board, and it was pointed 
out that the federal industrial relations 
officer in Vancouver was in fact the repre- 
sentative of the chief executive officer in the 
province of British Columbia. 

However, Mr. Justice Brown, following 
the reasoning of Mr. Justice Davey in the 
Bence case, did not consider that the duties, 
fact-finding and otherwise, of the federal 
industrial relations officer in British Colum- 
bia were such that he could be said to 
represent the Board so as to make it ame- 
nable to the orders of the British Columbia 
Court. 



862 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



As the case at bar involved matters within 
the jurisdiction of the Parliament of 
Canada, in Mr. Justice Brown's opinion, 
the Parliament of Canada could empower a 
court such as the Exchequer Court to exer- 
cise exclusive jurisdiction in that regard. 
Such an enactment might be an answer to 
the company's complaint that it ought not 
to be forced to litigate a British Columbia 
matter in the courts of Ontario. 

The Court upheld the preliminary objec- 
tion of the counsel for the Canada Labour 
Relations Board that the British Columbia 
Court was without jurisdiction to hear the 
motion, and the application for certiorari to 
quash the decisions of the Canada Labour 
Relations Board was dismissed. Re Industrial 
Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 
(Can.); Re National Association of Broad- 
cast Employees and Technicians and Vantel 
Broadcasting Co. Ltd.; Re International 
Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees and 
Moving Picture Machine Operators of 
United States and Canada and Vantel Broad- 
casting Co. Ltd.; Re Vancouver-New West- 
minster Guild, Local No. 115, American 
Newspaper Guild and Vantel Broadcasting 
Co. Ltd. (1962) 37 W.W.R., Part 8, p. 345. 

British Columbia Supreme Court . . . 

. . . finds union member wrongfully expelled from 
Hie union, sets aside expulsion, awards damages 

On December 12, 1961, Mr. Justice 
Verchere of the British Columbia Supreme 
Court, in an action for a declaration of 
wrongful expulsion from the union and for 
damages, found that a union member was 
wrongfully expelled from the union on the 
ground that the majority report of a trial 
committee was invalid and could not be 
cured by adoption and ratification by union 
meetings which the expelled union member 
was prevented from attending. 

The action was brought against the Sea- 
farers' International Union of North Amer- 
ica, Canadian District, as a legal entity 
and against a union official in a representa- 
tive capacity. As the B.C. Trade Unions Act 
of 1959 did not make provision to eliminate 
the representative action, Mr. Justice 
Verchere considered both these ways to 
be proper actions when seeking relief against 
trade unions. Apparently, however, he did 
not consider it proper to use both actions 
simultaneously, so he dismissed the action 
against the union official in representative 
capacity. 

The plaintiff was a mariner and was, 
from 1954 to December 1960, for most of 
the time, a member in good standing of the 
union. The union in question was certified as 
a bargaining agent for the crew of the S.S. 



Waitoma, and the collective agreement ap- 
plicable to the plaintiff contained a closed- 
shop clause. 

In December 1960, charges of violating 
the union's constitution by certain acts or 
misconduct on the ship were laid against the 
plaintiff. A trial committee was elected by 
union members at a meeting and, in due 
course, the committee brought in its report, 
with one member dissenting, recommending 
that the plaintiff be denied further member- 
ship in the union. The majority and minor- 
ity reports were submitted to the member- 
ship at a regular meeting held January 3, 
1961, and the majority report was accepted 
by a resolution. 

At the next regular meeting of the union, 
held January 16, 1961, the minutes of 
the January 3 meeting were read and ac- 
cepted, thus purportedly complying with the 
provision of the union constitution regard- 
ing ratification which reads as follows: 

Article XVII, Section 5. Whenever a member 
is found guilty and sentenced, the action is final 
upon ratification through the next regular 
meeting. 

The plaintiff attended his trial, but he was 
not given a copy of the committee's report, 
and he did not attend the union meetings 
on January 3 and 16 because he had been 
told by the union secretary that, pending 
disposition of the charges against him, he 
was not permitted to enter the union hall, 
except when requested, presumably because 
of the clause in the union constitution pro- 
viding that a "member under charges shall 
not be permitted to enjoy any of the mem- 
bership's facilities or services . . ." (Art. 
17, S. 8.) 

There were three meetings of the trial 
committee. One of the members, after 
attending two meetings, could no longer 
attend the hearings and a special union 
meeting elected a replacement The new 
member of the trial committee attended the 
last meeting of the committee and signed 
the majority report. Although the constitu- 
tion provides for the filling of a vacancy 
in the trial committee occurring before the 
date of trial by means of a special meeting, 
no provision is made to cover a vacancy 
that occurs when the hearings are in 
progress. 

Thus, it was contended that the election 
of the replacement member was unconstitu- 
tional; that he had no right to sit with the 
committee nor to participate in the con- 
sideration and delivery of the report. 

Mr. Justice Verchere, relying on judg- 
ments where a similar situation was dealt 
with, concluded that the member of the trial 
committee who had been added as a re- 
placement, and who signed the report and 



THE LABOUR. GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



863 



apparently participated in the final delibera- 
tions of the committee, did not have the 
necessary first-hand knowledge of all the 
evidence and of the conduct of the proceed- 
ings to allow him to consider and discuss 
that evidence with the others in the way he 
should have been able to do had he attended 
all the trial committee's meetings; therefore, 
the decision of the trial committee was 
vitiated by his participation. 

In Mr. Justice Verchere's opinion, as the 
trial committee's report was invalid, it could 
not be made final and then ratified by suc- 
cessive regular meetings of the union. But, 
in any event, the plaintiff should have been 
informed of those meetings and permitted 
to attend and be heard. That did not hap- 
pen, probably because of the union sec- 
retary's warning to the plaintiff not to enter 
the union hall pursuant to Article 17, Sec- 
tion 8, of the union constitution. 

Mr. Justice Verchere did not think that 
the interpretation of Article 17, Section 8, 
was correct. But, even if it were correct, 
that interpretation should not have been 
accepted with its resultant denial to the 
plaintiff of a right to a hearing. In his 
regard, in Lee v. Showmen's Guild of Great 
Britain (1952), 1 All E.R. 1175 at pp. 
1180-1, Denning, L.J., said: 

Although the jurisdiction of a domestic tri- 
bunal is founded on contract, express or im- 
plied, nevertheless the parties are not free to 
make any contract they like. There are im- 
portant limitations imposed by public policy. 
The tribunal must, for instance, observe the 



principles of natural justice. They must give 
the man notice of the charge and a reasonable 
opportunity of meeting it. Any stipulation to 
the contrary would be invalid. They cannot 
stipulate for a power to condemn a man un- 
heard. 

Mr. Justice Verchere concluded that 
action of the union in accepting the trial 
committee's report, and then ratifying it in 
the plaintiff's absence, due either to lack of 
notice or express prohibition, could not be 
supported. 

Also, Mr. Justice Verchere found that 
bringing the court action was not premature, 
although Article 17, Section 7 of the union 
constitution forbids suit until constitutional 
remedies are exhausted. The plaintiff mailed 
his complaint to the San Francisco union 
office on February 8, 1961, and such mail- 
ing in the ordinary way constituted due 
compliance with Article 17, Section 6 of the 
constitution. 

For all these reasons, Mr. Justice Verchere 
held that the expulsion of the plaintiff by 
the union was invalid and he was setting 
it aside. Also, the judge held that the plain- 
tiff was entitled to damages for breach of 
contract and for loss of medical benefits 
under the union's medical scheme. In all, 
the plaintiff was awarded $694.75 as dam- 
ages for his wrongful expulsion from the 
union. Hughes v. Seafarers' International 
Union of North America, Canadian District 
and Heinekey (1962), 31 D.L.R.(2d), Part 
6, p. 441. 



Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 

Alberta brings sheet metal mechanic's trade under Tradesmen's Qualification 
Act, revises trade rules tor barbers. Newtoundland consolidates regulations under 
Apprenticeship Act with minor changes in living allowances and certification 



In Alberta, the trade of a sheet metal 
mechanic was designated a trade under the 
Tradesmen's Qualification Act and the 
regulations for the barber trade were re- 
vised. 

In Newfoundland, the apprenticeship reg- 
ulations were consolidated with a few 
changes. 

Alberta Tradesmen's Qualification Act 

The trade of a sheet metal mechanic has 
been designated a trade under the Alberta 
Tradesmen's Qualification Act by Alta. 
Reg. 182/62, gazetted April 30. 

Another regulation gazetted the same 
day, Alta. Reg. 180/62, revised the rules 
for the barber trade. The regulations for 



barbers again provide for three types of 
certificates, certificates of proficiency, tem- 
porary certificates of proficiency and ap- 
prentice certificates. 

As previously, certificates of proficiency 
will be issued to persons who pass the 
prescribed examinations, except that appli- 
cants are now required to have at least 
two years experience in the trade instead of 
one. 

At the discretion of the Department of 
Labour, a temporary certificate of profi- 
ciency may again be granted to a person 
who has failed to qualify for a certificate 
of proficiency but has obtained at least 
four-fifths of the required pass mark (pre- 
viously, 60 per cent of the required pass 
mark). 



864 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



A new provision also permits the De- 
partment to issue a temporary certificate 
of proficiency to the holder of a diploma 
from an approved barber school who has 
passed the theory part of the examination. 
This certificate will be valid for one year, 
after which time the holder must try the 
practical examination for a certificate of 
proficiency. 

Any person 16 years of age and over 
who is working under the direct super- 
vision of a barber with a certificate of 
proficiency is eligible for an apprentice 
certificate. An apprentice certificate is now 
valid for two years instead of one, after 
which time the holder must try the exam- 
ination for a certificate of proficiency. 

Unlike the previous regulations, which 
did not impose a quota, the new regulations 
limit the number of apprentices, providing 
that only one apprentice may be employed 
for every three persons holding a certificate 
of proficiency. A barber who holds a certif- 
icate or who employs one qualified person 
may engage one apprentice, however. 

British Columbia Factories Act, Municipal Act 

In British Columbia, Monday, November 
12, 1962, has been declared a holiday for 
purposes of Section 40 of the Factories 
Act and Section 858 of the Municipal Act. 
This means that, subject to certain ex- 
ceptions, all factories and shops must re- 
main closed on that day. 

Newfoundland Apprenticeship Act 

A consolidation of the regulations under 
the Newfoundland Apprenticeship Act was 
gazetted May 15, and was scheduled to go 
into force June 1. The conditions of ap- 
prenticeship are the same as before, but a 
few minor changes were made in the pro- 
visions relating to living allowances and 
certificates of qualification. 

Living allowances are again payable to 
apprentices taking approved daytime courses. 
The rate for single apprentices is $8 a 
week for those living at home and $15 a 
week for those living away from home. The 



weekly allowances for heads of families 
are $16 and $23, respectively. Deductions 
from allowances may again be made for 
each period of absence; the regulations now 
provide that sick leave in excess of three 
consecutive school days must be covered 
by a medical certificate. 

If a course of instruction is abandoned 
or terminated, the Minister may now re- 
quire the apprentice to refund the whole or 
part of the living allowance or of the 
instructional costs, or both. Previously, an 
apprentice could only be required to refund 
the whole or part of the allowance. 

As formerly, tradesmen who have not 
served a formal apprenticeship may be 
granted a certificate of qualification upon 
passing the prescribed examinations. A 
tradesman who wishes to be examined for 
a certificate of qualification must apply to 
the Director of Apprenticeship, who may 
approve the application himself or refer 
it to the appropriate examining committee. 
A new provision gives to a tradesman whose 
application has been refused the right of 
appeal to the Provincial Apprenticeship 
Board, whose decision is final. 

The holder of a certificate of apprentice- 
ship may, as before, be granted a certificate 
of qualification without further examina- 
tion upon payment of the prescribed fee, 
except that he must now apply within two 
years of receiving his certificate or within 
two years after June 1, 1962, whichever is 
later. 

Certificates of qualification issued before 
December 31, 1962, will expire on that 
date; certificates issued later will be valid 
for two years. If a certificate is not re- 
newed within one year from the expiry date, 
the holder must, pass an examination to 
qualify for a renewal. 

Newfoundland Workmen's Compensation Act 

Services rendered by athletic coaches 
were excluded from the collective liability 
section of the Newfoundland Workmen's 
Compensation Act, by a regulation gazetted 
April 10. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 

58736-0—7 



UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND 
NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Number of claimants for unemployment insurance benefit at end of April nearly 
18 per cent below end-of-March figure and 21 per cent below April 1961 figure, 
statistics* show. March-to-April decline last year amounted to 15 per cent 



Claimantst for unemployment insurance 
benefit on April 30 numbered 564,500. This 
was nearly 18 per cent below the March 
figure of 687,500 and 21 per cent below the 
total of 714,500 in April last year. 

These totals included claimants for sea- 
sonal benefit numbering 191,200 in April, 
220,100 in March, and 246,800 in April 
1961. 

Although the number of claimants at the 
end of April this year was substantially 
below that of a year earlier, the decline 
since March was only a little greater than 
the decline between March and April last 
year, viz., 18 per cent compared with 15 
per cent last year. 

Males accounted for 77 per cent of the 
total on April 30, in comparison with 79 
per cent on March 30 and 78 per cent on 
April 28, 1961. 

The number of persons on claim for 17 
weeks or more increased between 20 and 
25 per cent during April, but the number 
on claim for less than 17 weeks declined 
by 30 per cent. A similar decline occurred 
in April last year, but the number on claim 
for 17 weeks or more this year is nearly 
30 per cent smaller than in April last year 
and the number on claim for less than 17 
weeks is 15 per cent smaller. 

Regular claimants declined in number by 
20 per cent during April, fishing seasonal 
benefit claimants by more than 40 per cent, 
and non-fishing seasonal benefit claimants 



*See Tables E-l to E-5 at back of this issue. 

tA claimant's unemployment register is placed in 
the "live file" at the local office as soon as the 
claim is forwarded for computation. As a result, the 
count of claimants at any given time inevitably 
includes some whose claims are in process. During 
the seasonal benefit period, claims in process are 
classed as regular until the computation of their 
contribution credits indicates otherwise. 



In a comparison of current unemployment 
insurance statistics with tnose tor a previ- 
ous period, consideration should be given 
to relevant factors other than numbers such 
as the opening and closing of seasonal 
industries, increase in area population, in- 
fluence of weather conditions, and the 
general employment situation. 

Claimants should not be interpreted either 
as "total number of beneficiaries" or "total 
job applicants." 



by 10 per cent. As a result of the greater 
decline in the number of regular benefit 
claimants, however, the proportion on sea- 
sonal benefit increased to 34 per cent, com- 
pared with 32 per cent on March 30 and 
35 per cent at the end of April last year. 
Such an increase is usual at this time of 
the year. 

The number of claimants who ceased to 
draw regular benefit and returned to work 
during April is estimated at 170,000. 

Initial and Renewal Claims 

Initial and renewal claims filed at local 
offices in April numbered 181,300, which 
was a reduction of 20 per cent compared 
with March and of 15 per cent compared 
with April 1961. Of this total, 127,600, or 
70 per cent, were classed as separations 
from insured employment during the month, 
and of these, 68,400 were initial and 59,200 
were renewal claims. 

Of the initial claims, 44 per cent were 
claims by persons who had exhausted bene- 
fit and were seeking additional credits. Most 
of these persons had exhausted regular 
benefit and were eligible for extra benefit 
under the seasonal benefit terms. 

Beneficiaries and Benefit Payments 

The average weekly number of bene- 
ficiaries in April was estimated at 556,300, 
compared with 638,800 in March and 
708,200 in April 1961. 



866 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



Payments during the month totalled 
$51,600,000, in comparison with $68,800,- 
000 in March and $64,500,000 in April 
1961. 

The average weekly benefit payment was 
$24.43 in April, $24.49 in March and 
$23.98 in April 1961. 

Insurance Registrations 

Since the annual renewal of insurance 
books this year takes place in May, the 
usual statistics on the number of insurance 
books and contribution cards issued to em- 
ployees during April are not available. But 
when the first monthly report for 1962-63 is 
issued, it will cover the period up to May 
31, and since the figures it contains will be 
cumulative, they will include all additions 
to the insured population since April 1. 

At April 30, registered employers num- 
bered 336,582, an increase of 615 since 
March 31. 

Enforcement Statistics 

During April, 8,763 investigations were 
conducted by enforcement officers across 



Canada. Of these, 5,362 were spot checks 
of postal and counter claims to verify the 
fulfilment of statutory conditions and 159 
were miscellaneous investigations. The re- 
maining 3,242 were investigations in con- 
nection with claimants suspected of making 
false statements to obtain benefits. 

Prosecutions were begun in 152 cases, 39 
against employers and 113 against claim- 
ants.* Punitive disqualifications as a result 
of false statements or misrepresentations by 
claimants numbered 1,613.* 

Unemployment Insurance Fund 

Revenue received by the Unemployment 
Insurance Fund in April totalled $23,754,- 
550.44,t compared with $27,743,532.74t in 
March and $22,590,150.58 in April 1961. 

Benefits paid in April totalled $51,- 
656,056.36t compared with $68,826,615.12t 
in March and $64,540,209.48 in April 1961. 

The balance in the Unemployment In- 
surance Fund on April 30 was $39,147,- 
154.43 1, on March 31 it was $63,535,- 
370.96t and on April 30, 1961 it was 
$143,651,927.75. 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the National Employment Service 

The month of May 1962 continued the Atlantic 20.2 

pattern of record levels of placement ac- Quebec 36.5 

tivity in the local offices of the National Ontario 35.3 

Employment Service. Prairie 23.1 

Some 146,400 placements were made Pacific 13.5 

during the month, exceeding the same , , . 

«,«„tv. ;« iq/:i u.r in 1 ^^ ~o„f n „A \/r™ Total placements during the first five 

month in 1961 by 30.1 per cent, and May months J J%2 amounted f Q some 466 700 

1960 by almost 50.0 per cent. May a cumu i ative increase of slight iy m0 re than 

placements surpassed every previous year 2 5 per cent over the corresponding period 

since 1944. There were only two years, a year ago and almost 40 per cent over 

1944 and 1943, since the NES began oper- I960. Thus, the general upswing in place- 

ations when May placements exceeded those ment activity continues to gain momentum, 

this year. Employers notified NES offices of some 

Some 107,800 of the placements in May 168,800 vacancies during May of which 

1962 were men, an increase of 32.0 per cent ' ' <> 400 w ^ e for f m , e ? ^JI'^JZImI 

. * . * _. women. These totals were considerably 

over those in May the previous year. Place- higher than usual for this time of yeai . 

ments of women increased by 25.1 per 

cent to a total of 38 600 *These do not necessarily relate to the investiga- 

. ' . * . tions conducted during this period. 

Regionally the following percentage in- +The figures for March and April of this year are 

Creases Over May 1961 were reported: interim figures and are subject to revision. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



867 



Decisions of the Umpire under 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 



Decision CUB 1942, March 1, 1962 

Summary of the Main Facts: The claim- 
ant, who resides in Saskatoon, Sask., filed 
an initial application for benefit at the 
office of the Unemployment Insurance 
Commission there on March 21, 1961, and 
was registered for employment as a room 
clerk. He had worked for the [XYZ Rail- 
ways] in Saskatoon as a foreman of its 
freight sheds, and on January 31, 1961, 
he was retired on account of age. 

In a Report of Possible Disqualification 
(Form UIC 493A), dated September 14, 
1961, the claimant stated: 

[I] know that I should try and seek work 
on my own but have done nothing about 
finding a job. I would take a job if it were 
offered to me should I be able to do it . . . 
I am still capable and available for work. 
I have not read my 1501D but will do so be- 
fore reporting next week. 

The claimant made the following state- 
ment to the Commission on September 
27, 1961: 

. . . My last place of employment was with 
[XYZ Railways] as a foreman of the freight 
sheds. I was with the company for 48 years. 
My rate of pay was $336 per month. I was 
released on pension 28 February 1961. I ap- 
plied for benefits 21 March 1961 and have been 
unemployed since. I have looked around but 
have not seen any suitable employment. 

I would want part-time employment; the 
hours would not matter. I would consider 
night watchman or ticket taker. These are 
about the only two positions I would consider. 
The minimum I would consider would be $50 
per week. I would not consider janitor work. 

I have read my Booklet [of] Information for 
Claimants. This statement is true and I have 
received a copy. 

The local office commented: 

. . . Procuring part-time employment as 
watchman or ticket taker is most unlikely; 
$50 per week is above going rate. Wage Board 
advises that $32 is minimum for 42 hour week 
in stores; $42 is minimum for 48-hour week 
in apt. blocks. Going rate would be $32 to 
$45, depending on experience and ability. 

On the evidence before him, the insur- 
ance officer disqualified the claimant and 
suspended benefit from September 27, 1961, 
because, in his opinion, the claimant had 
failed to prove that he was available for 
work inasmuch as he was restricting his 
availability to part-time employment only 
(section 54(2) (a) of the Act). 

The claimant appealed to a board of 
referees on October 23, 1961, and stated: 

. . . There has been a little misunder- 
standing on the part-time work. In the course 
of my conversation with the investigator, I 
informed him that I would take part-time 
employment. I did not mean to imply that 
was the only employment I would accept. 



If you can find me suitable employment I 
would willingly accept it. 

The insurance officer made no change in 
the above-mentioned disqualification, in 
that there was no proof that the claimant 
had made any personal effort to find em- 
ployment. In this regard, he was guided 
by the Umpire's decision CUB 1845, dated 
May 12, 1961. 

The claimant attended the hearing of his 
case by a board of referees in Saskatoon 
on November 15, 1961. The unanimous 
decision of the board reads: 

. . . The board finds that the claimant, un- 
employed for almost seven months, originally 
limited his availability to the work of a 
night watchman or a ticket taker, stated he 
"would want" part-time employment. He 
further stated that the minimum wage he would 
consider was $50 a week, which is above the 
going wage in the occupations mentioned by 
him. 

On 23rd October 1961, he stated he would 
take "suitable" work, either full-time or part- 
time. He failed to prove, however, that during 
his unemployment he was making any ade- 
quate personal effort to find work. 

The ruling of the board is that the claimant 
be disqualified from 27th September to 22nd 
October 1961, inclusive, for limiting his avail- 
ability to part-time employment, and to that 
in a limited category and at rates above the 
average, and since that date, when the part- 
time limitation was lifted, as he had failed to 
prove that he has made adequate personal 
efforts to find employment. The disqualifica- 
tion remains in effect for as long as this condi- 
tion continues. 

There is no provision in the Act for uncon- 
ditional payment of benefit for any specified 
periods of time. 

The claimant applied to the chairman 
of the board of referees on December 1, 
1961, for leave to appeal to the Umpire on 
the following grounds: 

... I feel that the board of referees' de- 
cision disqualifying me from benefits on the 
grounds of limiting my availability to part- 
time employment and to that in a limited cate- 
gory, is unfair. My occupation for the past 
48 years has been that of freight checker and 
freight handler and I have been looking for 
work in this category. 

I am also appealing the board of referees' 
decision disqualifying me on the grounds that 
the minimum wage I would consider is above 
average. I believe that the minimum wages, 
as stated in the submission to board of referees, 
dated November 8, 1961, is too low. The rates 
as stated in the submission apply to Manitoba 
and not to Saskatchewan. 

Leave to appeal to the Umpire was 
granted to the claimant by the chairman 
of the board of referees for the following 
reason: 

While the board feels that this is a question 
of fact rather than law, nevertheless, in view 






868 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



of the length of the claimant's employment, 
an Umpire's decision on these long-term-em- 
ployed railroad workers would be helpful. 

Considerations and Conclusions: Avail- 
ability for work is a question of fact, and 
the board of referees, which had the 
opportunity to see and to question the 
claimant, were unanimous in deciding, 
presumably in the light of their knowledge 
of the conditions of the labour market, 
that the claimant had failed to prove that 
he was available for work from September 
27, 1961, to October 22, 1961, in that he 
had limited his availability to part-time 
employment and to employment "in a 
limited category and at rates above the 
average." As the evidence before me is 
substantially the same as that which was 
before the board of referees, I see no 
valid reason to disturb the board's decision 
in respect of that period. 

However, the only reason on which the 
board of referees based its decision to 
disqualify the claimant subsequent to Octo- 
ber 22, 1961 is "he had failed to prove that 
he has made adequate personal efforts to 
find employment" and, according to the 
established jurisprudence, "non-availability 
for work cannot be inferred solely from a 
claimant's omission to make a personal 
search for work" (CUB 1738), because, as 
the Umpire said in decision CUB 1887: 

There is no provision in the Act or the 
Regulations which requires that a claimant 
must make personal efforts to seek work other 
than registering for employment at his local 
office and keeping his application for employ- 
ment alive by attending there at fixed in- 
tervals . . . 

And in CUB 1895: 

Neither the Act nor the Regulations provide, 
nor can the established jurisprudence be in- 
terpreted to mean, that a claimant, in order 
to prove that he is available for work on a 
particular day, must show that he did seek 
employment personally on that day . . . 

As I must apply the law as I find it, and 
as the law as presently worded does not 
provide for a disqualification to be im- 
posed solely on the ground that a claim- 
ant has not made a personal search for 
work, I consider that in the present case 
the board of referees erred in maintaining 
the disqualification in respect of the period 
subsequent to October 22, 1961. 

But for the period September 27 to Octo- 
ber 22, 1961, 1 consequently decide to allow 
the claimant's appeal. 

Decision CUB 1944, March 12, 1962 
Summary of the Main Facts: On June 

29, 1960, the claimant filed an initial ap- 
plication for benefit and the claim was 
allowed. 

On her weekly report form for the week 
commencing July 17, 1960, she declared, 



for the period July 19, 1960, to July 23, 
1960, that she had been sick all week. She 
continued to declare this illness up to and 
including the week commencing Septem- 
ber 11, 1960. 

On September 23, 1960, the claimant re- 
ported by telephone for the first time 
that she had been injured in a subway es- 
calator on July 19, 1960, while on her 
way home from training at the [R . . . 
Company]. Her rate of pay was $0.90 an 
hour. 

On March 29, 1961, the claimant stated 
in part: 

I started training at R . . . Company 18th 
July 1960 and also part of the 19th July 
1960. I did not realize I would be paid for 
these days. On my way home the 19th of 
July 1960 I had an accident on the subway 
(escalator). I was sent to the hospital and 
released later that evening. I was badly bruised 
and remained at home recuperating. I was in 
bed about five weeks, then in September 1960 
went back to work at [M . . . Company]. 
(Exhibit 3.) 

On April 18, 1961, the insurance officer 
disqualified the claimant from receipt of 
benefit from July 20 to September 24, 1960, 
viz., "the period of her incapacity, because 
she ceased to work by reason of injury" 
(section 66 of the Act). On May 12, 1961, 
the claimant appealed to a board of 
referees. 

On June 9, 1961, the employer submitted 
the following additional information: 

Our records show that the claimant could 
not complete our 3-day system training as she 
had a bad fall and told us that on her doc- 
tor's advice could not report to work for 
some time. 

We should state that [the claimant] had 
been hired as a member of our contingent 
staff, and following her training, would have 
been called in from time to time as required. 
Her rate of pay was 900 an hour and as- 
suming that she worked July 18th and 19th 
her total earnings would have been $13.50. 

A board of referees heard the case in 
Toronto, Ont., on July 18, 1961. The 
claimant was present. The board, by a 
unanimous decision, dismissed the appeal. 
In doing so, however, the board terminated 
the disqualification on August 24, 1960, as 
"evidence in relation to the length of her 
illness is only set in Exhibit 3 and we must 
accept that evidence." 

On August 28, 1961, the claimant, with 
leave of the chairman of the board of 
referees, appealed to the Umpire. 

Considerations and Conclusions: Inas- 
much as the board of referees terminated 
the disqualification on August 24, 1960, 
and the insurance officer has not appealed 
from its decision, the only question at issue 
is whether the claimant should be disquali- 
fied pursuant to section 66 of the Act in 
respect of the period July 20, 1960, to 
August 24, 1960. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



869 



The aforementioned section of the Act 
reads: 

No person who has become entitled to re- 
ceive benefit and subsequently, while he other- 
wise continues to be so entitled, becomes in- 
capable of work by reason of illness, injury 
or quarantine, is disqualified from receiving 
benefit by reason of such illness, injury or 
quarantine, but an insured person who has 
lost his employment or has ceased to work by 
reason of illness, injury or quarantine is dis- 
qualified from receiving benefit for the dura- 
tion of the illness, injury or quarantine. 

This provision of the Act is not ambiguous 
and as the record clearly shows that the 
claimant ceased to work on July 19, 1960, 
by reason of an injury, I have no valid 
reason to disturb the unanimous decision 
of the board of referees. 

I consequently dismiss the claimant's 
appeal. 

Decision CUB 1956, April 30, 1962 

Translation 

Summary of the Main Facts: In his ap- 
peal to the Umpire on December 6, 1961, 
the insurance officer summarized in the 
following manner the main facts of the 
present case: 

1. The claimant filed an application for 
benefit on July 3, 1961. She stated that 
she had worked in her last place of em- 
ployment as a sewing machine operator 
from January 1961 to June 30, 1961, and 
that she had been laid off because of lack 
of work. During her interview with the 
placement officer, the claimant stated that 
the factory was closed for repairs from the 
1st to the 8th of July and for annual 
holidays from the 9th to the 24th of July. 
She added, "I am not available for work 
during the holidays and during the week of 
repairs." Because of this statement, the 
placement officer did not register her for 
work. 

2. The claimant was disqualified from 
receipt of benefit as of July 2, 1961, by 
virtue of section 54 (2) (a) of the Act, 
because she had not proved that she was 
available for work, particularly as she had 
stated she was not available for work 
during the period the factory was closed 
for repairs and for annual holidays. The 
claimant was also disqualified from receipt 
of benefit as of July 2, 1961, by virtue of 
Regulation 146 for not having filed her 
claim in the prescribed -manner, by neglect- 
ing to register for work. 

3. On September 8, 1961, the claimant 
appealed to the board of referees, stating 
only that she did not accept the insurance 
officer's decision. She made no statement 
whatsoever relative to her availability for 
work or her attitude toward registration 



for employment. She was neither present 
nor represented at the board of referee's 
hearing of her appeal. 

4. In its decision of October 24, 1961, 
the board of referees modified the in- 
surance officer's decision. The board de- 
cided that the claimant had proved that 
she was available for work during the week 
that the factory was closed for repairs, 
but that she was not available during the 
period that the factory was closed for 
annual holidays. 

In its reasoning on this case, the board of 
referees contended that during this week 
of repairs it could appreciate that the 
claimant could not very easily obtain a 
job for a week and that she had been forced 
to state that she was not interested in 
work, especially in view of the fact that 
she could certainly not find a job for 
such a short period. The board added that, 
as several claimants had receivel unem- 
ployment insurance benefit for the week 
during which repairs were carried out in 
the factory, it was fair to extend these 
rights to benefit to all claimants who made 
an application for benefit in an identical 
situation. 

The insurance officer's grounds for appeal 
read as follows: 

5. We submit that in determining the avail- 
ability of the claimant, the board of referees 
erred in making a distinction between the 
week when the factory was closed for repairs 
and the period when it was closed for annual 
holidays. This distinction by the board of 
referees is absolutely hypothetical and is in 
no way whatsoever supported by the evidence 
in the record. In fact, this distinction is con- 
trary to the very clear evidence produced by 
the claimant herself. The claimant herself made 
no such distinction relative to her availability, 
on the contrary, she stated clearly that she 
was not available during either of the two 
periods in question. 

The claimant's own statement to the effect 
that she was not available for work justifies 
her disqualification from benefit (CUB 7), 
since this statement cannot be overlooked or 
interpreted as signifying exactly the opposite. 
It is one of the fundamental principles of the 
Unemployment Insurance Act that, in order 
to establish his right to benefits, each claim- 
ant must sincerely be prepared to accept and 
be in search of a job (CUBs 1338, 1620 and 
1836). 

6. The board of referees also erred in con- 
sidering that decisions granting benefit to other 
claimants laid off in similar circumstances must 
apply in the present case. Regarding avail- 
ability for work, each case must be decided 
according to the particular circumstances per- 
taining to each case, especially when it is 
mainly a matter of intent and mental attitude 
of a claimant toward accepting employment. 

7. For these reasons, we request that the 
insurance officer's appeal against the board of 
referees' decision relating to the availability 
of the claimant be allowed. The insurance 
officer does not appeal from the board of 
referees' decision relating to the prescribed 

( Continued on page 8St) 



870 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



LABOUR CONDITIONS IN FEDERAL 
GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS 



Wage Schedules Prepared and Contracts Awarded during May 

Works of Construction, Remodelling, Repair or Demolition 

During May the Department of Labour prepared 354 wage schedules for inclusion in 
contracts proposed to be undertaken by departments of the federal Government and its 
Crown corporations in various areas of Canada, for works of construction, remodelling, 
repair or demolition. In the same period, a total of 229 contracts in these categories was 
awarded. Particulars of these contracts appear below. 

In addition, 233 contracts not listed in this report and which contained the General 
Fair Wages Clause were awarded by Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation and the 
Departments of Citizenship and Immigration, Defence Production, Northern Affairs and 
National Resources, Public Works and Transport. 

A copy of the wage schedule issued for each contract is available on request to trade 
unions concerned or to others who have a bona fide interest in the execution of the contract. 

(The labour conditions included in each of the contracts listed under the heading provide 
that: 

(a) the wage rate for each classification of labour shown in the wage schedule included 
in the contract is a minimum rate only and contractors and subcontractors are not exempted 
from the payment of higher wages in any instance where, during the continuation of the work, 
wage rates in excess of those shown in the wage schedule have been fixed by provincial 
legislation, by collective agreements in the district, or by current practice; 

(b) hours of work shall not exceed eight in the day and 44 in the week, except in 
emergency conditions approved by the Minister of Labour; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of eight per day and 44 per week; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 

Contracts for the Manufacture of Supplies and Equipment 

Contracts awarded in May for the manufacture of supplies and equipment were as 
follows: 

Department No. of Contracts Aggregate Amount 

Defence Production 175 $748,048.00 

Post Office , 7 233,881.00 

Transport 1 11,000.00 



The Fair Wages and Hours of Labour These wage schedules are thereupon in- 
legislation of the federal Government has eluded with other relevant labour condi- 
the purpose of insuring that all Government tions as terms of such contracts to be 
contracts for works of construction and for observed by the contractors, 
the manufacture of supplies and equipment Wage schedules are not included in con- 
contain provisions to secure the payment of tracts for the manufacture of supplies and 
wages generally accepted as fair and reason- equipment because it is not possible to 
able in each trade or classification employed determine in advance the classifications to 
in the district where the work is being per- be employed in the execution of a contract, 
formed. A statement of the labour conditions which 

The practice of Government departments must be observed in every such contract 

and those Crown corporations to which the is however, included therein and is of the 

legislation applies, before entering into con- same nature and effect as those which apply 

tracts for any work of construction, re- in works of construction. 

modelling, repair or demolition, is to obtain ^P^of federal G™™-^ 
wage schedules from the Department of be had upon reqU est to the Industrial 

Labour showing the applicable wage deemed Relations Branch of the Department of 

to be required in the execution of the work. Labour, Ottawa. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 871 



(The labour conditions included in contracts for the manufacture of supplies and equip- 
ment provide that: 

(a) all persons who perform labour on such contracts shall be paid such wages as are 
currently paid in the district to competent workmen; and if there is no current rate, then 
a fair and reasonable rate; but in no event shall the wages paid be less than those established 
by the laws of the province in which the work is being performed; 

(b) the working hours shall be those fixed by the custom of the trade in the district, 
or if there be no such custom, then fair and reasonable hours; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of those fixed by custom of the trade in the district, or in excess of fair 
and reasonable hours; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 

Wage Claims Received and Payments Made during May 

During May the sum of $4,329.93 was collected from 16 contractors for wage arrears 
due their employees as a result of the failure of the contractors, or their subcontractors, 
to apply the wage rates and other conditions of employment required by the schedule 
of labour conditions forming part of their contract. This amount is for distribution to the 
219 workers concerned. 

Contracts Containing Fair Wage Schedules Awarded during May 

(The labour conditions of the contracts marked (*) contain the General Fair Wages 
Clause providing for the observance of current or fair and reasonable rates of wages and 
hours of labour not in excess of eight per day and 44 per week, and also empower the 
Minister of Labour to deal with any question which may arise with regard thereto.) 

Department of Agriculture 

Near Hillspring Aha: Joyline Transport Ltd., removal of trees & bushes within 
proposed flood area of Waterton Reservoir. 

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited 

Chalk River Ont: Johnson Controls Ltd, installation of automatic controls, Bldg 432; 
The Macotta Co of Canada Ltd, installation of metal windows, column covers, sills, stool 
& spandrel covers, Bldg 432; Dominion Sound Equipments Ltd, installation of acoustic 
tile ceilings, Bldg 432; Pembroke Glass Ltd, glazing work, Bldg 432; Peter E Sylvestre 
& Sons Ltd, masonry work on Fissle storage bldg. Deep River Ont: John Kovacs, painting 
of various bldgs. Whiteshell Man: Surety Construction Co Ltd, construction of temporary 
information centre & guardhouse, Nuclear Research Establishment; Louis Ducharme & 
Associates Ltd, construction of viewing stand, Nuclear Research Establishment. 

Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Gander Nfld: Sidney A Burry & Sons, exterior painting of housing units. London Ont: 
A Cope & Sons Ltd, paving of parking lots (FP 4/57). Port Arthur & Fort William Ont: 
Froggett & van der Mout, exterior painting of houses. Shilo Man: Rowland Claydon & Co 
Ltd, construction of school (DND 5/62), Camp. Medicine Hat Alta: Home Decorating 
Co Ltd, exterior painting of housing units. Prince Rupert BC: Jarvis Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of housing units. 

In addition, this Corporation awarded 1 1 contracts containing the General Fair Wages 
Clause. 

Department of Citizenship and Immigration 

Clandeboye Indian Agency Man: F W Sawatsky Ltd, alterations to improve fire safety, 
Assiniboia IRS; Gertz Construction Ltd, construction of school, Berens River Reserve, 
Berens River. Fisher River Indian Agency Man: Gertz Construction Ltd, construction of 
school, Little Saskatchewan Reserve, Gypsumville. Norway House Indian Agency Man: 
Gertz Construction Ltd, construction of school (Saggitawack), Cross Lake Reserve, Cross 
Lake. Battleford Indian Agency Sask: Honkala Woodworking, construction of school & 
residence, Poundmaker Reserve, North Battleford. Carlton Indian Agency Sask: Gall's 
Lumber Yard, construction of school & residence, Sturgeon Lake Reserve, Prince Albert. 
Qu'Appelle Indian Agency Sask: Comfort Plumbing & Heating Ltd, renovations to mechan- 
ical services (Phase 1) Qu'Appelle IRS. Shellbrook Indian Agency Sask: William Stoesz, 

872 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



construction of school, Big River Reserve, Debden; William Stoesz, construction of school 
& residence, Big River Reserve, Debden. Blackfoot Indian Agency Alta: Wilf Got Electric 
(Calgary) Ltd, electrical rewiring, Old Sun IRS. Stony-Sarcee Indian Agency Alta: Revel- 
stoke Building Materials Ltd, construction of houses, Sarcee IR. 

In addition this Department awarded one contract containing the General Fair Wages 
Clause. 

Defence Construction (1951) Limited 

Summerside P E I: Delta Electric Co Ltd, ceilometer & transmissometer installation, 
RCAF Station. Bedford Basin N S: Conniston Construction Co Ltd, repairs to traverses & 
construction of concrete retaining wall, Naval Magazine. New Glasgow N S: McDougall 
Construction Co Ltd, renovations & extension to Armoury. Bagotville Que: Accurate 
Electrical Contractors, extension to runway lighting, RCAF Station. St Jean Que: JAR 
Construction Inc, repairs to parking area, College Militaire Royal. Val d'Or Que: Paul 
Gingras, installation of runway & approach lighting system, RCAF Station. Arnprior Ont: 
Canadian Comstock Co Ltd, electrical modifications, Vertol Hangar. Kapuskasing Ont: 
Mattagami Construction Co Ltd, construction of Tacan bldg & tower. North Bay Ont: 
Hill-Clark-Francis Ltd, construction of Tacan bldg & tower, RCAF Station. Portage la 
Prairie Man: Plains City Electric Co Ltd, ceilometer & transmissometer installation, RCAF 
Station. Cold Lake Alta: Wirtanen Electric Co Ltd, ceilometer & transmissometer installa- 
tion. Namao Alta: McCormick Electric Ltd, ceilometer & transmissometer installations. 
Sea Island B C: Conniston Construction Co Ltd, reconstruction of drainage, RCAF Station. 
Various locations: Six contracts in the restricted category. 

Building and Maintenance 

Camp Gagetown N B: Raymond Marcil, recaulking wall panels, bldg B-ll & B-12. 
Barriefield Ont: Spada Tile Ltd, renewal of sidewalks & curbs, Fort Henry Heights. Camp 
Borden Ont: Walker Painting & Decorating Co Ltd, exterior painting of bldgs. London Ont: 
J B Smith, addition to officers' mess, Wolsley Barracks. Ottawa & Orleans Ont: Beaudoin 
Construction Ltd, electrical, mechanical & structural renovations to bldgs, National 
Research Council, Montreal Road. Petawawa Ont: Glebe Electric Ltd, replacement of 
overhead feeder conductors & poles, Camp; Joseph Downey & Son, exterior painting of 
various bldgs, Camp. Uplands Ont: H H Sutton & Son Ltd, landscaping of bulk fuel 
area, RCAF Station. Shilo Man: Norlen Painting & Decorating, exterior painting of PMQs, 
Camp. Calgary Alta: Quigley Decorating Ltd, exterior painting of PMQs & bldgs, Currie 
Barracks. Chilliwack B C: Froggett & van der Mout, exterior painting of bldgs & PMQs, 
Camp. 

Department of Defence Production 

Gander Nfld: S G Burry & Sons Co Ltd, interior painting of PMQs, RCAF Station. 
Cornwallis N S: Fred T Cleveland, interior painting of skating rink section, bldg No 4, 
HMCS Cornwallis. Greenwood N S: Wylie P Hazelwood, interior painting of PMQs, RCAF 
Station. Camp Gagetown N B: Farris Construction Ltd, construction of tank washing 
stand; Geo H Hamilton & Son Ltd, re-roofing bldgs Nos A-5 & A-9. Chatham N B: 
Coronet Paving Ltd, construction of parking lot, RCAF Station; Wm J Kerr Ltd, replace- 
ment of concrete, RCAF Station. Farnham Que: Jean Paul Lasnier, construction of concrete 
slabs, Camp. St Hubert Que: Dominion Steel & Coal Corp Ltd, construction of fence, 
RCAF Station. St Jean Que: Price Agencies Ltd, supply & erection of electrically operated 
soundproof folding partition, College Militaire Royal de St Jean. Barriefield Ont: McGinnis 
& O'Connor Ltd, construction of parking lot & resurfacing roads, RCEME School. Clinton 
Ont: Iavis Contracting Co Ltd, reconstruction & resurfacing of pavement, RCAF Station. 
Edgar Ont: L T Bristow Plumbing & Heating Ltd, modifications to refrigeration & air 
conditioning system. Kingston Ont: Kingston Decorating Ltd, repainting interior of four 
bldgs, Artillery Park. Ottawa Ont: L Mongeon & Son, repairs to roof, 158 Lees Ave. 
Trenton Ont: Sprayed Vinyl Co, application of epoxy laminate finish, Bldg No 79, RCAF 
Station; Sprayed Vinyl Co, application of epoxy laminate finish, Bldg No 80, RCAF 
Station. Gimli Man: Stan's Painting & Decorating Contractor, interior painting of PMQs, 
RCAF Station. Shilo Man: Western Asbestos Co Ltd, installation of asphalt wall shingles on 
bldgs, Military Camp. Winnipeg Man: Erwin Radeke Painting & Decorating, exterior 
painting of bldgs, RCAF Station; Oswald Decorating Co, exterior painting of bldgs, Fort 
Osborne Barracks; Chennells Enterprises Ltd, road repairs & curb development, Fort 
Osborne Barracks. Calgary Alta: M & S Paving Ltd, patching & seal coating of roads, 
Currie & Sarcee Barracks; Standard Gravel & Surfacing of Canada Ltd, seal coating of 
parade square, Currie Barracks. Belmont Park B C: Old Country Industrial Contractors Ltd, 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 873 

58736-0—8 






repainting interiors of residences; Island Decorators, repainting interiors of residences. 
Comox B C: J K Campbell & Associates Ltd, supply & installation of insulation asbestos 
in Butler Bldg, RCAF Station. 

In addition, this Department awarded 157 contracts containing the General Fair 
Wages Clause. 

Department of Justice 

Ste Cecile de Masham Que: South Hull Electric Reg'd, installation of electrical 
wiring in stores & laundry Bldg No 2, Gatineau Correctional Camp; Papineau Plumbing 
& Heating, installation of plumbing facilities in stores & laundry Bldg No 2, Gatineau 
Correctional Camp; Papineau Plumbing & Heating, installation of heating facilities in 
stores & laundry Bldg No 2, Gatineau Correctional Camp; S Granger & Fils, installation 
of plumbing facilities in staff quarters Bldg No 6, Gatineau Correctional Camp; South 
Hull Electric Reg'd, installation of electrical wiring in staff quarters Bldg No 6, Gatineau 
Correctional Camp; Papineau Plumbing & Heating, installation of heating facilities in 
staff quarters Bldg No 6, Gatineau Correctional Camp. Near Petawawa Ont: McMullen & 
Latimer Reg'd, installation of heating facilities in stores & laundry Bldg No 2, Landry 
Crossing Correctional Camp; Rondeau Electric Ltd, installation of electrical wiring, 
Administration Bldg No 1, Landry Crossing Correctional Camp; McMullen & Latimer 
Reg'd, installation of heating facilities, Administration Bldg No 1, Landry Crossing Cor- 
rectional Camp; Ben Beaulieu Plumbing & Heating, installation of plumbing facilities, 
Administration Bldg No 1, Landry Crossing Correctional Camp; Roy Goodfellow Ltd, 
installation of plumbing facilities in stores & laundry Bldg No 2, Landry Crossing Correc- 
tional Camp; MacGregor Electric Ltd, installation of electrical wiring in stores & laundry 
Bldg No 2, Landry Crossing Correctional Camp; MacGregor Electric Ltd, installation of 
electrical wiring in garage, maintenance shop & power house Bldg No 3, Landry Crossing 
Correctional Camp; McMullen & Latimer Ltd, installation of heating facilities in garage, 
maintenance shop & power house Bldg No 3, Landry Crossing Correctional Camp; Ben 
Beaulieu Plumbing & Heating, installation of heating facilities in kitchen & mess hall Bldg 
No 4, Landry Crossing Correctional Camp; Ben Beaulieu Plumbing & Heating, installation 
of plumbing facilities in kitchen & mess hall Bldg No 4, Landry Crossing Correctional 
Camp; Rondeau Electric Ltd, installation of electrical wiring, kitchen & mess hall Bldg 
No 4, Landry Crossing Correctional Camp. 

Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources 

Dawson City Y T: Whitehorse Electric Co Ltd, electrical alterations in sternwheeler 
Keno; Lunde Metals Ltd, plumbing & heating installations in sternwheeler Keno. 

In addition, this Department awarded three contracts containing the General Fair 
Wages Clause. 

National Harbours Board 

Qubec Que: J A Auclair Ltee, reconstruction of St Charles River Wharf, Berth 
No 30. Prescott Ont: Dibblee Construction Co Ltd, bitiminous paving at grain elevator. 

Department of Public Works 

Aspen Cove Nfld: Twillingate Engineering & Construction Co Ltd, breakwater exten- 
sion. Bauline Nfld: All Sales Equipment Contracting Ltd, breakwater demolition. Calvert 
Nfld: Wm Jacobs Ltd, harbour improvements. Harbour Grace Nfld: Griffin Construction 
Ltd, harbour improvements. Old Perlican Nfld: Wm A Trask Ltd, wharf reconstruction & 
extension. Ship Cove Nfld: J J Hussey Ltd, wharf reconstruction & extension. Twillingate 
Nfld: Twillingate Engineering & Construction Co Ltd, breakwater extension. Annandale 
P E I: L G & M H Smith Ltd, repairs to boat harbour. Belle River P E I: Norman N 
MacLean, west breakwater repairs. Launching Pond P E I: Stanley Reid, extension to 
landing. Miminegash P E I: Edmond A Arsenault, harbour improvements. North Lake 
P E I: Edward MacCallum, landing extension. Wood Islands P E I: Norman N MacLean, 
reconstruction of east breakwater. Bridgewater N S: Elton E Conrad & Son, construction 
of RCMP detachment quarters. Camp Cove N S: Clare Construction Co Ltd, wharf 
extension. Chester Ironbound N S: Continental Construction Co Ltd, harbour improve- 
ments. Freeport N S: L E Powell & Co Ltd, breakwater extension. Halifax N S: Streakless 
Window Services Ltd, cleaning windows of federal bldgs. Lower Sandy Point N S: Shel- 
burne Contracting Ltd, floating breakwater construction. Moose Harbour N S: Colin R 
MacDonald Ltd, breakwater construction. Porter's Cove N S: Clare Construction Co Ltd, 

874 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



wharf repairs. Saulnierville N S: Clare Construction Co Ltd, wharf repairs. Campbellton 
N B-Cross Point Que: Arno Electric Reg'd, installation of lighting, Interprovincial Bridge. 
Cape Tormentine N B: Harold N Price, wharf repairs. Caraquet & Shippegan N B: 
Diamond Construction (1961) Ltd, paving. Cocagne N B: Leo LeBlanc, harbour improve- 
ments. Jacquet River N B: Raymond E Andersen, construction of RCMP detachment 
quarters. Moncton N B: Geldart the Mover, moving to new federal bldg. Northwest 
Miramichi River N B: Wallace P Anderson, Sr, construction of salmon counting fence 
foundations. Shippegan N B: A C Mallet & Fils Co Ltee, construction of federal bldg. 
Tracadie N B: P F C (Northern) Construction Co Ltd, construction of federal bldg. 
Berthier Que: Ovila Boucher, construction of protection wall. Cap Rouge Que: Ste Foy 
Construction Ltee, construction of protection works. Cap Sante Que: Les Entreprises Jean 
R Denoncourt Ltee, construction of protection works. Contrecoeur Que: Welco Construc- 
tion Inc, construction of retaining wall (Project No 3). Deschaillons Que: McNamara Ma- 
rine Ltd, wharf improvements; Plessis Construction Ltee, construction of protection wall; 
Plessis Construction Ltee, raising of wall; Demers & Bordeleau, extension to protection 
works. Gascons (Anse a Mercier) Que: J W Lockhart Journeau, wharf repairs. Grande Ri- 
viere Que: Dimock & Albert, harbour repairs & improvements. Grindstone M I Que: Les 
Entreprises de Fatima Ltee, construction of residence for Fisheries Department. La Petite 
Riviere St Francois Que: Captain Euclide Bouchard, wharf extension. Montreal Que: 
Darling Bros Ltd, alterations to two freight elevators, Postal Terminal Bldg; Conrad 
Forget Inc, construction of post office bldg; Alsco Montreal Inc, supply & installation of 
storm windows, DPW Bldg, Delorimier Ave; Noel Romeo Cie Ltd, electrical works, 
RCMP, 4095 Ste Catherine St. Pointe au Pic Que: Regis Couturier, reconstruction of 
electrical system on old wharf. Pointe Claire Que: Danis Construction Inc, wharf repairs. 
Quebec Que: C. Jobin Ltd, alterations, Champlain Harbour Station. St. Augustin (Plage 
St Laurent) Que: Les Entreprises Rosaire Roy Inc, construction of retaining wall. St 
Augustin Que: Rosaire Savard, construction of protection works. St Charles sur Richelieu 
Que: Welco Construction Inc, construction of retaining wall. Ste Emmelie de Leclercville 
Que: Plessis Construction Ltd, construction of protection works. St Francois I O Que: Les 
Entreprises Cap Diamant Ltee, construction of protection works; Les Entreprises Cap 
Diamant Ltee, construction of protection works St Louis Que: Plessis Construction Ltee, 
construction of protection works. Ste Petronille I O Que: Les Entreprises Cap Diamant 
Ltee, construction of protection works. St Romuald (New Liverpool) Que: Arthur 
Simoneau, construction of protection works. St. Nicolas Que: Arthur Simoneau, construc- 
tion of protection works. Sept lies Que: L O Trottier & Fils Ltee, repairs to retaining wall. 
Trois Pistoles Que: Adrien Berube, wharf repairs. Cedar Beach Ont: Geo L Dillon Con- 
struction Co Ltd, training wall extension. Haileybury Ont: Tri-Town Construction Ltd, 
construction of post office bldg. Hamilton Ont: Quigley Construction Co Ltd, harbour 
repairs & improvements to Catherine St Wharf extension (Stage 1), berm construction. 
Killarney Ont: Ferguson Construction, wharf repairs. Lindsay Ont: Mel-Ron Construction, 
construction of federal bldg. Niagara Falls Ont: The Frank Lawrence Construction Ltd, 
addition & alterations to federal bldg. Ottawa Ont: Thomas Fuller Construction (1958) 
Ltd, construction of radiation protection laboratory, Riverside Drive; Ottawa Plumbing & 
Heating Ltd, plumbing alterations, Centre Block, Parliament Bldgs; Capital Enterprises, 
alterations to main bldg, Plouffe Park, 1010 Somerset St W; D Decarie, interior redecora- 
tion, Veterans Affairs Bldg, Wellington St; Port Credit Ont: The Foundation Co of Canada 
Ltd, harbour improvements, warehouse & office bldg. Temagami Ont: P M Lechlitner, 
wharf repairs. Toronto Ont: H C Barker & Son, alterations & addition to partitions, 175 
Bedford Road. Elphinstone Man: Harper Construction Co Ltd, construction of RCMP 
detachment quarters. East Kildonan Man: Harper Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
letter carrier depot. West Kildonan Man: Malcolm Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
letter carrier depot (Depot "R"). Gimli Man: Arnason Engineering Co Ltd, alterations & 
additions, federal bldg. Winnipeg Man: Henry J Funk, renovations of windows, Commercial 
Bldg. Milestone Sask: Swertz Bros Construction Ltd, construction of RCMP detachment 
quarters. Banff-Jasper Highway Alta: Standard Gravel & Surfacing of Canada Ltd, 
bituminous concrete pavement, Mile 67.5 to Mile 86.0. Breton Alta: Seabrook Construction 
Co Ltd, construction of RCMP detachment quarters. Jasper National Park Alta: Poole 
Engineering (1958) Ltd, bituminous concrete pavement, Mile 86.0 to Mile 104.5, Banff- 
Jasper Highway. Alder grove B C: Teck Construction Ltd, construction of post office 
bldg. Bamfield B C: Ivan Ossinger, float extension, fishermen's floats. Fords Cove B C. 
Harbour Pile Driving Co, construction of breakwater. Ganges B C: Harbour Pile Driving 
Co, wharf & fishermen's float repairs. Gibsons Landing B C: W J Dick Ltd, construction 
of post office bldg. Mount Revelstoke National Park B C: R M R Contractors Ltd, 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 875 

58736-0— 8£ 



construction of Trans-Canada interchange with Mount Revelstoke National Park Road. 
Port Hardy B C: Greenlees Pile Driving Co Ltd, wharf improvements. Prince Rupert B C: 
The Fraser River Pile Driving Co Ltd, construction of ferry terminal; Bedrock Con- 
tractors Ltd & Granby Construction & Equipment Ltd, ferry terminal compound area fill 
(Fairview Bay); Vancouver Pile Driving & Contracting Co Ltd, breakwater renewal 
(Rushbrook). Saanichton B C: Fraser River Pile Driving Co Ltd, wharf renewal. Williams 
Lake B C: Buchholtz Construction, alterations, repairs & painting of federal bldg. Yoho 
National Park B C: Thode Construction Ltd, paving, Mile 16 to Mile 28.4 & Mile 
to Mile 5, Emerald Lake Road. Fort Smith N W T: Poole Construction Co Ltd, con- 
struction of addition to school. MacKenzie Highway N W T: Standard Gravel & Surfacing 
of Canada Ltd, crushed gravel surfacing, Mile to Mile 51; J A Moulson Construction 
Ltd & Ludwig Construction Co Ltd, grading, culverts & surface gravel, Mile 51 to Mile 
76.6. Ross River Road Y T: Vancouver Pile Driving & Contracting Co Ltd, construction 
of Frances River Bridge, Mile 35.8. 

In addition, this Department awarded 60 contracts containing the General Fair 
Wages Clause. 

Department of Transport 

Channel Head Nfld: S J Clark, construction of two bungalows. Camperdown N S: 
Annapolis Valley Construction Ltd, revisions to operations Bldg. Dorval Que: Kolostat 
Heating System Ltd, renovations to Central Analysis Office, International Airport. Heath 
Point (Anticosti Island) Que: McMullen & Gagnon Inc, construction of power house 
bldg. Montreal (St Isidore) Que: Rod L'Ecuyer, construction of remote receiver bldg & 
associated work. London Ont: Marentette Bros Ltd, construction of aircraft parking apron 
& taxi ways, Airport. Main Duck Island Ont: Laue Jensen Bill, construction of frame 
dwelling at light station. North Bay Ont: The Carter Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
extension to runway, etc, Airport. Near Port Rowan Ont: Backus Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of dwelling. Long Point Lightstation. Sault Ste Marie Ont: E Osis & Co Ltd, 
grading of localizer site. Scarborough Ont: McGrath Engineers, installation of partitions, 
painting & electrical work, Field Meteorological Station. Timmins Ont: B & B Cable 
Services Ltd, repairs to field lighting & power distribution system. Toronto Ont: B & B 
Cable Services Ltd, installation of MI lighting, runway 08-26, Toronto Island Airport. 
Windsor Ont: Keystone Contractors Ltd, construction of sewage disposal plant, Airport. 
Winnipeg Man: Tallman Construction Co Ltd, construction of car park area & roads for 
Terminal Bldg, Airport. Regina Sask: McNamara Construction (Western) Ltd, strengthen- 
ing of runways, Airport. Saskatoon Sask: Jim Patrick Ltd, strengthening of taxiways, 
Airport; Plains City Electric Co Ltd, extension to lighting facilities, Airport. Uranium City 
Sask: Sunrise Construction Ltd, replacement of powerline poles & related work. Princeton 
B C: Heathcol Heating & Plumbing, replacement of furnaces in six dwellings. Seal Cove 
B C: Canwest Construction Co Ltd, construction of helicopter hangar & workshop. 
Vancouver B C: Wescan Construction Co Ltd, conversion of operator's room to marine/ 
aeradio workshop in Air Services Bldg, International Airport. Victoria B C: Murphy 
Excavating Co Ltd, provision of water supply line & sewage disposal main for Air Terminal 
Bldg, International Airport. Fort Simpson N W T: A H MacLeod & Son Contractors Ltd, 
construction of lighting for runway 12-30 & related work, Airport. 

In addition, this Department awarded one contract containing the General Fair Wages 
Clause. 



876 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



PRICES AND THE COST OF LIVING 



Consumer Price Index, June 1962 

The consumer price index (1949=100) 
rose 0.3 per cent from 130.1 to 130.5 be- 
tween May and June as a result of increases 
in the food, housing and clothing indexes. 
The transportation, health and personal 
care, and tobacco and alcohol indexes were 
unchanged and the recreation and reading 
index declined fractionally.* 

The index one year earlier was 129.0. 

The food index increased 0.9 per cent 
from 124.5 to 125.6 as higher prices were 
reported for a wide range of items, in- 
cluding beef, fresh and cured pork, lamb, 
veal, chicken, flour, cheese, cake mix, 
coffee, most fresh vegetables, grapefruit and 
apples. Prices were lower for eggs, fresh 
milk, some fats, strawberries, orange juice 
and canned vegetables. 

The housing index rose 0.3 per cent 
from 134.5 to 134.9 as both the shelter 
and household operation components moved 
to higher levels. In shelter, both rents and 
home-ownership were up. 

The movement in rents, the first in al- 
most a year, reflected changes attributable 
to the traditional moving month of May. 
In household operation, prices were higher 
for furniture, floor coverings, utensils and 
equipment. Lower prices were recorded 
for textiles, and supplies and services, the 
latter index reflecting lower premiums for 
insurance on household effects. 

The clothing index was up 0.3 per cent 
from 112.8 to 113.1 as a result of price 
increases for men's and children's wear, 
piece goods, and clothing services, which 
includes laundry, dry cleaning and shoe 
repairs. Women's wear prices were lower. 

The transportation index was unchanged 
at 140.4. Somewhat higher prices for gaso- 
line, train and bus fares were not sufficient 
to move the group index. 

The health and personal care index re- 
mained at its May level of 158.2. The 
health care component was lower as a result 
of price decreases for pharmaceuticals but 
the personal care index moved up due to 
higher prices for personal care items, in- 
cluding toothpaste, shaving cream and 
razor blades. 

The recreation and reading index de- 
clined 0.1 per cent, from 147.1 to 147.0. 
Lower prices for bicycles and camera film 



•See Table F-l at back of book. 



in recreation offset higher prices for sports 
equipment. The reading index was un- 
changed. 

The tobacco and alcohol index remained 
unchanged at its May level of 117.9. 

Group indexes in June 1961 were: food 
123.5, housing 132.9, clothing 112.5, trans- 
portation 141.2, health and personal care 
155.0, recreation and reading 145.8, and 
tobacco and alcohol 115.8. 

City Consumer Price Indexes, May 1962 

Consumer price indexes (1949=100) 
declined between April and May in eight 
of the ten regional cities, with decreases 
ranging from 0.1 per cent in Vancouver to 
0.6 per cent in Halifax. The index for 
St. John's rose 0.2 per cent. The Edmonton- 
Calgary index was unchanged*. 

Food indexes fell in all cities except 
St. John's, where the index rose 0.3 per cent. 
Decreases ranged from 0.3 per cent in Van- 
couver to 1.9 per cent in Halifax. Housing 
indexes were up in five cities, down in two, 
and unchanged in three. In five cities there 
were lower indexes for clothing, in one the 
index was higher, and in four it remained 
unchanged. The index for transportation 
rose in four cities, fell in five, and held 
steady in the other. There were four higher 
indexes for health and personal care, one 
lower and five unchanged. Six cities had 
higher recreation and reading indexes; four 
cities had unchanged indexes. Six tobacco 
and alcohol indexes were unchanged while 
two rose and two fell. 

Regional consumer price index point 
changes between April and May were as 
follows: Halifax —0.8 to 129.2; Ottawa 
-0.5 to 131.2; Toronto -0.4 to 131.7; 
Saskatoon-Regina —0.4 to 126.9; Saint 
John -0.3 to 130.8; Montreal -0.3 to 
130.2; Winnipeg —0.2 to 128.7; Vancouver 
-0.1 to 129.1; St. John's +0.2 to 117.6t. 
Edmonton-Calgary remained unchanged at 
125.5. 

Wholesale Price Index, May 1962 

Canada's general wholesale price index 
(1935-39=100) rose 0.7 per cent in May 
to 239.1 from 237.4 in April, a point 3.4 
per cent above last year's May index of 

*See Table F-2 at back of book. 
tOn base June 1951=100. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



877 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 



Index 1949=100 



Index 1949=100 




231.2. Five of the eight major group indexes 
were higher and the remaining three were 
lower. 

Non-ferrous metals products group index 
advanced 3.2 per cent to 194.8 from 188.7, 
the wood products group index rose 1.7 per 
cent to 317.0 from 311.7, the vegetable 
products group index increased 1.1 per cent 
to 212.5 from 210.2, the textile products 
group index edged up 0.7 per cent to 239.6 
from 237.9, and the chemical products 
group index was little changed at 190.4 
versus 190.3. 

The animal products group index declined 
0.7 per cent to 254.4 from 256.2; the non- 
metallic minerals group index eased off 
to 187.4 from 187.8 and the iron products 
group index to 256.9 from 257.1. 

The residential building materials price 
index (1935-39=100) moved up 0.5 per 
cent in May to 295.8 from 294.3 in April; 



on the 1949 base, the index rose to 129.7 
from 129.1. 

The price index for non-residential build- 
ing materials (1949=100) remained steady 
in May at 131.6. 

U.S. Consumer Price Index, May 1962 

The United States consumer price index 
(1957-59=100) was unchanged at 105.2 
between April and May. The pause followed 
three successive rises to the record high 
reached in April. The May index was 1.3 
per cent higher than that in the same month 
of 1961. 

British Index of Retail Prices, April 1962 

The British index of retail prices (Jan. 
16, 1962=100) rose from 100.5 to 101.9 
between mid-March and mid-April. The 
increase was mainly the result of higher 
prices for potatoes and other fresh 
vegetables. 



878 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



Publications Recently Received 

in Department of Labour Library 



The publications listed below are not for 
sale by the Department of Labour. Persons 
wishing to purchase them should com- 
municate with the publishers. Publications 
listed may be borrowed by making appli- 
cation to the Librarian, Department of 
Labour, Ottawa. Students must apply 
through the library of their institution. 
Applications for loans should give the 
number (numeral) of the publication de- 
sired and the month in which it was listed 
in the Labour Gazette. 

List No. 165 

Agriculture 

1. Britnell, George Edwin. Canadian 
Agriculture in War and Peace, 1935-50, by 
G. E. Britnell and V. C. Fowke. Stanford, 
Cal., Stanford University Press, 1962. Pp. 
502. 

"Sets out the basic elements of agricultural 
policy and the conditions of food supply in 
Canada during the Second World War." 

2. Hammond, Richard James. Food. 
London, HMSO; Longmans, Green, 1951- 
1962. 3 vols. 

Contents: V.l. The Growth of Policy. V.2 
and 3. Studies in Administration and Control. 
These volumes are released in the series of 
Official Histories of the Second World War, is- 
sued by the British Government. 

Annual Reports 

3. Manitoba. Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Board. Report for 1961. Winnipeg, 
1962. Pp. 31. 

4. United States. Department of 
Labor. Annual Report, 1961. Washington, 
GPO, 1962. Pp. 302. 

Canada at Work Broadcasts 

The following 10 broadcasts were sponsored 
and published by the federal Department of 
Labour at the end of 1961 and in 1962. 

5. Bissell, Claude Thomas. Conference 
on Education. Pp. 3. 

Excerpts from the keynote address given 
at the opening of the Second Canadian Con- 
ference on Education held in Montreal in 
March 1962, by the President of the Univer- 
sity of Toronto and former Chairman of the 
Canada Council. 

6. Canada. Department of Labour. Anti- 
Discrimination — a Film and its Results. 
Pp. 4. 

A talk about a film, "A Day in the Night of 
Jonathan Mole," made by the National 
Film Board for the federal Department of 
Labour. The film is concerned with racial 
discrimination. 

7. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Home Improvements in Winter. Pp. 5. 

A conversation between Frank Ellis, Man- 
ager of the Home Improvement Division of 



Allied Building Supplies in Ottawa, and George 
Blackburn, Director of Information, Depart- 
ment of Labour, Ottawa. They discuss the ad- 
vantages of making home improvements during 
winter months. 

8. Dickens, H. B. Building Houses in 
Winter. Pp. 4. 

The speaker, who is associated with the 
Division of Building Research, National Re- 
search Council, tells how winter construction 
of houses is carried on. 

9. Hayes (Mrs.) Saul. Winter Employ- 
ment. Pp. 4. 

The speaker, President of the National Coun- 
cil of Women of Canada, told of some of 
the ways women can help to alleviate winter 
unemployment. 

10. McCallum, Frank. The National 
Employment Committee. Pp. 4 

The speaker is Chairman of the National 
Employment Committee which advises and 
assists the Unemployment Insurance Commis- 
sion in carrying out the operations of the 
National Employment Service. 

11. Porter, John. Fair Employment and 
the Fair Career. Pp. 4. 

The speaker, a professor in the Department 
of Sociology at Carleton University, spoke 
about the law and fair employment. 

12. Royce, Marion V. The I.L.O. and 
Women. Pp. 5. 

Tells how the International Labour Organi- 
zation helps women workers. 

13. Starr, Michael. Winter Employment. 
Pp. 4. 

The Minister of Labour tells what the 
federal Government is doing to aid winter 
employment. 

14. Thomson, William. Winter Employ- 
ment. Pp. 4. 

The speaker, Director of the National Em- 
ployment Service, tells how the winter em- 
ployment campaign is helped at the community 
level across the country. 

Commerce 

15. U.S. Bureau of the Census. U.S. 
Commodity Exports and Imports as related 
to Output, 1958. Washington, GPO, 1962. 
Pp. 50. 

16. U.S. Bureau of the Census. U.S. 
Commodity Exports and as related to Out- 
put, 1958. Prepared under the direction of 
Harold T. Goldstein. Washington, GPO, 
1961. 

Economic Policy 

17. Committee for Economic Develop- 
ment. Fiscal and Monetary Policy for High 
Employment; a Statement on National 
Policy by the Research and Policy Com- 
mittee of the C.E.D. New York, 1962. Pp. 

59. 

The Research and Policy Committee of the 
CED makes recommendations on the following: 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



879 



budgetary policy, budgetary procedures, ad- 
justing taxes and expenditures, the role of 
monetary policy, and action dealing with 
recessions. 

18. Neufeld, Edward Peter. Bank of 
Canada Operations and Policy. Toronto, 
University of Toronto Press, 1958. Pp. 253. 

". . . Deals with four aspects of central 
banking in Canada: the relationship between 
the Bank of Canada and the Government; the 
nature of the Bank's various objectives; the 
development and nature of the Bank's con- 
trol techniques; and the operations of the 
Bank during periods of peacetime unemploy- 
ment, war, and postwar readjustments and 
inflation." 

19. Theil, Henri. Economic Forecasts 
and Policy, by H. Theil, assisted by J. S. 
Cramer, H. Moerman [and] A. Russchen. 
2nd rev. ed. Amsterdam, North-Holland 
Pub. Co., 1961. Pp. 567. 

Education 

20. Canada. Women's Bureau. Voca- 
tional and Technical Training for Girls at 
High School, Post-High-School and Trade 
School Levels of Education in Canada. 
Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1961. Pp. 45. 

Outlines courses that are available for girls, 
giving details on the length of the course 
and financial assistance available for further 
education. Includes an index listing occupa- 
tions or fields of work with page reference. 

21. Clarke, S. C. T. The Cameron 
Report; a Condensation of the Royal Com- 
mission on Education in Alberta. Edmonton, 
Alberta Teachers' Association, 1960. 

Comprises the March 1960 issue of the ATA 
magazine, the official organ of the Alberta 
Teachers' Association. The report of the 
Alberta Royal Commission on Education was 
presented in 1959. Senator Donald Cameron 
was chairman. 

22. DeWitt, Nicholas. Education and 
Professional Employment in the U.S.S.R. 
Washington, National Science Foundation, 
1961. Pp. 856. 

The author, an "internationally recognized 
authority on Soviet education and professional 
manpower resources," associated with the Rus- 
sian Research Center at Harvard University, 
has based his book on Russian official data 
as well as on Western reports, accounts of 
visitors to Russia, and other sources of in- 
formation. 

23. Kidd, James Robbins. How Adults 
Learn. New York, Association Press, 1959. 
Pp. 324. 

Contents: Learning throughout Life. The 
Adult Learner. Physical and Sensory Capacity. 
Intellectual Capacities. Feelings and Emotions. 
Motivations, Interests, and Attitudes. Theories 
of Learning. Some Fields of Practice. The 
Environment for Learning — Forms and Devices. 
The Teaching-Learning Transaction. The 
Teacher in the Learning Transaction. 

24. Pigott, Arthur V. Education and 
Employment. Ottawa, Canadian Conference 
on Education, 1961. Pp. 79. 

Emphasizes the need for secondary or vo- 
cational education. This paper was prepared 
for the Second Canadian Conference on Edu- 
cation held in Montreal in March 1962. 



25. Sheffield, Edward Fletcher. Ad- 
mission to University, 1961. [Ottawa] Cana- 
dian Universities Foundation, [1962]. Pp. 4. 

26. Sheffield, Edward Fletcher. En- 
rolment in Canadian Universities and Col- 
leges to 1970-71 (1961 Projection). Ottawa, 
Canadian Universities Foundation, 1962. 
Pp. 15. 

English and French in parallel columns. 

27. World Confederation of Organi- 
zations of the Teaching Profession. 
Public Support of Education; Reports of 
National Teachers Association. Washington, 
1958. Pp. 52. 

Includes reports from member organizations 
on public support for education. The four main 
aspects considered were economic aspects, pro- 
motion of public support, government support, 
and advances in recent years. 

Labouring Classes 

28. Industrial Relations Counselors, 
Inc. A profile of the Teamsters Union. New 
York, 1961. Pp. 47. 

An examination of the largest and wealthi- 
est single labour union in the U.S. 

29. International Labour Office. 

Equality of Treatment of Nationals and 
Non-Nationals in Social Security. Fifth 
item on the agenda. Geneva, 1961-1962. 
2 vols. At head of title: Report 5(l)-(2). 
International Labour Conference. 46th 
Session, Geneva, 1962. 

Part 1 contains a proposed convention and 
proposed recommendation on this topic. Part 
2 contains replies from 73 member govern- 
ments. 

30. Stone, Morris. Labor-Management 
Contracts at Work; Analysis of Awards 
reported by the American Arbitration As- 
sociation. New York, Harper, cl961. Pp. 
307. 

"The purpose of this volume is to illustrate 
contract interpretation problems resolved by 
arbitrators in 10 critical areas of employer- 
employee relations." Some of the topics con- 
sidered are layoffs, seniority and ability, call- 
in pay, holidays, vacations, overtime, discharges, 
discipline, shop stewards, etc. 

31 Whyte, William Foote. Men at 
Work. Homewood, 111., Dorsey Press, 1961. 
Pp. 593. 

Explores human relations in industry. Pre- 
sents case studies, most of which are drawn 
from the author's own field of research 
experience. 

National Industrial Conference Board 

32. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Corporate Directorship Practices, by 
John R. Kinley. New York, 1962. Pp. [144]. 

Shows trends in the relationships between 
companies and their directors. Contains in- 
formation on fees and retainers paid by more 
than 900 companies. Contents of study: Size 
and Composition of the Board. Election of 
Directors. Compensation. Tenure and Retire- 
ment, Functions and Duties of Directors. 



880 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



Legal Responsibilities of Directors. Board 
Meetings and Reports to Directors. Commit- 
tees of the Board. 

33. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Growth Patterns in Industry: a Re- 
examination, by J. Frank Gaston. New 
York, cl961. Pp. 94. 

Concerned with measurements of the rates 
of growth of 32 industries in the U.S. over 
the last 40 years. 

34. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Measuring Advertising Results, by 
Harry Deane Wolfe, James K. Brown [and] 
G. Clark Thompson. New York, cl962. 
Pp. 177. 

Describes the methods used by several com- 
panies to measure the results of their adver- 
tising and includes 98 case examples. Also 
describes and evaluates the nine basic ways 
of measuring advertising results. 

Occupations 

35. McMaster University, Hamilton, 
Ont. Student Personnel Services. Occu- 
pational Survey, McMaster University Grad- 
uates of 1950-1959. [Hamilton, 1961?]. 1 
vol. (unpaged). 

A survey based on reports of 1996 gradu- 
ates of McMaster University. Lists occupa- 
tional titles in alphabetical order under each 
of the university courses. 

36. Norris, Willa. The Information Ser- 
vice in Guidance: Occupational, Educa- 
tional, Social, by Willa Norris, Franklin R. 
Zeran [and] Raymond N. Hatch. Chicago, 
Rand McNally, 1960. Pp. 598. 

37. U.S. Interagency Advisory Com- 
mittee on Essential Activities and Crit- 
ical Occupations. List of Currently Es- 
sential Activities; List of Currently Critical 
Occupations. Washington, 1961. Pp. 19. 

Prices 

38. Organization for European Eco- 
nomic Co-operation. The Problem of Ris- 
ing Prices, by William Fellner [and others. 
Paris, 1961]. Pp. 489. 

Report of a group of independent experts 
appointed by the Council of the O.E.E.C. 

Summarizes the record of rising prices and 
examines four causes of rising prices and some 
aspects of balance-of-payments management. 

39. Wonnacott, Ronald Johnston. 
Canadian-American Dependence; an Inter- 
industry Analysis of Production and Prices. 
Amsterdam, North-Holland Publishing Com- 
pany, 1961. Pp. 143. 

"Part 1 provides the results of a concen- 
trated study into the pattern of production and 
trade in the United States and Canada. Part 
2 is an investigation into the extent to which 
the Canadian price structure is vulnerable to 
changing prices in the U.S. and elsewhere." 



Unemployment 

40. Northwestern Ontario Commis- 
sion on Employment. Report. Port Arthur, 
Northwestern Ontario Development Asso- 
ciation, 1961. Pp. 9. 

41. Princeton University. Industrial 
Relations Section. The Economics- of Un- 
employment Compensation, by Richard A. 
Lester. Princeton, 1962. Pp. 137. 

"Examines the business-cycle aspects of 
unemployment compensation, the economic sig- 
nificance of unemployment taxes and their 
effects on interstate competition for business, 
and the consequences of labour-force develop- 
ments for unemployment insurance." 

Wages and Hours 

42. Australia. Bureau of Census and 
Statistics. Minimum Weekly Wage Rates, 
January 1957 to June 1961. Canberra, 1961. 
Pp. 15. 

43. Bowen, William Gordon. The 
Wage-Price Issue; a Theoretical Analysis. 
Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 
1960. Pp. 447. 

"A project of the Industrial Relations Sec- 
tion, Princeton University." A discussion on 
the various aspects of inflation. 

44. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. The New Wage and Hour 
Law, by the Editorial Staff of Labor Rela- 
tions Reporter, under the direction of 
Howard J. Anderson. [Rev. and enl. ed., 
Washington, 1961]. Pp. 129, 237. 

Includes new rules of coverage, new ex- 
emptions, how to compute hours and over- 
time, how minimum wage applies, and a 
complete legislative history of the 1961 amend- 
ments. 

Miscellaneous 

45. Conference on Research in In- 
come and Wealth. Trends in the American 
Economy in the Nineteenth Century. Prince- 
ton, Princeton University Press, 1960. Pp. 
780. 

Papers presented at the joint sessions of 
the Economic History Association and the 
Conference on Research in Income and Wealth, 
held in Williamstown, Mass., in September 
1957. Contains articles by O. J. Firestone on 
"Development of Canada's Economy, 1850- 
1900," and "Canada's External Trade and Net 
Foreign Balance, 1851-1900," also another ar- 
ticle on "Canadian Balance of Payments since 
1868," by Penelope Hartland. 

46. Conference on Statistics, Queen's 
University, Kingston, Ont., 1960. Papers. 
Edited by E. F. Beach and I. C. Weldon. 
Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 
cl962. Pp. 314. 

Contents: Historical Estimates of Internal 
Migration in Canada, by Kenneth Buckley. 
The "Mass Society" and "Community" Anal- 
ysis of the Social Present, by R. E. DuWors, R. 
Batson [and] M. Daffron. Canadian Criminal 
Statistics, by P. J. Giffen. The Postwar Rise of 
the Crude Petroleum Industry in Canada, by 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • 

58736-0—9 



JULY 7962 



881 



E. J. Janson. Salaries of Engineers and Sci- 
entists, 1951, by G. Rosenbluth. The Distri- 
bution and Functions of Canadian Engineers 
and Scientists, by D. N. Solomon and A. M. 
Fergusson. The Structure and Growth of the 
Canadian Air Transport Industry, by K. W. 
Studnicki-Gizbert. The Canadian Manufac- 
turing Industry, 1900-57, by T. R. Vout. 

47. Michael, Donald N. Cybernation: 
The Silent Conquest. Santa Barbara, Cen- 
ter for the Study of Democratic Institutions, 
cl962. Pp. [48]. 



A report to the Center for the Study of 
Democratic Institutions. The word "cyber- 
nation" is used to refer to both automation 
and computers. Lists the advantages and the 
problems of cybernation. 

48. United Nations. Economic Com- 
mission for Europe. European Housing 
Trends and Policies in 1960. Geneva, United 
Nations, 1961. Pp. 55. 

49. Wainberg, J. M. Company Meetings, 
including Rules of Order. Toronto, Canada 
Law Book Company, 1961. Pp. 259. 



Decisions of the Umpire 

{Continued from page 870) 
manner because, if the claimant was not regis- 
tered for employment, it was because of her 
non-availability for work during the period 
in question and not of her negligence to make 
her claim in the prescribed manner. 

On December 6 also, the insurance offi- 
cer sent copies of all the appeal documents 
to the claimant and at. the same time sent 
her a letter reminding her that she had 
the right, within 10 days, to "submit a 
memorandum of observations or representa- 
tions to be considered by the Umpire." To 
date, no such memorandum has been sub- 
mitted either by her or any other person on 
her behalf. 

Considerations and Conclusions: A 
claimant's availability for work is a question 
of fact and, as stated by the insurance offi- 
cer in his appeal, that question must be 
decided in taking into account the partic- 
ular circumstances of each case. 



According to the evidence, the claimant 
clearly stated that when she filed her 
application for benefit, she was not avail- 
able for work "during the holidays and 
during the week of repairs," and at no 
time thereafter did she adduce valid proof 
to the contrary. 

As the claimant's intention not to work 
during the entire period of time in question 
was clearly established in her case, the 
board of referees should not, in the ab- 
sence of additional evidence, have consid- 
ered her available for any part of the same 
period. The fact that the claimant's fellow- 
workers had, so far as they were concerned, 
established that they were available during 
the same period, did not justify the board 
of referees in granting her benefit to which 
neither the Act nor equity gave her any 
right. 

I consequently decide to allow the in- 
surance officer's appeal. 



Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment 

(Continued from page 8S5) 

but had done "nothing more than a 
straight set-off of cars on one track." The 
train had been made up at Sarnia in such 
a way as to make switching at Chatham 
unnecessary. 

This case was heard by a referee ap- 
pointed by the Minister of Labour at the 
request of the Board of Adjustment, and 
his award constituted the decision of the 
Board in the case. 

In his award, the referee noted that the 
company claimed the right to order road 
crews to perform yard duties any day 
of the week on which yard engines were 
not on duty, as long as they did no 
switching, but only straight set-offs. 



He pointed out that the kind of work 
for which the claim was being made was 
considered as yard work on six days of 
the week. 

He also said that "the spirit of the agree- 
ment evidently contemplates the receiving 
of extra pay on the part of yardmen per- 
forming road work and on the part of 
roadmen performing yard work." 

The referee stated that the weight of the 
evidence, including the "unmitigated ad- 
missions made by the company," had con- 
vinced him of the validity of the union's 
claim. He ordered that the engineer and 
the fireman should be paid whatever extra 
pay they were entitled to for the switching 
performed, "which normally should have 
been performed by a yard crew." 



882 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



Page 

Tables A-l to A-3— Labour Force 883 

Table B-l— Labour Income 885 

Tables C-l to C-6 — Employment, Hours and Earnings 886 

Tables D-l to D-5— Employment Service Statistics 892 

Tables E-l to E-5 — Unemployment Insurance 897 

Tables F-l and F-2— Prices 899 

Tables G-l to G-4— Strikes and Lockouts 900 

Tables H-l and H-2— Industrial Fatalities 902 



A — Labour Force 

TABLE A-l— REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION, WEEK ENDED JUNE 23, 1962 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: DBS Labour Force Survey 



Canada 


Atlantic 
Region 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Prairie 
Region 


6,752 


611 


1,868 


2,484 


1,176 


4,914 
1,838 


464 
147 


1,386 
482 


1,762 
722 


853 

323 


693 

869 

3,014 

1,948 

228 


70 
89 
252 
177 
23 


215 

284 

850 

469 

50 


239 

281 

1,123 

752 

89 


117 
147 
512 
352 

48 


6,451 


566 


1,763 


2,392 


1,150 


4,671 
1,780 


425 
141 


1,294 
469 


1,694 
698 


835 
315 


687 
5,764 
5,302 


45 
521 
462 


131 
1,632 
1,492 


173 
2,219 
2,060 


306 

844 
789 


3,709 
1,593 


338 

124 


1,057 
435 


1,428 
632 


530 
259 


301 


45 


105 


92 


26 


243 

58 


39 

* 


92 
13 


68 
24 


18 

* 


5,465 


624 


1,628 


1,787 


909 


1,160 
4,305 


151 
473 


339 

1,289 


344 
1,443 


203 
706 



British 
Columbia 



The Labour Force 

Men 

Women 

14-19 years 

20-24 years 

25-44 years 

45-64 years 

65 years and over 

Employed 

Men 

Women 

Agriculture 

Non-agriculture 

Paid Workers 

Men 

Women 

Unemployed 

Men 

Women 

Persons not in the Labour Force 

Men 

Women 

* Less than 10,000. 



613 

449 
164 

52 

68 

277 

198 

18 

580 

423 
157 

32 

548 
499 

356 
143 

33 

^26 

517 

123 
394 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

58736-0— 9* 



• JULY 1962 



883 



TABLE A-2— AGE, SEX AND MARITAL STATUS, WEEK ENDED JUNE 23, 1962 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: DBS Labour Force Survey 





Total 


14—19 

years 

all 

persons 




20—64 


years 




65 years 

and over 

all 




Men 


Women 




Married 


Other 


Married 


Other 


persons 


Population 14 years of age and overd) 


12,217 

6,752 

6,451 

301 

5,465 

55.3 
54.0 

4.5 
5.1 


1,815 

693 
606 

87 

1,122 

38.2 
33.1 

12.6 
10.4 


3,566 

3,456 

3,343 

113 

110 

96.6 
96.7 

3.3 

4.4 


959 

872 

808 

64 

87 

90.9 

88.5 

7.3 
9.5 


3,649 

866 

851 

15 

2,783 

23.7 
23.1 

1.7 
1.9 


912 

637 

622 

15 

275 

69.8 
69.5 

2.4 
2.7 


1,316 
228 




221 




* 




1,088 
17.3 


Participation rate( 2 > 

1962, June 23 


May 19 


17.3 


Unemployment rate< 3 > 

1962, June 23 




May 19 


* 







(D Excludes inmates of institutions, members of the armed services, Indians living on reserves and residents of the 
Yukon and Northwest Territories. 

(2) The labour force as a percentage of the population 14 years of age and over. 
( 3 > The unemployed as a percentage of the labour force. 
* Less than 10,000 unemployed. 



TABLE A-3— UNEMPLOYED, WEEK ENDED JUNE 23, 1962 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: DBS Labour Force Survey 



June 
1962 



May 
1962 



June 



Total unemployed 

On temporary layoff up to 30 days 
Without work and seeking work. . . 

Seeking full-time work 

Seeking part-time work 

Seeking under 1 month 

Seeking 1 — 3 months 

Seeking 4 — 6 months 

Seeking more than 6 months. . 



301 

11 
290 

268 
22 

110 

69 
42 



336 



12 

324 



307 
17 



81 



370 



354 



332 
22 



101 
72 
95 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



B — Labour Income 

TABLE B-l— ESTIMATES OF LABOUR INCOME 

Note: Monthly and quarterly figures may not add to annual totals because of rounding. 

($ Millions) 
Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 





Monthly Total 


Quarterly Totals^) 


Year and 
Month 


Mining 


Manu- 
facturing 


Trans- 
portation, 
Storage 
and 
Communi- 
cation ( 2 ) 


Forestry 


Construc- 
tion 


Public 

utilities 


Trade 


Finance 
Services 
(including 
Govern- 
ment) 


Supple- 
men- 
tary 
Labour 
income 


Totals 

(3) 


1957— Total. . . . 
1958— Total. . . . 
1959— Total. . . . 
1960— Total.... 
1961— Total. . . . 

1961— 


535 
527 
552 
551 
545 

44.5 
43.2 
45.6 
46.3 
46.2 
46.2 
46.3 
46.3 
46.2 
45.5 

45.8 
45.2 
45.6 
45.0 


4,838 
4,823 
5,096 
5,188 
5,348 

426.4 
430.9 
441.8 
457.5 
451.2 
459.3 
464.6 
463.0 
458.8 
451.3 

450.7 
455.9 
461.1 
465.1 


1,661 
1,685 
1,785 
1,806 
1,862 

144.4 

148.1 
153.8 
165.5 
166.9 
162.2 
162.0 
159.0 
158.1 
152.0 

151.2 
152.1 
150.3 
153.6 


336 
270 
288 
326 

285 


1,311 
1,317 
1,279 
1,245 
1,225 


277 
307 
332 
344 
356 


2,265 

2,360 
2,528 
2,638 
2,737 


3,920 
4,303 
4,653 
5,019 
5,475 


683 
727 
746 
790 

827 


16,018 
16,521 
17,463 
18,119 
18,884 

1,482.3 


April 

May 














1,508.8 


62.4 


302.5 


88.8 


678.6 


1,375.1 


205.6 


1,563.9 




1,629.4 


July 














1,615.3 


August 

September. . . 


75.4 


373.8 


91.9 


690.3 


1,375.3 


210.2 


1,629.9 
-1,657.7 














1,644.9 


November. . . 


85.1 


311.5 


89.9 


712.2 


1,413.5 


211.9 


1,625.1 
1,585.8 


1962 — 

January 

February . . 














1,565.7 


68.2 


255.6 


89.7 


687.7 


1,421.5 


212.0 


1,575.7 
1,590.5 


Aprilt 














1,613.2 

















U> Quarterly figures are entered opposite the middle month of the quarter but represent quarterly totals. 
( 2 ) Includes post office wages and salaries. 

(*> Figures in this column are for total labour income, Canada, but are not totals of the figures in the remaining 
columns of this table, as figures for labour income in Agriculture, Fishing and Trapping are not shown. 
*Re vised. 
tPreliminary. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



885 



C — Employment, Hours and Earnings 

Tables C-l to C-3 are based on reports from employers having 15 or more employees-at 
April 1962 employers in the principal non-agricultural industries reported a total employ- 
ment of 2,784,629. Tables C-4 and C-5 are based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of 
firms than Tables C-l to C-3. They relate only to wage earners from whom statistics of hours 
of work are also available whereas Tables C-l to C-3 relate to salaried employees as well as to all 
wage earners in the reporting firms. 

TABLE C-l— EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS AND WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 



Year and Month 



Industrial Composite 



Index Numbers 
(1949-100)") 



Employ- 
ment 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 

and 
Salaries 



Average 

Weekly 

Wages 

and 

Salaries 



Manufacturing 



Index Numbers 
(1949-100) 



Employ- 
ment 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 

and 
Salaries 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 

and 
Salaries 



Averages 

1957 

1958 

1959 

1960 

1961 

1961 

April , 

May , 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December* 

1962 

January 

February. . , 

March* 

Aprilt 



122.6 
117.9 
119.7 
118.7 
118.1 



112.6 
117.2 
121.3 
122.5 
123.9 
123.3 
122.9 
121.6 
117.8 



115.2 
114.7 
115.2 
116.7 



158.1 
163.9 
171.0 
176.5 
181.8 



181.8 
181.6 
182.8 
182.1 
182.2 
183.3 
183.9 
183.5 
179.4 



184.5 
186.7 
187.2 
186.7 



67.93 
70.43 
73.47 
75.83 
78.11 



78.12 
78.00 
78.55 
78.24 
78.27 
78.75 
79.02 
78.82 
77.08 



79.27 
80.21 
80.41 
80.21 



115.8 
109.8 
111.1 
109.5 
108.9 



105.4 
108.4 
111.2 
110.9 
113.1 
112.8 
112.1 
110.9 
107.9 



109.6 
110.3 



159.1 
165.3 
172.5 
177.8 
183.6 



184.1 
183.6 
184.6 
182.7 
182.9 
184.6 
186.0 
186.2 



187.1 
188.2 
189.3 
189.1 



69.94 
72.67 
75.84 
78.19 
80.73 



80.95 
80.72 
81.17 
80.34 
80.42 
81.15 
81.79 
81.87 



82.28 
82.74 
83.23 
83.14 



(^Includes (1) Forestry (chiefly logging), (2) Mining (including milling), quarrying and oil wells, (3) Manufacturing, 
(4) Construction, (5) Transportation, storage and communication, (6) Public utility operation, (7) Trade, (8) Finance, 
insurance and real estate and (9) Service, (mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants, business and recrea- 
tional service). 

•Revised. 

fPreliminary. 



886 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



TABLE C-2— AREA SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES 

AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 



Area 


Employment Index Numbers 


Average Weekly Wages 
and Salaries, in Dollars 


Apr. 
1962 


Mar. 
1962 


Apr. 
1961 


Apr. 
1962 


Mar. 
1962 


Apr. 
1961 


Provinces 


117.7 
114.6 
90.8 
92.6 
116.2 
119.8 
106.9 
116.9 
149.0 
111.4 

116.7 

129.6 

72.5 
119.2 
103.0 
105.9 
105.8 
116.8 
103.2 
100.8 
112.5 

57.6 
125.4 
129.8 
112.8 

94.1 
185.3 
134.6 
111.3 
110.2 

96.1 

80.8 
119.6 
111.4 
127.0 
144.0 

88.1 
132.6 
130.5 

72.9 
145.7 

99.3 
107.8 
133.7 
132.6 
193.1 
173.6 
111.5 
112.1 


113.3 

112.0 
87.8 
97.0 
114.6 
118.0 
105.8 
113.5 
148.9 
110.4 

115.3 

121.3 

64.6 
126.0 
100.7 
117.9 
100.3 
113.9 
105.3 
100.1 
108.6 

58.7 
124.0 
127.7 
111.9 

92.8 
181.3 
133.2 
109.1 
109.2 

92.2 

78.8 
118.4 
109.1 
124.9 
142.2 

87.4 
131.0 
126.4 

64.0 
138.9 

93.9 
106.4 
128.4 
129.4 
189.9 
172.3 
110.1 
112.6 


107.0 
111.2 
86.4 
88.7 
112.3 
115.1 
105.1 
116.8 
143.9 
108.8 

112.6 

117.7 

74.2 
113.3 

99.2 

95.4 
107.9 
108.5 

97.3 
101.5 
108.5 

75.0 
121.7 
122.1 
116.7 

88.7 
172.2 
128.7 
105.9 
105.1 

92.3 

82.2 
115.8 
105.2 
117.0 
146.1 

90.5 
125.1 
123.0 

72.7 
135.2 
105.0 
107.4 
129.6 
134.3 
177.9 
166.7 
109.3 
104.8 


$ 

73.07 
61.53 
65.67 
65.93 

77.57 
83.27 
74.83 
75.98 
81.21 
87.14 

80.21 

59.79 
77.51 
67.84 
61.73 
64.21 
97.15 
68.47 
66.78 
85.89 
72.26 
65.49 
79.27 
74.25 
77.42 
90.04 

104.88 
83.52 
89.23 
94.28 
83.19 
75.23 
73.75 
71.90 
74.96 
92.04 
72.49 
75.47 

104.60 
90.12 

100.65 
79.23 
71.95 
75.71 
70.74 
75.88 
80.36 
85.27 
79.78 


$ 

74.17 
59.53 
65.91 
67.57 
78.02 
83.22 
74.94 
75.90 
81.97 
87.10 

80.41 

59.46 
78.27 
68.01 
62.37 
67.59 
95.93 
68.19 
66.38 
87.79 
74.53 
66.04 
79.57 
75.03 
77.92 
89.58 
96.59 
83.77 
89.63 
93.17 
84.06 
75.72 
73.94 
72.85 
75.44 
91.97 
73.64 
76.25 

103.46 
89.16 

101.15 
80.64 
71.89 
75.95 
70.22 
76.09 
80.27 
85.24 
79.23 


70 69 




59.29 




63.97 




64.55 




75.60 




80.80 




72.78 




73.38 




79.41 




86.03 




78.12 


Urban areas 


57.09 




75.10 


Halifax - 


64.12 




60.06 




62.47 




97.78 




66.74 




64.21 




86.06 




73.28 




63.49 




76.85 


Ottawa — Hull 


72.87 




76.74 




85.01 




90.44 




81.41 




86.77 




89.96 




83.24 




75.11 




71.29 


Gait 


69.65 




73.33 




91.55 




71.18 




74.03 




100.26 




87.17 


Sault Ste. Marie 


99.46 


Ft. William— Pt. Arthur 


80.93 




70.23 




72.00 




69.68 




74.07 




75.86 




84.35 




78.07 







THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



887 



TABLE C-3— INDUSTRY SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY 
WAGES AND SALARIES, APRIL, 1962 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 

Note: Information for other industries is given in "Employment and Payrolls" 



Industry 



Employment 
Index Numbers 



Apr. 
1962 



Mar. 
1962 



Apr. 
1961 



Average Weekly Wages 
and Salaries, in Dollars 



Apr. 


Mar. 


1962 


1962 


S 


$ 


98.15 


99.19 


99.49 


98.97 


81.41 


81.58 


105.63 


104.91 


101.22 


104.88 


74.50 


75.75 


117.61 


118.51 


86.99 


89.14 


83.14 


83.22 


89.59 


89.62 


77.34 


77.52 


74.02 


74.01 


82.73 


82.69 


68.01 


68.17 


79.59 


79.59 


68.47 


67.85 


100.24 


100.65 


74.99 


73.33 


84.44 


85.91 


54.70 


56.50 


52.11 


54.32 


65.54 


66.44 


61.73 


63.79 


61.41 


62.43 


72.60 


72.89 


51.69 


52.92 


50.34 


51.79 


53.76 


54.39 


51.02 


51.51 


70.36 


71.58 


72.33 


74.03 


68.54 


68.56 


62.72 


63.78 


96.34 


96.76 


103.78 


104.36 


78.93 


79.06 


90.87 


90.73 


94.35 


93.50 


98.10 


96.85 


95.09 


95.50 


82.89 


83.52 


80.06 


80.99 


90.07 


91.10 


90.78 


91.28 


108.57 


108.07 


92.31 


92.51 


93.61 


93.50 


97.08 


95.79 


94.96 


96.64 


114.89 


111.82 


98.40 


95.54 


86.23 


84.36 


85.83 


87.20 


93.80 


93.72 


91.47 


91.91 


89.75 


90.22 


102.44 


101.81 


88.69 


89.81 


97.14 


96.84 


86.84 


88.01 


86.83 


86.87 


79.65 


79.10 


83.41 


83.91 


122.08 


119.46 


122.95 


120.31 


98.33 


97.52 


85.80 


85.75 


109.49 


109.00 


98.24 


97.22 


72.69 


73.67 


83.41 


87.21 


90.13 


94.25 


72.59 


75.17 


85.20 


84.89 


57.45 


57.03 


43.36 


43.16 


49.93 


49.83 


80.21 


80.41 



Mining ... 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal. . . 
Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural 
Non-metal 



Manufacturing 

Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables. 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing , 

Knit goods 

Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery, industrial 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

Wire and wire products 

Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery 

Telecommunication equipment 

Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Petroleum refining and products 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. . 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Other chemical products 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

Construction " 

Building and general engineering 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 

Industrial composite 



113.3 

130.1 
68.4 

187.4 
80.1 
37.9 

252.1 

135.6 

110.3 

114.7 
106.7 
107.7 
129.6 
82.8 
97.5 
109.6 
94.2 
99.7 
102.3 



77 

74 

59 

77 

91 

94 

99 

71 
101 
101 
112 

78 
122 
121 
123 
126 
106 

63 
148 
104 

99 

93 
122 
121 
109 
109 
113 
257 
113 
112 

56 
146 
123 
136 
103 
138 
143 
104 
255 
144 

86, 
164, 
137. 
140, 
133, 
121. 
155. 
131. 
141. 

112.4 

110.8 
115.0 
134.1 

151.8 

129.2 
129.1 

116.7 



114.3 

129.1 
68.2 

185.6 
86.0 
34.1 

297.7 

130.7 

109.6 

113.3 

106.5 

105.1 

127.7 

78.4 

98.2 

108.6 

92.4 

109.7 

101.6 

89.9 

97.3 

77.8 

75.1 

58.7 

78.5 

94.0 

95.9 

104.4 

73.8 

102.8 

104.1 

111.7 

78.9 

120.9 

120.4 

122.2 

126.2 

105.0 

64.0 

146.9 

104.7 

98.4 

91.6 

122.1 

119.2 

106.5 

108.9 

110.2 

262.9 

101.0 

110.8 

56.1 

146.1 

122.7 

135.2 

103.8 

136.8 

142.7 

103.4 

257.3 

137.3 

82.5 

156.6 

137.1 

140.2 

131.9 

122.5 

154.3 

129.4 

140.9 

103.2 

104.0 
101.8 
136.5 

149.6 

127.1 
125.5 

115.2 



111.8 

130.3 
70.7 

185.9 
76.5 
37.5 

244.7 

131.0 

105.4 

107.5 

103.6 

104.5 

128.7 

71.1 

98.9 

107.6 

97.0 

77.9 

96.0 

85.6 

91.9 

76.7 

69.8 

59.5 

81.8 

89.1 

90.2 

98.5 

69.4 

97.2 

97.4 

105.9 

79.1 

120.9 

121.9 

118.7 

123.2 

101.9 

69.9 

142.0 

98.3 

92.1 

87.3 

113.0 

115.4 

103.6 

108.4 

103.3 

257.0 

103.3 

101.9 

53.0 

113.7 

122.4 

135.3 

100.6 

142.2 

127.2 

96.1 

210.4 

130.4 

78.8 

149.5 

135.7 

138.5 

130.9 

118.8 

153.4 

128.9 

132.6 

106.6 

105.1 
109.1 
133.1 

143.0 

124.8 
119.6 

112.6 



888 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



Tables C-4 and C-5 are based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of firms than Tables C-l to C-3. 
They relate only to wage-earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available whereas Tables C-l to 
C-3 relate to salaried employees as well as to all wage-earners of the co-operative firms. 

TABLE C-4— HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING BY PROVINCES 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) Source: Man-hours and Hourly Earnings (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 
(The latest figures are subject to revision) 





Average Hours Worked 


Average Hourly Earnings 
(in cents) 




April 
1962 


March 
1962 


April 
1961 


April 
1962 


March 
1962 


April 
1961 




42.1 
41.2 
40.8 
41.2 
40.7 
39.9 
39.0 
40.1 
37.5 


42.3 
40.6 
41.6 
42.0 
41.0 
39.7 
39.0 
39.3 
38.1 


41.0 
40.7 
42.3 
41.5 
40.3 
39.8 
39.4 
39.8 
38.4 


$ 
1.70 

1.65 

1.66 

1.69 

1.98 

1.76 

2.01 

2.01 

2.28 


$ 
1.74 

1.64 

1.69 

1.68 

1.97 

1.75 

2.01 

1.97 

2.27 


1.78 




1.61 




1.63 




1.64 




1.94 




1.72 




1.99 


Alberta* 1 ) 


1.95 


British Columbia* 2 ) 


2.24 







<- l ~> Includes Northwest Territories. 
* 2 ) Includes Yukon Territory. 

Note: — Information on hours and earnings by cities 
Bureau of Statistics). 



obtainable from Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings (Dominion 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



889 



TABLE C-5-HOURS AND EARNINGS BY INDUSTRY 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) 

Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 

(The latest figures are subject to revision) 



Industry 



Average Weekly 


Average Hourly 


Average Weekly 




Hours 




Earnings 






Wages 




Apr. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Apr. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Apr. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


1962 


1962 


1961 


1962 


1962 


1961 


1962 


1962 


1961 


41.5 


43.0 


41.4 


2.18 


$ 
2.17 


2.13 


90.40 


1 

91.28 


88.04 


41.8 


41.9 


41.5 


2.25 


2.23 


2.20 


94.23 


93.39 


91.35 


42.4 


43.0 


41.5 


1.78 


1.76 


1.71 


75.70 


75.84 


71.00 


41.6 


41.5 


41.6 


2.43 


2.40 


2.39 


100.92 


99.79 


99.17 


39.7 


42.0 


39.9 


2.04 


2.11 


1.96 


81.15 


88.54 


77.97 


40.4 


40.8 


40.6 


1.80 


1.82 


1.72 


72.81 


74.42 


69.91 


38.5 


43.3 


38.7 


2.48 


2.39 


2.37 


95.72 


103.21 


91.49 


42.0 


42.3 


42.6 


1.98 


2.00 


1.97 


83.21 


84.89 


84.10 


40.6 


41.0 


40.6 


1.88 


1.87 


1.84 


76.51 


76.68 


74.56 


41.1 


41.4 


40.8 


2.04 


2.03 


1.99 


83.89 


83.92 


81.26 


40.1 


40.7 


40.4 


1.73 


1.72 


1.70 


69.44 


69.86 


68.43 


40.3 


40.4 


40.6 


1.67 


1.67 


1.65 


67.30 


67.33 


67.10 


39.6 


40.2 


40.2 


1.94 


1.93 


1.91 


76.94 


77.44 


76.64 


38.6 


38.6 


39.5 


1.49 


1.47 


1.48 


57.69 


56.85 


58.55 


42.0 


41.6 


42.2 


1.80 


1.80 


1.74 


75.76 


75.14 


73.55 


41.5 


41.2 


41.8 


1.51 


1.50 


1.46 


62.64 


61.68 


61.29 


38.8 


39.8 


40.3 


2.17 


2.15 


2.09 


84.19 


85.33 


84.22 


39.6 


39.3 


39.4 


2.35 


2.36 


2.33 


93.02 


92.86 


91.58 


38.2 


39.9 


39.9 


1.80 


1.69 


1.90 


68.77 


67.38 


75.67 


41.0 


41.9 


41.1 


1.91 


1.91 


1.86 


78.16 


80.22 


76.34 


39.0 


41.2 


39.7 


1.27 


1.26 


1.24 


49.69 


51.87 


49.10 


38.5 


41.1 


39.2 


1.23 


1.21 


1.18 


47.34 


49.88 


46.41 


40.1 


41.2 


40.8 


1.37 


1.37 


1.35 


55.20 


56.55 


55.05 


41.7 


42.6 


41.9 


1.41 


1.41 


1.37 


58.76 


59.96 


57.45 


40.1 


41.3 


40.4 


1.45 


1.45 


1.40 


57.98 


59.95 


56.43 


42.7 


43.4 


43.1 


1.31 


1.31 


1.28 


55.93 


56.98 


55.24 


42.9 


43.8 


43.1 


1.49 


1.48 


1.44 


63.82 


64.80 


62.25 


38.0 


39.5 


38.2 


1.22 


1.22 


1.18 


46.45 


48.16 


45.03 


37.8 


39.4 


37.6 


1.21 


1.21 


1.18 


45.69 


47.60 


44.29 


37.0 


38.1 


37.4 


1.31 


1.30 


1.26 


48.64 


49.51 


46.97 


40.1 


41.0 


40.6 


1.14 


1.14 


1.10 


45.70 


46.69 


44.49 


40.7 


41.4 


41.3 


1.64 


1.64 


1.63 


66.63 


67.92 


67.21 


39.6 


40.9 


41.0 


1.76 


1.75 


1.75 


69.68 


71.62 


71.74 


42.1 


42.1 


41.7 


1.50 


1.50 


1.46 


63.09 


62.94 


60.91 


42.8 


42.8 


42.0 


1.34 


1.36 


1.35 


57.49 


58.26 


56.76 


41.0 


41.1 


41.6 


2.20 


2.21 


2.17 


90.24 


90.72 


90.28 


41.0 


41.0 


41.8 


2.37 


2.39 


2.34 


97.22 


97.89 


98.05 


41.1 


41.2 


41.0 


1.75 


1.75 


1.69 


71.91 


72.00 


69.37 


39.1 


39.3 


38.7 


2.31 


2.30 


2.21 


90.13 


90.40 


85.76 


41.2 


41.3 


40.6 


2.17 


2.17 


2.13 


89.42 


89.63 


86.70 


40.7 


41.1 


40.3 


2.22 


2.24 


2.19 


90.28 


91.93 


88.20 


40.7 


40.5 


40.3 


2.13 


2.13 


2.08 


86.53 


86.49 


84.06 


42.2 


42.5 


42.3 


1.81 


1.81 


1.78 


76.43 


76.87 


75.45 


40.5 


40.9 


39.3 


1.84 


1.84 


1.80 


74.36 


75.27 


70.63 


42.0 


42.6 


40.9 


2.06 


2.06 


2.00 


86.35 


87.57 


81.92 


41.9 


42.0 


41.4 


2.03 


2.03 


1.99 


85.09 


85.22 


82.29 


40.3 


40.1 


39.9 


2.58 


2.58 


2.53 


104.04 


103.32 


100.88 


41.3 


41.4 


40.7 


2.12 


2.11 


2.10 


87.55 


87.56 


85.64 


41.5 


41.5 


41.6 


2.11 


2.11 


2.08 


87.76 


87.54 


86.34 


41.8 


41.5 


40.6 


2.21 


2.19 


2.11 


92.46 


90.77 


85.47 


40.4 


41.4 


42.1 


2.12 


2.14 


2.10 


85.74 


88.53 


88.42 


44.9 


43.8 


39.6 


2.48 


2.44 


2.30 


111.46 


106.78 


91.24 


42.8 


42.0 


40.6 


2.20 


2.17 


2.11 


94.07 


91.01 


85.52 


40.0 


39.4 


39.8 


2.10 


2.09 


1.97 


84.13 


82.22 


78.37 


39.7 


40.3 


40.7 


2.12 


2.13 


2.05 


84.01 


85.74 


83.32 


40.4 


40.6 


40.5 


2.16 


2.14 


2.14 


87.21 


87.16 


86.55 


41.6 


41.9 


42.0 


1.89 


1.91 


1.92 


78.76 


80.10 


80.77 


41.4 


42.0 


40.4 


2.06 


2.05 


1.99 


85.29 


86.34 


80.56 


39.9 


39.9 


40.0 


2.41 


2.38 


2.36 


96.07 


94.96 


94.39 


40.2 


41.1 


40.7 


1.90 


1.91 


1.87 


76.62 


78.54 


76.24 


40.9 


40.9 


40.7 


2.12 


2.12 


2.08 


86.79 


86.81 


84.83 


39.8 


41.1 


40.6 


1.75 


1.75 


1.76 


69.55 


72.14 


71.29 


39.3 


40.0 


40.6 


1.93 


1.94 


1.90 


75.92 


77.52 


77.03 


41.1 


41.9 


41.3 


2.12 


2.11 


2.03 


86.96 


88.50 


84.01 


40.2 


41.5 


40.2 


1.81 


1.83 


1.76 


72.53 


75.76 


70.73 


42.3 


42.6 


41.9 


1.92 


1.90 


1.85 


81.00 


80.96 


77.75 


42.3 


41.9 


42.2 


1.74 


1.73 


1.69 


73.58 


72.52 


71.17 


40.6 


41.4 


40.6 


1.91 


1.88 


1.85 


77.32 


77.98 


75.25 


41.8 


40.5 


40.9 


2.67 


2.64 


2.54 


111.68 


106.84 


103.99 


41.2 


40.8 


40.7 


2.09 


2.08 


2.02 


86.25 


84.84 


82.22 


39.6 


39.9 


40.0 


1.60 


1.61 


1.56 


63.56 


64.35 


62.25 


40.9 


40.7 


40.5 


2.39 


2.39 


2.33 


97.99 


97.19 


94.20 


40.8 


41.8 


41.7 


1.54 


1.54 


1.51 


62.91 


64.28 


62.82 


40.4 


40.8 


41.0 


1.85 


1.85 


1.82 


74.93 


75.69 


74.87 


38.5 


40.4 


39.3 


2.08 


2.10 


2.02 


80.10 


84.83 


79.58 


38.5 


40.5 


39.4 


2.26 


2.27 


2.20 


87.07 


91.95 


86.81 


38.5 


40.0 


39.1 


1.73 


1.76 


1.69 


66.75 


70.53 


66.18 


43.4 


43.7 


43.0 


1.97 


1.95 


1.89 


85.43 


84.97 


81.08 


38.3 


38.4 


39.0 


1.10 


1.09 


1.07 


42.02 


41.79 


41.66 


38.0 


38.3 


38.5 


1.07 


1.05 


1.04 


40.44 


40.33 


40.19 


40.3 


40.2 


41.0 


1.05 


1.05 


1.03 


42.30 


42.06 


42.17 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled liquors 

Malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Other leather products 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

♦Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills. 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

♦Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery, industrial 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

Wire and wire products 

"Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

* Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

♦Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery and equipment 

Telecommunication equipment 

Refrigerators, vacuum cleaners and appli- 
ances 

Wire and cable 

Miscellaneous electrical products 

* Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. 

Acids, alkalis and salts ". 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

Professional and scientific equipment 

Construction 

Building and general engineering 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 

♦Durable manufactured goods industries. 
890 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



TABLE C-fr- EARNINGS AND HOURS OF HOURLY-RATED 
WAGE EARNERS IN MANUFACTURING 

Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 



Period 



Hours 
Worked 
Per week 



Average 
Hourly 
Earnings 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 



Index Number of 
Average Weekly 
Wages (1949-100) 



Current 
Dollars 



1949 
Dollars 



No. 



Monthly Average 1957 
Monthly Average 1958 
Monthly Average 1959 
Monthly Average 1960 
Monthly Average 1961 

Last Pay Period in: 

1961 April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. . . 

October 

November... 
December 

1962 January , 

February 

March* , 

Aprilt 



40.6 
40.5 
41.0 
40.6 
40.9 
41.3 
41.2 
46.2 
38.8 

40.6 
40.8 
41.0 



1.61 
1.66 
1.72 
1.78 
1.83 



1.84 
1.84 
1.83 
1.82 
1.82 
1.81 
1.84 
1.84 



1.86 
1.87 
1.88 



64.96 
66.77 
70.16 
71.96 
74.27 



74.56 
74.44 
75.02 
73.95 
74.26 
75.00 
75.69 
75.64 
72.85 

75.47 
75.99 
76.68 
76.51 



No. 

155.6 

160.0 
168.1 
172.4 
177.9 



178.6 
178.3 
179.7 
177.2 
177.9 
179.7 
181.3 
181.2 
174.5 

180.8 
182.1 
183.7 
183.3 



127.4 
127.7 
132.8 
134.5 
137.7 



L38.5 
138.3 
139.3 
137.3 
137.8 
139.1 
139.8 
139.6 
134.6 

139.3 
140.4 
141.0 
140.9 



Note: The index of average weekly wages in 1949 dollars is computed by dividing the index of average weekly 
wages in current dollars by the Consumer Price Index. For a more complete statement of uses and limitations of the 
adjusted figures see Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings. 

* Revised. 

t Latest figures subject to revision. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



891 



D — National Employment Service Statistics 

Statistics presented in the following tables relate to registrations for employment and 
vacancies notified by employers at NES offices. These data are derived from reports 
prepared in National Employment Service offices and processed in the Unemployment 
Insurance Section, D.B.S. See also Technical Note, page 385, March issue. 

TABLE D-l— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 

(Source: National Employment Service, Unemployment Insurance Commission.) 





Period 


Unfilled Vacancies* 


Registrations for Employment 




Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


End of: 


1957 


21,843 
11,011 
14,579 
17,227 

15,103 
15,880 
14,963 
14,645 
12,936 
17,462 
11,402 

11,428 
12,308 
15,184 
25,557 
R 22,026 
22,563 


17,643 
13,040 
16,464 
15,875 

16,445 
14,732 
17,850 
17,066 
14,979 
15,940 
10,866 

12,069 
13,073 
15,359 
18,868 
R 20,999 
20,674 


39,486 
24,051 
31,043 
33,102 

31,548 
30,612 
32,813 
31,711 
27,915 
33,402 
22,268 

23,497 
25,381 
30,543 
44,425 
R 43,025 
43,237 


180,521 
350,897 
193,774 
258,719 

268,284 
246,016 
216,245 
216,358 
249,228 
329,306 
478,470 

570,061 
585,555 
579,641 
496,099 
329,391 
237,747 


85,981 
155,245 
114,377 
131,936 

125,447 
117,993 
104,695 
101,260 
107,697 
124,966 
136,566 

161,094 
161,992 
158,342 
146,551 
126,461 
119,561 


266,502 




1958 


506,142 


June 


1959 


308,151 




I960 


390,655 




1961 


393,731 


July 

August 

September 


1961 


364,009 


1961 . 


320,940 


1961 


317,618 


1961 


356,925 




1961 


454,272 




1961 . 


615,036 




1962 


731,155 


February 
March 
April 
May 


1962 


747,547 


1962 

1962 


737,983 
642,650 


1962 a) 


445,852 


1962 0) 


357,308 









(D Latest figures subject to revision 

* Current Vacancies only. Deferred Vacancies are excluded 

R- Revised. 



TABLE B-Z— REGISTRATIONS RECEIVED, VACANCIES NOTIFIED AND 
PLACEMENTS EFFECTED DURING YEAR 1958-1961 AND DURING MONTH 

MAY 1961 - MAY 1962 

(Source: National Employment Service, Unemployment Insurance Commission) 



Year and Month 


Registrations Received 


Vacancies 


Notified 


Placements Effected 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


1958 


2,790,412 
2,753,997 
3,046,572 
3,125,195 

229,959 
230,718 
231,069 
232,512 
234,100 
262,415 
328,443 
361,979 

343,460 
244,177 
250,908 
226,940 
239,245 


1,012,974 
1,037,536 
1,107,427 
1,106,790 

88,523 
100,318 

98,915 
100,946 

92,605 

94,783 
108,175 

91,992 

109,466 
75,220 
R 81,800 
79,051 
95,925 


620,394 
753,904 
724,098 
836,534 

89,371 
81,236 
74,950 
86,849 
84,048 
78,281 
83,750 
62,933 

57,373 
56,595 
60,933 
82,893 
117,362 


374,245 
421,927 
404,824 
469,119 

41,316 
47,267 
44,374 
57,620 
46,469 
39,501 
38,498 
36,436 

35,946 
30,459 
37,064 
40,026 
51,441 


548,663 
661,872 
641,872 
748,790 

81,694 
73,620 
66,017 
76,895 
80,430 
70,797 
70,353 
61,219 

49,668 
48,546 
50,161 
65,841 
107,811 


291,466 


1959 


324,201 


1960 


316,428 


1961 


371,072 


1961— May 


30,861 




37,793 


July 


37,286 




45,527 




38,934 




31,679 




28,162 




35.2S4 


1962— January 


26,878 




22,688 




27,365 




29,194 




38,595 







R-Revised. 



892 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



TABLE D-3— PLACEMENTS EFFECTED, BY INDUSTRY AND BY SEX, 
DURING MAY 1962 

(Source: National Employment Service, Unemployment Insurance Commission) 



Industry Group 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Change 

from May 

1961 



Agriculture, Fishing, Trapping 

Forestry 

Mining, Quarrying and Oil Wells 

Metal Mining 

Fuels 

Non-Metal Mining 

Quarrying, Clay and Sand Pits 

Prospecting 

Manufacturing 

Foods and Beverages 

Tobacco and Tobacco Products 

Rubber Products 

Leather Products 

Textile Products (except clothing) 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Wood Products 

Paper Products 

Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries. . . 

Iron and Steel Products 

Transportation Equipment 

Non-Ferrous Metal Products 

Electrical Apparatus and Supplies 

Non-Metallic Mineral Products 

Products of Petroleum and Coal 

Chemical Products 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 

Construction 

General Contractors 

Special Trade Contractors 

Transportation, Storage and Communication 

Transportation 

Storage 

Communication 

Public Utility Operation 

Trade 

Wholesale 

Retail 

Finance, Insurance and Real Estate 

Service 

Community or Public Service 

Government Service 

Recreation Service 

Business Service 

Personal Service 

GRAND TOTAL 



6,361 
6,774 

1,628 

1,058 
149 
218 
131 

72 

20,323 

2,810 

180 

164 

278 

658 

611 

2,895 

1,358 

748 

3,870 

2,856 

790 

717 

847 

104 

812 

625 

20,214 

14,153 
6,061 

11,109 

10,346 
523 
240 

572 

11,416 

5,117 
6,299 



28,846 

1,111 

16,685 

886 

1,901 

8,263 



1,191 
55 

75 

15 

27 

2 

4 

27 

10,678 

2,709 
183 
102 
451 
523 

2,419 
371 
358 
571 
609 
309 
215 
739 
136 
19 
334 
630 

225 

136 



513 

259 

41 

213 



6,682 

1,714 
4,968 

1,195 

17,891 

1,780 

1,277 

360 

849 

13,625 



7,452 



1,703 

1,073 
176 
220 
135 

99 

31,001 

5,519 

363 

266 

729 

1,181 

3,030 

3,266 

1,716 

1,319 

4,479 

3,165 

1,005 

1,456 

983 

123 

1,146 

1,255 

20,439 

14,289 
6,150 

11,622 

10,605 
564 
453 

662 

18,098 

6,831 
11,267 

1,863 

46,737 

2,891 

17,962 

1,246 

2,750 

21,888 



+ 1,598 
- 966 



538 

497 
31 
14 
30 

28 

9,001 

1,858 
232 
113 
268 
411 
735 
744 
287 
357 
1,171 
1,063 
331 
589 
231 
40 
335 
236 



+ 5,297 
+ 3,666 
+ 1,631 

+ 3,310 

+ 2,928 
+ 207 
+ 175 

+ 165 

+ 5,245 
+ 2,257 
+ 2,988 

+ 467 

+ 9,196 

+ 455 
+ 4,983 
- 107 
+ 656 
+ 3,209 



107,811 



38,595 



146,406 



+33,851 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



893 



TABLE D-4— REGISTRATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT BY OCCUPATION AND BY SEX 

AS AT MAY 31, 1962(1) 

(Source: National Employment Service, Unemployment Insurance Commission.) 



Occupational Group 



Registrations for Employment 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Professional & Managerial Workers 

Clerical Workers 

Sales Workers 

Personal & Domestic Service Workers 

Seamen 

Agriculture, Fishing, Forestry (Ex. log.) 

Skilled and Semi-Skilled Workers 

Food and kindred products (incl. tobacco) 

Textiles, clothing, etc 

Lumber and lumber products 

Pulp, paper (incl. printing) 

Leather and leather products 

Stone, clay & glass products 

Metalworking 

Electrical 

Transportation equipment 

Mining 

Construction 

Transportation (except seamen) 

Communications & public utility 

Trade and service 

Other skilled and semi-ekilled 

Foremen 

Apprentices 

Unskilled Workers 

Food and tobacco 

Lumber & lumber products 

Metalworking 

Construction , 

Other unskilled workers 

GRAND TOTAL 



7,360 
17,456 

7,538 
34,546 

1,596 

3,661 

154,142 

1,402 

3,044 

28,401 

1,019 

1,062 

490 

11,613 

2,408 

588 

2,489 

33,493 

32,239 

949 

4,805 

20,809 

3,437 

5,894 

103,092 
3,746 
13,612 
4,205 
51,638 
29,891 



329,391 



1,940 

45,241 

15,882 

22,669 

24 

521 

17,974 

639 

10,847 

106 

460 

1,235 

35 

786 

889 

29 



114 

2 

1,571 

939 

310 

4 

22,210 

6,741 

342 

487 



14,640 



126,461 



9,300 

62,697 

23,420 

57,215 

1,620 

4,182 

172,116 

2,041 

13,891 

28,507 

1,479 

2,297 

525 

12,399 

3,297 

617 

2,489 

33,501 

32,353 

951 

6,376 

21,748 

3,747 

5,898 

125,302 
10,487 
13,954 
4,692 
51,638 
44,531 



455,852 



(!) Preliminary— subject to revision. 



894 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



TABLE D-5— REGISTRATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT, BY LOCAL OFFICE AREAS, 

AT MAY 31, 1962 

(Source: National Employment Service, Unemployment Insurance Commission) 



Office 


(i) 

May 31, 

1962 


Previous 
Year 

May 31, 
1961 


Office 


(i) 
May 31, 
1962 . 


Previous 
Year 

May 31, 
1961 


Newfoundland 


19,298 

4,741 

1,570 

12,987 

2,602 

1,624 
978 

23,213 

897 

844 
4,925 

622 
2,008 

505 
2,204 

803 
6,131 
1,346 
1,239 
1,689 

21,031 

2,769 
2,287 
1,373 
1,757 

553 
4,648 
2,192 
2,605 
1,217 

392 
1,238 

148,226 

2,731 

578 

593 

979 

1,037 

2,329 

1,515 

2,426 

278 

1,840 

2,056 

579 

1,002 

1,533 

1,761 

2,959 

2,749 

2,635 

634 

1,856 

902 

2,554 

777 

399 

908 

2,821 

1,022 

889 

1,869 

45,584 

1,731 

1,229 

10,880 

4,316 

4,013 

1,622 

3,441 

585 

742 

1,461 

1,218 

1,596 

978 

1,827 

3,724 


20,335 

4,950 

1,739 

13,646 

3,145 

1,820 
1,325 

26,455 

987 
1,437 
6,150 

849 
2,778 

609 
3,208 
1,106 
3,578 
2,095 
1,772 
1,886 

27,241 

3,807 
3,078 
1,785 
2,384 

606 
5,558 
3,007 
3,103 
1,620 

579 
1,714 

178,756 

2,551 

704 

873 

1,340 

1,208 

2,308 

1,229 

2,455 

380 

1,933 

2,068 

602 

990 

1,407 

2,087 

3,590 

3,549 

2,821 

589 

1,681 

1,045 

3,481 

1,043 

525 

1,170 

1,403 

1,451 

1,141 

2,413 

62,041 

1,808 

1,201 

12,297 

3,926 

5,076 

1,705 

4,316 

881 

952 

1,861 

1,934 

2,023 

1,377 

3,017 

4,634 


Quebec— Concluded 
Sherbrooke 


4,180 
1,179 
1,181 
3,837 
1,985 
1,976 
1,054 
3,676 

129,635 

306 

1,185 

1,478 

736 

779 

1,781 

510 

171 

1,643 

679 

366 

2,448 

499 

343 

538 

2,232 

863 

215 

277 

1,277 

10,457 

586 

1,572 

615 

1,866 

1,030 

1,749 

505 

628 

199 

3,488 

2,890 

402 

410 

1,065 

472 

1,423 

1,113 

478 

566 

3,103 

4,714 

1,001 

333 

1,417 

504 

2,564 

154 

3,430 

687 

539 

343 

3,465 

747 

1,795 

1,877 

566 

310 

424 

521 

704 

3,195 

125 

2,200 

30,973 

613 

449 

426 

1,695 

2,465 

7,816 

640 






4,250 




Sorel 


1,576 




Thetford Mines 


1,583 






4,749 
3,017 


_ , _ . . ¥ . . 


Vald'Or 




Valleyfield 


2,046 




Victoriaville 


1,699 




Ville St. Georges 


2,750 

176,751 

249 


Nova Scotia 












1 246 




Belleville 


1 943 






658 






1,060 

2,494 

491 














295 






2,731 
840 






Truro 




596 






3 108 




Elliot Lake 


412 


New Brunswick 


Fort Erie 


570 






601 




Fort William 


2,350 

2,034 

266 




Gait 






Minto 




394 


Moncton < 2 > 


Guelph 


2,243 

14,528 

586 


Newcastle 








St. Stephen 




1,992 






617 


Woodstock 




1,943 






1,516 
3 163 


Quebec 








1,360 
508 










287 






5,155 






3,854 
577 










565 






1,341 












2,468 

1,755 

812 












Orillia 


1,016 


Gaspe 




4,111 


Granby 




6,125 


Hull 




1,374 

292 










1,939 
461 




Perth 






3,546 






213 


Levis 




3,746 






817 






746 






422 






3,953 




St. Thomas 


1,232 






2,615 






2,897 


Montreal 




930 






311 


Port Alfred 


Smiths Falls 


492 






665 






703 






4,529 






559 






2,539 






44,124 






715 


Ste. Therese 




679 






881 


St. Jean 


Welland 


2,070 






3,671 


Sept-Iles 




9,638 




Woodstock 


1,132 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



895 



TABLE D-5— REGISTRATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT, BY LOCAL OFFICE AREAS, 

AT MAY 31, 1962 

(Source: National Employment Service, Unemployment Insurance Commission) 



Office 


(i) 

May 31, 

1962 


Previous 
Year 

May 31, 
1961 

23,508 

1,695 

1,195 

186 

925 

363 

19,144 

15,988 

303 

378 

1,029 

872 

1,771 

2,947 

5,708 

412 

346 

2,222 

33,019 

579 
9,806 

592 
16,142 

665 
1,194 
1,885 

853 
1,303 


Office 


(i) 

May 31, 

1962 


Previous 
Year 

May 31, 
1961 




20,967 

1,578 

1,204 

163 

837 

475 

16,710 

12,382 

273 

243 

875 

714 

2,017 

2,686 

3,137 

433 

218 

1,786 

26,605 

459 
7,255 

447 
13,141 

566 
1,128 
1,693 

733 
1,183 


British Columbia 


51,893 

1,038 

648 

1,151 

1,432 

632 

1,285 

978 

111 

719 

721 

716 

7,518 

1,173 

578 

2,219 

1,288 

391 

1,564 

682 

22,055 

1,590 

3,071 

333 

455,852 

329,391 
126,461 


64,631 




Chilliwack 

Courtenay 


1,360 




918 


Flin Flon 




1,231 






1,395 


The Pas 




667 




Kamloops 


1,226 




1,102 






141 






994 




Nanaimo 


1,145 




891 


North Battleford 




8,510 




Penticton 


1,404 




640 




Prince George 


2,702 




1,453 






462 




Quesnel 

Trail 


1,386 


Alberta 


905 
29,136 






1,905 


Calgary 

Drumheller 




4,490 


Whitehorse 

CANADA 


568 




569,829 


Grande Prairie 




418,218 




Females 




Red Deer 


151,611 







») Preliminary subject to revision. 

( 2 ) Includes 254 registrations reported by the Magdalen Islands local office. 

< 3 > Prior to May 1962, figures included with Kirkland Lake, Local Office. 



896 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



E — Unemployment Insurance 

Unemployment insurance statistics are concerned with numbers of persons covered by 
insurance and claimants for benefit at Unemployment Insurance Commission local offices. 
The data are compiled in the Unemployment Insurance Section, DBS, from information 
supplied by the UIC. For further information regarding the nature of the data see Techni- 
cal Note, page 270, February issue. 



TABLE E-l 



ESTIMATES OF THE INSURED POPULATION UNDER THE 
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT. 



Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



End of: 



Total 


Employed 


Claimants 


4,095,000 


3,407,500 


687,500* 


4,092,000 


3,373,300 


718, 700* 


4,208,000 


3,509,500 


698,500* 


4,196,000 


3,594,800 


601,200* 


4,081,000 


3,695,000 


386,000* 


3,991,000 


3,722,300 


268,700 


3,966,000 


3,736,800 


229,200 


3,987,000 


3,757,700 


229,300 


3,971,000 


3,715,700 


255,300 


3,943,000 


3,676,100 


266,900 


3,891,000 


3,550,000 


341,000 


4,126,000 


3,412,900 


713,100 


4,210,000 


3,372,000 


838,000 



1962— March 

February.. 
January 

1961— December. 
November 

October 

September 

August 

July 

June 

May 

April 

March 



* By virtue of seasonal benefit class B, the claimant count during the seasonal benefit period may include a number 
of persons who were not represented in the insured population within the last six months. This explains, in part, unequal 
variations in the month-to-month movement of the employed and claimants. 



TABLE E-3— INITIAL AND RENEWAL CLAIMS FOR BENEFIT BY PROVINCE, 

APRIL, 1962 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 





Claims filed at Local Offices 


Disposal of Claims and Claims Pending 
at End of Month 


Province 


Total* 


Initial 


Renewal 


Total 

Disposed 

oft 


Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Not 
Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Pending 




5,445 

1,127 

10,671 

9,819 

53,848 

55,339 

8,281 

5,526 

11,827 

19,416 


4,381 

852 

6,828 

6,913 

37,356 

35,408 

5,772 

3,971 

8,374 

12,225 


1,064 

275 

3,843 

2,906 

16,492 

19,931 

2,509 

1,555 

3,453 

7,191 


5,841 

1,237 

11,445 

10,476 

56,673 

55,999 

8,287 

5,646 

12,113 

20,438 


4,890 

1,128 

10,302 

9,371 

48,347 

46,577 

6,912 

4,767 

10,059 

16,608 


951 
109 
1,143 
1,105 
8,326 
9,422 
1,375 
879 
2,054 
3,830 


1,607 




232 




2,200 




2,257 




14,663 




14,373 




2,021 




1,292 


Alberta 


2,756 




5,007 






Total, Canada, April 1962 


181,299 
225,813 
209,551 


122,080 
157,663 
144,114 


59,219 
68,150 
65,437 


188,155 
229,044 
234,788 


158,961 
198,236 
205,470 


29,194 
30,808 
29,318 


46,408 


Total, Canada, March 1962 


53,264 


Total, Canada, April 1961 


44,895 







* In addition, revised claims received numbered 64,975. 

t In addition, 55,322 revised claims were disposed of. Of these, 4,638 were special requests not granted and 2,167 
were appeals by claimants. There were 21,494 revised claims pending at the end of the month. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1962 



897 



TABLE E-2— CLAIMANTS CURRENTLY REPORTING TO LOCAL OFFICES BY 
NUMBER OF WEEKS ON CLAIM, PROVINCE AND SEX, AND PERCENTAGE 

POSTAL, APRIL 30, 1962 

(Counted on last working day of the month) 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province and Sex 



Total 
claimants 



Number of weeks on claim 



2 or 



3-4 



5-8 



9-12 



13-16 17-20 



Over 
20 



Percent- 
age 
Postal 



April 

28, 1961 

Total 

claimants 



Canada 

Male 

Female 

Newfoundland 

Male... 

Female 

Prince Edward Island 

Male 

Female 

Nova Scotia 

Male 

Female 

New Brunswick 

Male 

Female 

Quebec 

Male 

Female 

Ontario 

Male 

Female 

Manitoba 

Male 

Female 

Saskatchewan 

Male 

Female 

Alberta 

Male 

Female 

British Columbia 

Male 

Female 



564,478 
435,094 
129,384 



92,874 
71,820 
21,054 



46,659 

37,456 

9,203 



79,020 
62,895 
16,125 



73,038 
57,630 
15,408 



78,482 
60,860 
17.622 



74,684 
61,824 
12,860 



119,721 
82,609 
37,112 



44.4 
49.2 
28.0 



713,147 
556,963 
156,184 



27,253 

25,552 

1,701 

4,826 

3,947 

879 

33,560 

28,790 

4,770 

32,678 

27,756 

4,922 

174,620 
139,461 
35,159 

156,463 
109,444 
47,019 



22,487 
6,751 

19,061 
14,738 
4,323 

33,537 

25,691 

7,846 

53,242 
37,228 
16,014 



2,197 

2,026 

171 

368 

281 

87 

5,243 

4,697 
546 

3,872 

3,378 

494 

28,042 

21,028 

7,014 

27,967 

20,077 

7,890 

4,360 

3,427 

933 

2,702 

2,209 

493 

7,493 
6,123 
1,370 

10,630 
8,574 
2,056 



1,424 
1,350 

74 



172 
34 

2,294 

1,974 

320 

2,598 

2,409 

189 

14,165 
11,496 
2,669 

12,720 
9,268 
3,452 

2,370 

1,865 

505 

1,450 

1,165 

285 

3,977 

3,272 

705 

5,455 

4,485 

970 



3,519 

3,333 

186 

329 

264 

65 

3,598 

3,013 

585 

4,627 

4,184 

443 

26,703 

22,479 
4,224 

21,642 
15,321 
6,321 

4,217 

3,302 

915 

2,275 

1,752 

523 

5,132 

4,029 
1,103 

6,978 
5,218 
1,760 



4,163 

3,935 

228 

513 

443 
70 

3,635 

3,065 

570 

4,524 

4,010 

514 

25,263 

21,784 

3,479 

18,310 
12,660 
5,650 

4,421 
3,278 
1,143 

2,451 

1,845 

606 

4,573 
3,303 
1,270 

5,185 
3,307 
1,878 



5,369 

5,049 

320 



810 
153 



5,993 
5,295 



5,191 
4.498 



23,706 
19,641 
4,065 

19,480 
13,167 
6,313 



3-12 
297 
045 

107 
294 
813 



4,305 
3,228 
1,077 

6,026 
3,581 
2,445 



6,240 
6,012 



1,534 

1,303 

231 

5,495 

4,974 

521 

5,618 
4,861 

757 

22,425 
19,087 
3,338 

18,110 
13,899 
4,211 

3,763 
3,073 



2,966 

2,474 

492 

3,234 

2,469 

765 

5,299 
3,672 
1,627 



4,341 

3,847 

494 

913 
674 
239 



6,248 
4,416 
1,832 

34,316 
23,946 
10,370 

38,234 
25,052 
13,182 

5,765 
4,245 
1,520 

4,110 
2,999 
1,111 

4,823 
3,267 
1,556 

13,669 
8,391 
5,278 



81.7 
83.4 
56.9 

75.4 
78.4 
62.3 

56.9 
58.6 
46.7 

69.3 
71.9 
54.6 

45.6 
50.4 
26.6 

26.5 
28.9 



34.5 
39.9 
16.5 

55.9 
61.6 
36.6 

68.9 
73.7 
53.3 

33.4 
37.6 
23.5 



30,423 

28,490 

1,933 

5,059 

4,230 

829 

38,539 

33,357 

5,182 

39,218 

33,788 

5,430 

228,346 
183,117 
45,229 

213,303 
152,934 
60,369 

32,514 

25,443 

7,071 

20,446 
16,188 
4,258 

37,687 

30,061 

7,626 

67,612 
49,355 
18,257 



TABLE E-1-BENEFICIARIES AND BENEFIT PAYMENTS BY PROVINCE, APRIL 1962 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province 


Estimated 
Average 

Number of 
Beneficiaries 

Per Week 
(in thousands) 


Weeks 
Paid 


Amount 

of 

Benefit 

Paid 

$ 






113,996 
20,845 
122,068 
120,446 
673,341 
585,573 
105,122 
70,209 
112,793 
189,560 


2,752,086 






448,066 






2,818,201 






2,734,135 






16,625,251 






14,423,550 






2,568,188 






1,698,554 






2,863,516 






4,715,581 








Total, Canada, April 1962 




2,113,953 
2,810,753 
2,691,331 


51,647,128 


Total, Canada, March 1962 




68,826,613 


Total, Canada, April 1961 




64,540,203 









898 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



F — Prices 

TABLE F-l— TOTAL AND MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 

1957 Weighted 

(1949-100) 

Calculated by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



Total 



Food 



Housing 



Clothing 



Transpor- 
tation 



Health 

and 

Personal 

Care 



Recre- 
ation 
and 
Reading 



Tobacco 

and 
Alcohol 



1957— Year 

1958— Year 

1959— Year 

1960— Year 

1961— June 

July 

August 

September 
October. . . 
November 
December. 

1962— January. . . 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 



122.6 
125.7 
127.2 
128.4 

129.0 
129.0 
129.1 
129.1 
129.2 
129.7 
129.8 

129.7 
129.8 
129.7 
130.3 
130.1 
130.5 



118.6 
122.9 
122.2 
122.6 

123.5 
124.9 
125.3 
123.2 
123.3 
123.6 
124.5 

124.8 
125.0 
124.4 
125.8 
124.5 
125.6 



127.3 
129.3 
131.5 
132.9 

132.9 
132.9 
132.9 
133.5 
133.6 
133.7 
133.8 

134.0 
134.0 
134.0 
134.0 
134.5 
134.9 



108.2 
109.5 
109.7 
111.0 

112.5 
112.2 
112.1 
113.1 
113.6 
114.0 
113.7 

111.6 
111.8 
112.9 
113.2 
112.8 
113.1 



133.2 
136.6 
140.5 
141.1 

141.2 
138.7 
139.0 
140.0 
140.0 
141.5 
141.1 

140.6 
140.7 
139.9 
140.2 
140.4 
140.4 



139.9 
146.6 
151.0 
154.8 

155.0 
155.1 
154.6 
155.0 
155.3 
156.7 
156.8 

156.8 
157.2 
157.2 
158.1 
158.2 
158.2 



134.2 
142.0 
144.4 
145.6 

145.8 
145.0 
145.4 
146.7 
146.2 
146.3 
146.3 

146.6 
146.7 
146.7 
146.6 
147.1 
147.0 



09.1 
10.1 
13.8 
15.8 

15.8 
15.8 
16.1 
17.3 
17.3 
17.3 
17.3 

17.3 
17.2 
17.5 
17.9 
17.9 
17.9 



TABLE F-3-CONSUMER PRICE INDEXES FOR REGIONAL CITIES OF CANADA AT 

THE BEGINNING OF MAY 1963 

1957 Weighted 

(1949 = 100) 





All-Items 


Food 


Housing 


Clothing 


Trans- 
portation 


Health 

and 

Personal 

Care 


Recre- 
ation 
and 
Reading 


Tobacco 




May 
1961 


April 
1962 


May 
1962 


and 
Alcohol 


St. John's, Nfld.O) 

Halifax 


116.7 
128.0 
129.7 
127.9 
129.0 
130.2 
126.6 
124.6 
124.2 
129.1 


117.4 
130.0 
131.1 
130.5 
131.7 
132.1 
128.9 
127.3 
125.5 
129.2 


117.6 
129.2 
130.8 
130.2 
131.2 
131.7 
128.7 
126.9 
125.5 
129.1 


112.5 
119.6 
123.7 
129.3 
123.6 
122.3 
126.5 
122.3 
118.9 
124.3 


113.3 
133.9 
131.2 
134.0 
137.0 
139.5 
129.0 
126.9 
127.0 
133.9 


111.6 
123.2 
121.3 
106.0 
118.0 
117.5 
117.7 
126.9 
120.4 
116.7 


124.3 
138.9 
143.5 
160.5 
154.0 
134.7 
132.5 
135.5 
130.3 
137.4 


155.0 
160.1 
179.9 
164.4 
163.0 
155.7 
172.0 
144.3 
162.4 
150.1 


152.1 
163.1 
150.1 
141.6 
142.6 
182.2 
139.3 
146.7 
141.9 
146.5 


98.9 
123.9 




124.3 




118.7 




123.9 




122.4 




120.6 


Saskatoon-Regina 

Edmonton-Calgary 


119.6 
119.6 
121.0 







N.B.— Indexes above measure percentage changes in prices over time in each city and should not be used to compare 
actual levels of prices as between cities. 

<») St. John's index on the base June 1951 = 100. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



899 



G — Strikes and Lockouts 

Statistical information on work stoppages in Canada is compiled by the Economics 
and Research Branch of the Department of Labour on the basis of reports from the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission. The first three tables in this section cover strikes 
and lockouts involving six or more workers and lasting at least one working day, and 
strikes and lockouts lasting less than one day or involving fewer than six workers but 
exceeding a total of nine man-days. The number of workers involved includes all workers 
reported on strike or locked out, whether or not they all belonged to the unions directly 
involved in the disputes leading to work stoppages. Workers indirectly affected, such as 
those laid off as a result of a work stoppage, are not included. For further notes on 
the series see page 114, January issue. 

TABLE G-l- STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, 1957-1963 





Strikes and 

Lockouts 

Beginning 

During Month 

or Year 


Strikes and Lockouts in Existence During Month or Year 


Month or Year 


Strikes and 
Lockouts 


Workers 
Involved 


Duration in Man-Days 


Man-Days 


Per Cent of 

Estimated 

Working Time 


1957 


242 
253 
203 
268 
272 

35 
22 
28 
32 
32 
30 
24 
13 

20 
15 
30 
18 
23 


249 
262 
218 
274 

287 

50 
39 
41 
47 
53 
56 
49 
40 

40 
44 
46 
40 
45 


91,409 
112,397 
100, 127 
49,408 
97,959 

12, 182 
12,404 
8,806 
8,347 
10,647 
40,400 
11,059 
22,000 

9,174 
10,855 
12,426 
12,328 
17,333 


1,634,880 
2,872,340 
2,286,900 
738,700 
1,335,080 

106,320 
127,790 
94,680 
64,660 
105,080 
416,660 
122, 100 
140,890 

85,420 
72,070 
143,800 
142,770 
139,700 


0.14 


1958 


0.24 


1959 


0.19 


1960 


0.06 


1961 


0.11 


1961: May 


0.10 




0.12 


July 


0.09 




0.06 




0.10 




0.38 




0.11 




0.13 


*1962: January 


0.08 




0.07 


March 


0.14 




0.14 




0.12 







Preliminary. 



TABLE G-2- STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, 
MAY 1962, BY INDUSTRY 

(Preliminary) 



TABLE G-3- STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, 
MAY 1962, BY JURISDICTION 

(Preliminary) 



Industry 


Strikes 

and 
Lockouts 


Workers 
Involved 


Man- 
Days 




















22 
13 
6 
2 


4,296 

3,922 

9,036 

46 


25,110 


Construction 


48,530 


Transpn. & utilities 

Trade 


65,200 
400 








,2 


33 


460 
















45 


17,333 


139,700 







Jurisdiction 


Srikes 

and 

Lockouts 


Workers 
Involved 


Man- 
Days 




















1 
1 
9 

22 
3 


20 

42 

5,502 

4,236 

338 


60 


New Brunswick 


1,020 
64,430 




22,230 




2,880 








3 
3 
3 


187 

132 

6,876 


2,780 


British Columbia 


2,190 
44,110 






All jurisdictions 


45 


17,333 


139,700 



900 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 



TABLE G-4- STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS INVOLVING 100 OR MORE WORKERS, MAY 1962 

(Preliminary) 
Figures in parentheses indicate the number of workers indirectly affected. 



Industry 
Employer 
Location 



Manufacturing 
Food and Beverages 
F. W. Fearman Co. 
Burlington, Ont 



Textiles 

Canadian Celanese, 

Drummondville, Que. 



Thor Mills Limited, 
Granby, Que. 

Wood 

Western Plywood (Alta.) 

Edmonton, Alta. 

Paper 

Howard Smith Paper Mills, 

Cornwall, Ont. 



Metal Fabricating 

Noront Steel Construction, 

Sudbury, Ont. 



Machinery 
Rockwell Mfg., 
Guelph, Ont. 



Construction 

Builders Association of the 

Eastern Townships 
Sherbrooke, other centres 

Eastern Townships, Que. 



George and Asmussen, 
Milton, Ont. 



Foundation Company, 
Sudbury, Ont. 



S. E. Gage Co. 
Winnipeg, Man. 



Various construction firms, 
Toronto, Ont. 



Transpn. & Utilities 
Various trucking firms*, 
Quebec and Ontario 

Various trucking firms, 
Montreal, other points, Qu 

Various trucking firms, * 



Various trucking firms, 
Ontario 



Union 



Teamsters Loc. 879 (Ind.) 



Textile Workers' Union 
Loc. 1435 (AFL-CIO/ 
CLC) 



Textile Federation 
(CNTU) 



Woodworkers Loc. 1-207 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 



Paper Makers Loc. 212 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 



Boilermakers Loc. 128 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 



Moulders Loc. 92 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 



Building Workers' 
Federation (CNTU) 



Bricklayers Loc. 1, 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 



Plumbers Loc. 800 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 



Asbestos Workers Loc. 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 



Building trades unions 
(Toronto Council AFL- 
CIO) 



Teamsters Loc. 106 (Ind.) 
Teamsters Loc. 106 (Ind.) 



Teamsters, various locals 
(Ind.) 

Teamsters, various locals 
(Ind.) 



Workers 
Involved 



165 



1,900 



184 



115 



624 



165 



,500 



119 

(5) 



532 



270 



154 



800 
645 



6,000 
(16) 



1,500 



Duration in 
Man-Days 



May 



1,820 



3,310 



2,350 



2,340 



510 



470 



40,000 



800 



620 

18,000 

14,510 

25,000 

6,250 



Accu- 
mulated 



1,820 



3,310 



6,440 



2,340 



510 



3,770 



70,000 



600 



Starting 
Date 

Termi- 
nation 
Date 



May 



Mar. 17 
May 2 



May 



Mar. 15 



May 3 

May 8 



May 4 
May 7 



620 

26,670 

21,540 

25,000 

6,250 



Apr. 
May 



Apr. 12 
May 24 



May 2 
May 9 



May 14 
May 22 



May 17 
May 28 



May 28 



Apr. 16 
Apr. 16 



May 27 
May 27 



Major Issues 
Result 



Wages ' 



Wages, hours, Rand formula, 
health plan, seniority~6* an 
hour the first year, 5* an hour 
the second year, other wage 
adjustments; seniority rights 
accepted in part; group in- 
surance being studied. 

Wages, Rand formula sen- 
iority ~ 



Wages, hours, union secur- 
ity- 



Weekly hours as affected by 
change from 7 to 6 day 
schedule ~ Return of workers 
pending grievance procedure. 



Jurisdictional dispute be- 
tween unions ~ Return of 
workers pending further dis- 
cussions re jurisdiction. 



Wages~Wage increase, im- 
proved fringe benefits. 



Working conditions, wages~ 
10 i an hour increase on sign- 
ing of contract, 200 an hour 
Jan. 1, 1963, 10* an hour 
May 1, 1964; 40 hour week 
effective Jan. 1, 1963, in- 
creased vacation pay. 

Payment of travelling time 
to job site~Return of work- 



Living allowance, recogni- 
tion of shop steward, other 
grievances ~ Return of work- 
ers pending discussion of 
grievances. 

Hiring non-union workers ~ 
Return of workers following 
withdrawal of pickets. 

Non-union contractors on 
North York project~ 



Wages in a 3-year contract' 
Wages in a 3-year contract' 



Wages, piggy -back opera- 
tions, 3-year agreement~ 

Wages, piggy-back opera- 
tions, 3-year agreement~ 



* Federal jurisdiction. 
THE LABOUR GAZETTE 



• JULY 1962 



901 






H — Industrial Accidents 

TABLE H-l— INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES IN CANADA DURING THE FIRST 
QUARTER OF 1962 BY GROUPS OF INDUSTRIES AND CAUSES 



Cause 


I 

1 


bO 

'So 

M 
O 

h3 


a 

1 

H 
§ 

M 

c 
IS 

03 


=8.5 


00 

.3 

'u 

3 

o 

*3 

c 

03 


| 

S 
3 

03 

c 
o 
O 


3 


is 

o c 

*-3 3 
ftO 

go 
an 


■8 

& 


1 


4) 

5 

1 


73 

I 
iS 


1 












2 
















1 


Struck by: 


. 




1 


















4 








5 
1 
3 
11 

1 
5 

1 






2 
2 

1 
1 

.... 




7 




2 


16 

1 
2 




10 

4 

1 


5 
3 
2 


2 

1 
2 


2 
.... 


1 
2 

4 

2 




41 


Caught in, on or between machinery, vehicles, etc 


17 

?4 


Falls and slips: 




9 








1 


5 

3 

6 

1 


9 
4 

2 

"i" 

i 

31 
36 


11 

9 


.... 


33 








19 


Inhalation, absorptions, asphyxiation and industrial 








9 










2 












3 










1 


3 






2 
3 

13 

24 


« 


9 














4 


Total, first quarter 1962 


4 
11 


19 
34 


2 

26 


31 
26 


27 
35 


5 

6 


30 
40 


11 
12 




174 


Total, first quarter 1961 


?50 










TABLE H-2— INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES BY PROVINCE AND GROUPS OF 
INDUSTRIES DURING THE FIRST QUARTER OF 1962 



Industry 


t5 


1-5 

H 
CM 


02 


ffl 


c 

3 




3 


j 


1 


n 




I 








1 


i 




2 
5 












4 










1 


3 


10 




19 




l 
2 


:::.:: 


1 
1 
2 






2 




...... 


1 

6 
4 
1 

2 


15 

9 
5 
3 

13 

7 


"2" 


2 

1 
2 


7 
2 
10 


2 

8 
3 
1 

4 

1 


1 


31 




31 




2 


27 








5 


Transportation, Storage and Corn- 






1 


2 


2 


2 


4 
3 


30 


Trade 






11 
































8 


1 


1 




3 




13 












1 


1 


























Total 


5 


i 


6 


4 


15 


67 


5 


9 


29 


32 


1 


174* 







* Of this total 139 fatalities were reported by the various Workmen's Compensation Boards and the Board of Trans- 
port Commissioners; details of the remaining 35 were obtained from other non-official sources. 



902 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY J 962 



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THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 903 



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THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7962 




CANADA 



THE 




BOU 
ZETTE 




LIBRARY 

SEP 2 1962 




lude Jodoin 



Jean Marchand 



A. A. Hutchinson 



LABOUR DAY 




H mm 




MESSAGES 




: ... .:;<•* 




(page 912) 




r r mm 








Hon. Michael Starr 




■■■■ 

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ARTMENT OF LABOUR 

CANADA 




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AUGUST 31, 


No. 8 
1962 



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THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Michael Starr, Minister George V. Haythorne, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 

Editorial Staff 



Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 



Assistant Editor 



R. M. Dyke 



Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 



Circulation Manager 



J. E. Abbey 



Cover Photograph 
National Film Board 



Vol. LXII r No. 8 CONTENTS August 31, 1962 

Training of the Unemployed 906 

50 Years Ago This Month 907 

Notes of Current Interest 908 

Labour Day Messages 912 

Human Consequences of Industrialization 915 

Baker Foundation for Blindness Prevention 918 

OECD Seminar on Age and Employment 919 

U.N. Commission on the Status of Women 920 

Latest Labour Statistics 921 

Employment, Unemployment in July 922 

Collective Bargaining Review: 

Wage Settlements, 1st Half of 1962 . 924 

Collective Bargaining Scene 926 

International Labour Organization: 

Two Conventions Adopted by 46th ILO Conference 930 

Industrial Relations: 

Certification Proceedings 949 

Conciliation Proceedings 951 

Labour Law: 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 952 

Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 962 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operation 966 

Monthly Report on Operation of the NES 967 

Decisions of the Umpire 968 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 974 

Prices and the Cost of Living 979 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 980 

LABOUR STATISTICS 985 



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59897-9—1 



Department ot Labour Today 



Training of the Unemployed 



During fiscal 1961-62, total of 26,887 unemployed persons received training 
under provisions of the Technical and Vocational Training Assistance Act. All 
provinces provided enough days of training to qualify for 75% federal share 



Under the program of training for the 
unemployed, a total of 26,887 persons 
received training during the fiscal year 
1961-62. This was about two and a half 
times the number trained during the previ- 
ous year. 

The total number of days of training 
given was 1,221,561. 

The total federal contribution for the 
year was $3,941,585.23. 

Under this program, provided for under 
the Technical and Vocational Training As- 
sistance Act, the federal Government pays 
75 per cent of the cost for any province 
in which the number of days of such train- 
ing given during the year exceeds 7 per 
cent of the adult population of the prov- 
ince; otherwise the federal share is 50 
per cent. All provinces qualified for the 
larger contribution. 

Of the persons who received training 
during the year, 20,306 were men and 
6,581 were women. Full-time training was 
given to 26,469 persons; only 418 received 
part-time training. 

The number of persons undergoing train- 
ing at the end of April was 12,286, of 
whom 8,781 were men and 3,505 were 
women. Total days of training during April 
were 182,101. New enrolments during April 
were 1,614, comprising 888 men and 726 
women. 

Trainees were selected jointly by provin- 
cial officials and the National Employ- 
ment Service, and were given short inten- 
sive courses of training for occupations 
that offered a reasonable opportunity for 
regular employment. 

A notable step this year was the develop- 
ment of courses of "basic training for 
skill development" intended to enable many 
persons of rather low educational attain- 
ments to prepare themselves for entry to 
vocational courses and, in many cases, to 
meet without further training the entry 
requirements of employers. 

Of the 26,887 persons in training dur- 
ing the year, 8,308 were in Quebec and 
7,344 in Ontario. New Brunswick had 
3,143 and Manitoba 2,083. The other prov- 
inces all had fewer than 2,000. All those 
receiving part-time training were in Alberta. 

Although Quebec had the largest number 
of persons in training during the 1961-62 



year, Ontario came first in the number of 
days of training given, with 310,294 days 
compared with 293,662 days for Quebec. 
British Columbia had only 1,854 persons 
in training, but it came third in the number 
ot days of training given with 154,048. 
Manitoba came fourth with 128,552 days, 
and New Brunswick fifth with 100,361 days. 
At the end of April this year, Ontario 
had 3,852 unemployed persons in train- 
ing, Quebec had 2,911, New Brunswick had 
1,997, and British Columbia, 1,018. Mani- 
toba had 871 and Alberta 585, while all the 
other provinces had fewer than 500. 

Apprenticeship Training 

Training activity under the Apprentice- 
ship Training Agreement continues to in- 
crease. This agreement, first entered into 
by the federal Government and the govern- 
ments of the provinces in 1944, provides for 
the federal Government to share equally 
with the provinces in the costs of training 
programs for apprentices. 

In the 1961-62 fiscal year, the number 
of apprentices registered with the Depart- 
ments of Labour of the provinces that have 
programs under the agreement was 21,018, 
compared with 20,326 in the previous year. 
Training was given in more than 50 trades. 

Federal contributions to the program 
totalled $2,160,853.59. 

One prime objective in apprenticeship 
training, which has now been reached in 
a few trades, has been to enable journey- 
men qualified by interprovincial examina- 
tion to move more freely from one part of 
Canada to another in accordance with the 
demand for labour. 

Interprovincial examinations are now in 
use for five trades. The examinations for 
two of these trades were adopted by the 
provinces during the year. 

Of the 21,018 apprentices registered at 
March 31, 1962, the largest numbers were 
being trained in motor vehicle repair 
(6,572), electrical construction (2,894), 
plumbing and pipefitting (2,297), carpentry 
(1,564) and sheet metal work (1,155). 
Other fairly large groups were: steam- 
fitting (833), auto body and fender re- 
pair (737), hairdressing and beauty cul- 
ture (717), and welding (708). 



906 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



From the Labour Gazette, August 1912 



50 Years Ago This Month 



Wages and prices continue to rise during spring of 1912. Some reductions in 
hours reported. Early experiment with daylight saving time ends after 2 weeks 



Wages continued to rise during the spring 
months of 1912, especially in the building 
trades, and there were a number of cases 
of reductions in hours. The rise in wages 
appeared to be part of a general rise 
in prices in America and Europe. 

The Labour Gazette for August 1912 re- 
ported that after an almost continuous 
advance during the previous 12 months, 
the Department of Labour's index of whole- 
sale prices dropped two points in July, to 

134.8 compared with 136.9 in June and 

126.9 in July 1911. The index was based on 
the average level of prices during the 
decade 1890-99. 

The Gazette published a table showing 
the movement of prices in Canada, Great 
Britain and the United States in 1911 and 
1912. One of the two indexes used in Great 
Britain stood at 79.7 in 1911. By May 1912 
this figure had risen to 85.3. One of two 
indexes used in the United States stood al 
109.2 in 1911 and by June 1912 had risen 
to 120.4. For Canada, the index figures 
were 127.3 in 1911 and, as already men- 
tioned, 134.8 in July 1912. 

Examples of the wage increases and re- 
duction in hours reported in the Labour 
Gazette were: 

In Hamilton, 150 bricklayers got an in- 
crease of 5 cents an hour after a strike 
lasting six days. In Welland, 41 bricklayers 
got the same increase and at the same 
time had their hours reduced from 54 10 
50 a week. 

Plumbers in St. Jean, Que., got an in- 
crease of 50 cents a day. In Kingston, 
plumbers were given an increase of 20 cents 
a day and had their hours reduced from nine 
to eight; from May 1, 1913 they were to 
get $3 for an eight-hour day, representing 
an increase of 45 cents a day. 

Trenchmen employed in sewer construc- 
tion in Vancouver were allowed a reduction 
of five hours a week without change in 
wages. 

Asbestos miners in the province of Que- 
bec, numbering 450, received an increase 
of 25 cents a day. 

Under a new five-year agreement, prin- 
ters and web pressmen in Hamilton got 
increases of from $2 to $5 a week. Stereo- 
types in Winnipeg got an increase of $2 
a week after a short strike. 

Policemen in Toronto were given in- 
creases ranging from $25 a year for second 



and third class constables to $250 a year 
for the chief and the deputy chief. Civic 
employees in Vancouver got increases vary- 
ing from $72 to $1,000 a year. Firemen in 
St. Thomas got increases of from $80 to 
$160 a year. 

Industrial Fatalities 

The Labour Gazette reported 108 fatal 
industrial accidents during July 1912. On 
July 1, seven labourers were killed when 
a derrick crane fell during construction 
of pulp mills at Kenogami, and four labour- 
ers were killed at the same place on July 
25 as a result of the collapse of a trench 
in which they were working. 

On July 23, four railway construction 
labourers were killed when dynamite ex- 
ploded prematurely during blasting opera- 
tions in a rock-cut on the line of the CPR 
near Maberly, Ont. 

An early experiment in daylight saving 
in Orillia, Ont., which had been reported 
in the Labour Gazette of July 1912, came 
to an end abruptly in July. The mayor of 
the town had issued a proclamation asking 
the townspeople to put their clocks forward 
an hour on the evening of June 22, with 
the object of gaining an extra hour of day- 
light. About half the factories in the town, 
almost all the business people, and about 
half the population fell in with the plan, 
but the rest refused to do so. 

The result was that there were two 
times, "Orillia" and "standard." This caused 
some inconvenience, "especially to boarding 
house keepers," as the Gazette said. 

In its August issue, the Gazette said that 
in order to avoid further friction and con- 
fusion the Council had decided to abandon 
the plan after it had been in effect for 
two weeks. But "the Council at the same 
time expressed the conviction that the re- 
form in time had been demonstrated to be 
feasible and, if generally adopted, calcu- 
lated to improve conditions." A number 
of those who opposed the plan admitted 
that it would have worked satisfactorily if 
it had been generally adopted throughout 
the country. 

"One outcome of the movement in 
Orillia is that a number of stores now 
close at 5 p.m., which, however, does not 
give the same advantages as the daylight 
measure, since it is not general," the 
Gazette added. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • 

59897-9— U 



AUGUST 7962 



907 



NOTES OF CURRENT INTEREST 



Name Commissioner to Investigate Seaway Boycott, SIU 



The Minister of Labour last month 
named Mr. Justice T. G. Norris of the 
Supreme Court of British Columbia as an 
Industrial Inquiry Commission to investi- 
gate the matters that led to a 30-hour 
disruption of shipping in the St. Lawrence 
Seaway System. The Minister's announce- 
ment was made 12 days after the shipping 
stoppage was ended by an injunction ob- 
tained by the St. Lawrence Seaway Au- 
thority. A boycott of ships with crews 
belonging to the Seafarers' International 
Union began July 5 and ended on July 6. 

Such an inquiry was requested of the 
Government last May by the Canadian 
Labour Congress and compliance with this 
request was one of the aims of the boycott. 
On the second day of the boycott the Gov- 
ernment announced that the investigation 
would be held and, at the same time, that 
the injunction was being sought. 

The boycott by seaway workers, members 
of the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, went into 
effect simultaneously at the Welland, Corn- 
wall and Beauharnois Canals, the St. Lam- 
bert-Cote Ste. Catherine Locks, and at 
Seven Islands, Que. 

When the boycott began, William Dodge, 
CLC Executive Vice-President, said that 
ships manned by bona fide unions would 
be allowed unhindered passage. But at the 
Welland Canal ships with SIU crews moved 
into positions at both ends of the canal 
that effectively blocked all traffic. 

The Canadian Labour Congress said the 
boycott was decided upon as a peaceful 
means to seek an end to "the intolerable 
harassment that its affiliated members have 
been subjected to while going about their 
lawful business." 

The boycott and the CLCs demand for 
an inquiry were the culmination of what the 
CLC described as a "campaign of violence, 
harassment, picketing, holdups and boy- 
cotts of Canadian-manned ships in the Great 
Lakes ports and elsewhere" by the Seafarers' 
International Union. 

The CLC said also that the boycott would 
end once an assurance had been received 
that the "reign of terror" had been ended 
and that Canadian vessels tied up in Great 
Lakes ports were being loaded and allowed 
to proceed to their destinations without 
unlawful hindrance. 

(In both Canadian and United States 
ports, the SIU had been obstructing the 
loading of ships manned by members of 
the Canadian Maritime Union, the CLC- 



affiliated union that is attempting to wrest 
bargaining rights away from the SIU. On 
July 7, U.S. Secretary of Labor Arthur J. 
Goldberg announced that he and AFL-CIO 
President George Meany had persuaded the 
SIU to call off its boycott of the CMU- 
manned vessels.) 

Assurance was also required from the 
Government that adequate measures would 
be taken to accede to the request for a 
full inquiry into the affairs of the SIU 
and into "the criminal acts that have taken 
place." 

At the same time as he reported the 
SIU's agreement to cease picketing of Cana- 
dian ships in U.S. ports, U.S. Secretary of 
Labor Goldberg announced that he had 
appointed a public board to inquire into the 
dispute involving the SIU. The board was 
to report its findings and recommendations 
to Mr. Goldberg by August 1. 

Besides investigating the circumstances 
leading to the disruption of shipping, Mr. 
Justice Norris was authorized to inquire 
into: 

— The circumstances leading to the dis- 
ruption of shipping in the Great Lakes 
System, including interference with the 
operation of the works and facilities of the 
St. Lawrence Seaway Authority. 

— The denial of the use of port or other 
works and facilities to vessels calling at 
Canadian and United States ports on the 
Great Lakes System. 

— The activities and internal operations 
of organizations of employees acting on 
behalf of employees engaged in shipping 
and work affecting shipping operations in 
the Great Lakes System including, without 
restricting the generality of the foregoing, 
the Seafarers' International Union of 
Canada. 

— The relationship and any conflict that 
may exist between employers or employers' 
organizations and employees or organiza- 
tions of employees in the shipping industry 
in the Great Lakes System. 

— Any matters incidental or relating to 
any of the foregoing matters. 

The appointment of Mr. Justice Norris 
was made pursuant to Section 56 of the 
Industrial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act, which provides that the Minister 
of Labour may make or cause to be made 
any inquiries he thinks fit regarding indus- 
trial matters and may do such things as 
seem calculated to maintain or secure indus- 
trial peace. 



908 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



Productivity Council Sends Tripartite Team to Europe 



The first Canadian labour-management- 
government mission to Europe, sponsored 
by the National Productivity Council, left 
on July 20 for a two-week visit to six 
European countries: Sweden, The Nether- 
lands, West Germany, France, Belgium and 
England. 

Object of the 13-member mission is to 
study European labour-management-govern- 
ment co-operation in productivity and eco- 
nomic development. Separate meetings will 
be held in each country with joint consulta- 
tive bodies, government economic agencies, 
and national labour and management organ- 
izations. 

The Council has been working toward 
closer co-operation between labour, manage- 
ment and government in Canada ever since 
its inception last year, stated H. George 
DeYoung, Chairman. It decided to send 
over a team of top Canadian labour, man- 
agement and government officials to examine 
the European experience so that they could 
see for themselves how labour-management- 
government co-operation works in Europe 
and how it might work better in Canada. 

"We also need to learn more about our 
European competitors to compete with them 
both at home and abroad," he said. 

Labour members of the mission are: 
William Dodge, Executive Vice-President, 
Canadian Labour Congress; Jean Mar- 
chand, President, Confederation of National 
Trade Unions; John Carroll, international 
representative and Assistant to the Cana- 
dian Vice-President, International Brother- 
hood of Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders, 
Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers; and 
Larry Sefton, Director, District 6, United 
Steelworkers of America. 

Management was represented on the mis- 
sion by: J. Herbert Smith, President, Cana- 
dian General Electric Company Limited, 
Toronto; J. Claude Hebert, President, 
Transparent Paper Products Company Lim- 
ited, Montreal; R. V. Yohe, President, 
B. F. Goodrich Canada Limited, Kitchener. 

Government representatives were: Dr. 
George V. Haythorne, Deputy Minister of 
Labour; James A. Roberts, Deputy Minister 
of Trade and Commerce; and B. G. Bar- 
row, Assistant Deputy Minister, Trade and 
Commerce. 

Dr. G. Edward Hall, President, University 
of Western Ontario, represented education 
on the mission. 

Seven members of the mission were 
members of the National Productivity 
Council, including E. F. L. Henry, Execu- 
tive Director. Secretary to the mission was 
Jack Golding, NPC regional officer, At- 
lantic Provinces. 



In his presidential address at the CLC's 
convention in April (L.G., June, p. 610), 
Claude Jodoin called for such labour- 
management study tours of Europe. 



Winter Works Incentive Program 
Will Operate Again in 1962-63 

The Municipal Winter Works Incentive 
Program will be continued again this winter 
on the same basis as last year, Hon. Michael 
Starr, Minister of Labour, announced last 
month. The program will run from October 
15, 1962 to April 30, 1963. 

Under the program, the federal Govern- 
ment pays one half the direct payroll costs 
of a municipality for approved works under- 
taken in winter time. Last winter's program 
was the most successful of any up to that 
time (L.G., July, p. 772). 



GNP Continues to Advance 
In First Quarter of 1962 

Canada's gross national product con- 
tinued to advance in the first quarter of 
1962. At a seasonally adjusted annual rate 
of $38.6 billion, it was about 2 per cent 
higher than in the fourth quarter of 1961, 
DBS reported last month. 

There was some rise in prices, and 
gross national expenditure in constant 
dollars is estimated to have risen about 1.5 
per cent. 

About half the increase in the value of 
the GNP is statistical rather than eco- 
nomic, in that the estimate of this year's 
crop assumes a normal harvest in contrast 
to the poor harvest of last year. 

Consumer spending was the major factor 
in the expansion of economic activity, re- 
cording one of the largest quarterly gains 
in recent years. By contrast, additions to 
inventories, which had spurred production 
in the fourth quarter of 1961, made no 
contribution to expansion in the first 
quarter of 1962. Government expenditures 
for goods and services, however, contributed 
to the rise in this year's first quarter. 

A considerable increase in housing was 
partly offset by lower outlays for plant and 
equipment, so that gross fixed capital for- 
mation provided little stimulus. In addition, 
the deficit on current international trans- 
actions widened. 

On the income side, there was a levelling- 
off in corporate profits following the 1961 
expansion, and a continuing increase in 
labour income that has accompanied the 
upswing to date. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



909 



Newfoundland Federation Meets for 26th Annual Convention 



The 26th annual convention of the New- 
foundland Federation of Labour (CLC), 
held July 4-6 at Corner Brook, charged the 
Newfoundland Government with lack of 
co-operation and courtesy, and saw a con- 
troversy develop over affiliation with the 
New Democratic Party. Esau Thorns was 
re-elected unopposed as President for the 
third consecutive year, and the entire ex- 
ecutive was returned to office. 

CLC President Claude Jodoin delivered 
two major addresses at the convention, in- 
cluding the main speech at the opening 
session, which was attended by about 60 
delegates and 25 guests. 

Originally intended to be held at Gan- 
der, the convention was rescheduled for 
Corner Brook because of a labour dispute 
between the Hotel Gander and the Retail, 
Wholesale and Department Store Union 
(CLC). Other accommodation at Gander 
was insufficient to house the delegates and 
guests. 

Convention Debates 

An intense debate on the Federation's 
difficulties in placing its views before the 
Newfoundland Government broke out when 
Steve Neary of the Office Employees' In- 
ternational Union, Bell Island, asked what 
good it was to pass a resolution that could 
not reach the provincial Government, be- 
cause the Federation was not even on 
speaking terms with it. The resolution in 
question requested the provincial Govern- 
ment to take steps to establish secondary 
industries on Bell Island to combat un- 
employment there. At this point President 
Thorns reviewed the Federation's relation- 
ships with the provincial Government. He 
said, however, that he would go to the 
provincial Government on Federation mat- 
ters if the executive requested him to do 
so. 

Failure of the Federation to arrange a 
meeting with the provincial Government, 
which had not replied to a written request, 
was deplored also in the executive coun- 
cil's report. 

Divergent opinions on the value of affili- 
ation with the New Democratic Party were 
expressed in another debate. Steve Neary 
proposed that the Federation dissociate 
itself from the political party, contending 
that this would facilitate the presentation 
of briefs to and their consideration by the 
provincial Government. James Walsh, NFL 
Eastern Vice-President, interjected that the 
Federation was not affiliated with any 
political party, and President Thorns said 
the Federation was not affiliated with the 
NDP. 



Claude Jodoin 

CLC President Claude Jodoin addressed 
the delegates twice. 

Referring to the dispute between the 
province's doctors and the Saskatchewan 
Government over the Medical Care In- 
surance Act, he pointed out that hospital 
workers affiliated with the Congress had 
never gone on strike, although they had 
been tempted to do so. 

In his major address on opening day, 
he deplored the tactics of the Seafarers' 
International Union against the CLC-affili- 
ated Canadian Maritime Union, reviewed 
the dispute on the St. Lawrence Seaway, 
and urged immediate government action 
to settle the problem. 

Defending the right of labour to enter 
politics, Mr. Jodoin added, however, that 
the Congress always reserved the right to 
criticize any political party, including the 
NDP. 

Resolutions 

Some of the resolutions passed by the 
convention included: 

— A request to the provincial Government 
to establish job-producing secondary indus- 
tries on Bell Island. 

— Approval of the public health care plan 
introduced in Saskatchewan. 

— A request to re-establish a merchant 
marine in Canada, subsidized by the federal 
Government. 

— A request for a CBC television sta- 
tion in St. John's, and all other parts of 
the province now served only by a private 
station. 

— A change in legislation and regulations 
to prevent decertification of a union before 
an order for certification is at least one 
year old. 

— A request to delete Section 43A of the 
Labour Relations Act, which was inter- 
preted that a strike could be made illegal 
under certain circumstances. 

The Federation reiterated its stand for 
public medical care, for a health plan that 
would be "all-inclusive in scope, and fully 
financed out of taxes of general applica- 
tion." 

The officers of the Federation were all 
re-elected. They are: Esau Thorns, Presi- 
dent; Albert Ash of Bell Island and James 
Walsh of St. John's, Eastern Vice-Presi- 
dents; James C. Mullett of Gander, Central 
Vice-President; Calvin Normore of Corner 
Brook, Western Vice-President; and Larry 
Dobbin of St. John's, Secretary-Treasurer. 



910 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



CNR-CBRT Agreement Merges 
Seniority Lists at Lakehead 

A new consolidated agreement has been 
signed by the Canadian National Railways 
and the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers. It amal- 
gamates the four separate agreements that 
formerly covered clerical, express, cartage, 
and road transport employees at the Lake- 
head, and became effective on June 1. 

The new agreement, which is the out- 
come of 14 months of negotiations, is an 
extension of a similar one reached in Novem- 
ber of last year and covering the same 
classes of employees in the Edmonton 
district. That agreement was intended at 
the time to pave the way for a contract 
that would apply to the company's em- 
ployees in these classes all across the coun- 
try, amounting to more than 20,000 (L.G., 
Dec. 1961, p. 1215). 

The main effect of the new agreement 
is the combining of seniority lists that 
were formerly separate. When seniority lists 
were separate it was impossible to relocate 
displaced workers from one group into 
another, even though employees were being 
taken on in one group while they were 
being laid off in the other. 

Agricultural Vocational Training 
Subject of New Publication 

The number of persons enrolled in pub- 
licly-sponsored technical and vocational 
agricultural courses in Canada in 1959-60 
amounted to only 3 per cent of the agricul- 
tural labour force. On the other hand, in 
the United States, in 1958, the number 
of students enrolled in vocational agricul- 
tural programs assisted by the federal 
Government was equal to 13 per cent of 
the farm labour force in that country. 

This point is brought out in a new 
Department of Labour publication, prepared 
by the Economics and Research Branch, as 
evidence of the meagreness of agricultural 
education in Canada in comparison with 
what is being done in the U.S. 

The bulletin, entitled Vocational Training 
Needs in Canadian Agriculture, is No. 5D 
in the series issued under the Research 
Program of the Training of Skilled Man- 
power. It is a report of a survey based on 
personal interviews conducted across Can- 
ada, and in two places in the United States, 
by a team of research workers for the 
Skilled Manpower Training Research Com- 
mittee. A preliminary report of the survey 
was given at the 2nd meeting of the National 
Technical and Vocational Training Advisory 
Council in November last year (L.G., Dec. 
1961, p. 1214). 



The bulletin is divided into five chapters: 
I — Introduction; II — Trends in Agriculture 
and their Implications in Training; III — 
Present Training Programs — Effectiveness, 
Limitations, Recommendations; IV — Areas 
of Training Which Should Be Developed 
Further; and V — Concluding Observations 
and Proposals. 

The fourth chapter deals with the question 
of training for young people, training for 
adults, and training for instructors. The 
fifth chapter deals with new training pro- 
grams and changes required in connection 
with the training of adults, young people, 
and instructors. 

An outline of two agricultural training 
programs being carried out in the United 
States — the Minnesota Vocational Agricul- 
tural Program and the New York Agricul- 
tural and Technical Institute Program — is 
given in an appendix. 



Department Publishing New 
Vocational Training Quarterly 

The first issue of a new quarterly publi- 
cation, Technical and Vocational Training 
In Canada, has just been issued by the 
Department of Labour. 

The periodical is intended to provide 
information on the progress of training in 
Canada under the Technical and Vocational 
Training Assistance Act, passed in Decem- 
ber 1960, which provided for a great in- 
crease in federal assistance to the provinces 
in the training of young people and adults. 



Business, Professional Women 
Hold 18th Biennial Convention 

"The Role of Women in the Public Life 
of Canada" was the theme of the 18th 
biennial convention of the Canadian Feder- 
ation of Business and Professional Women's 
Clubs, at St. Andrews-by-the-Sea, N.B., 
from July 9 to 13. Some 450 delegates and 
observers attended. 

Mrs. Esther Peterson, U.S. Assistant 
Secretary of Labor and Director of the 
Women's Bureau; Miss Mary Louise Lynch, 
of the National Parole Board; and Miss 
Marion Royce, Director of the Women's 
Bureau, federal Department of Labour, 
addressed the meeting. Miss Royce also 
acted as resource leader for a workshop 
on "The Role of Women in Canada's Work- 
ing Force." 

After the convention, some of the dele- 
gates attended the Congress of the Inter- 
national Federation of Business and Pro- 
fessional Women's Clubs, at Oslo, Norway, 
from July 25 to 31. About 50 Canadians in 
all were present. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



911 



Labour Day Messages 

Hon. Michael Starr, Minister of Labour 



Labour Day 1962 finds unemployment 
significantly reduced from a year ago, and 
continued improvement in employment, 
wages and working conditions. This is grati- 
fying to all Canadians, since employment, 
wages and working conditions are of funda- 
mental importance. 

Over the years Organized Labour has 
kept a watchful eye on a wide variety of 
subjects affecting the well-being of the 
country and its people, and every year the 
central labour bodies present their views 
to the Government. 

Management organizations have also pre- 
sented their views on employment and indus- 
trial relations to the Government; these 
views, too, have been taken into considera- 
tion in developing policies and programs 
of action in the labour field. 

In fact, many of the steps taken by the 
Government in the past few years have had 
the effect of putting proposals made by 
responsible union and management bodies 
into action. 

The scope of the Municipal Winter Works 
Incentive Program, for example, has been 
broadened to increase off-season employ- 
ment, incentives have been provided for 
new industries in areas of surplus man- 
power, export credits to facilitate the export 
of Canadian products have been increased, 
and various steps have been taken to expand 
the public sector of the economy. 

For the past several years the Govern- 
ment has followed a policy of temporary 
deficit financing. The Government intro- 
duced this policy because it was essential 
to stimulate the economy. Our primary 
objective has been to create more jobs — 
to keep Canadians at work. If we had failed 
to take positive action, thousands who have 
jobs today would now be unemployed. 

Labour, along with all responsible na- 
tional bodies, has recognized the pressing 
need for more educational facilities, par- 
ticularly for vocational and technical train- 
ing, to fit increasing numbers of young 
people for the complex jobs of modern 
industry. 

To meet the rapidly developing need we 
offered to pay 75 per cent of provincial 



costs for new vocational, trade and technical 
schools and extensions to existing schools, 
until March 31, 1963. By July of this year, 
440 school building projects were underway 
or completed. The cost of these projects 
will total $395,000,000, of which the federal 
Government's share will be more than 
$256,000,000, representing more than 10 
times the federal expenditures in this field 
over the previous 16-year period. 

We have concentrated much effort and 
much expenditure on programs such as 
these, designed to provide jobs now and to 
ensure increased employment in the future. 
Organized labour has commended these 
activities — it has in fact often urged us to 
extend them further. 

At the same time we have not neglected 
our old people, our veterans, or the needs 
of the provinces. We have kept our inter- 
national commitments and we have managed 
to assist other countries as well. 

All this has meant the expenditure of 
money — a great deal of money — but in five 
years it has helped to create work oppor- 
tunities for over 500,000 more Canadians. 

Now, with employment increasing and 
with the country experiencing a high degree 
of economic activity, we have introduced 
measures to consolidate and strengthen our 
economic position in Canada and abroad. 
These measures are designed to maintain 
the strength of the Canadian dollar, to arrest 
the drain on foreign exchange reserves and 
to bring imports and exports into closer 
balance. 

Our future prosperity depends to a large 
extent on our ability to meet growing com- 
petition for markets. This means greater 
efficiency and higher quality in production. 
There is encouraging evidence that, through 
the National Productivity Council and the 
efforts of the more than 1,500 Labour- 
Management Committees, these objectives 
are being pursued by the partners in produc- 
tion more seriously than ever before. 

I am sure that through co-operation we 
can surmount any difficulties, now or in 
the future. This requires sustained effort 
by all Canadians. I am confident that, with 
a clearer recognition of its vital need, we 
can count on "Teamwork in Industry". 



912 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



Labour Day is a time when trade unionists 
naturally focus their attention on the objec- 
tives of our movement. Throughout the 
years, our primary objective has always 
been the provision of a better life for all, 
but the means by which improvements can 
be made change with the times. 

It is natural that organized labour has 
had to concentrate much of its effort on 
bettering wages and working conditions, 
and this continues to be a basic function 
of our unions. At the same time we are well 
aware that great improvements in living 
standards can be obtained through social 
programs. Advances in the field of social 
legislation, for example, can bring great 
benefits not only to union members but 
to all people. This is important to us because 
the labour movement is not a selfish organi- 
zation. 

The social improvements which we, as 
Canadians, enjoy today have come slowly 
and in the face of strong opposition. At 
every stage there have been forceful in- 
fluences which would halt social advances 
or turn the tide backward. This condition 
exists today, and this is a time when we 
must meet such opposition with all the 
force at our command. 

This is no time for us to slip back; this 
is rather a time when we must move for- 
ward. The provision of a steadily improving 
standard of living and a better life for all 
the people is the one way by which we can 
prove that the democratic system which we 
support meets the needs of the people. If 
our system fails to meet this qualification, 
then it is doomed. 

We are at a stage in our history when a 
good deal of attention is being focused on 
social legislation. This is timely. There is 
need in Canada today for a full-scale review 
of the whole system of social security so 
that we can more clearly define our present 
position and plan our future. There is a 
very real need to fill gaps in our social 
security system and to unify the program 
as a whole. 

We must have a much more carefully 
planned approach to our program for meet- 
ing the needs of older people. We are well 
aware that, in the face of the sweeping 
changes now taking place in many indus- 
tries, earlier retirement is likely. This trend 
could lead to years of greater happiness 
for many older people — but only if their 
basic needs are assured. The present old 
age pension plan should be revised to make 
pensions payable at 65 years, without a 
means test; pensions should be increased 



Claude Jodoin, President, 
Canadian Labour Congress 

to $75 a month and should have built-in 
protection for pensioners against price 
increases. 

The old age pension plan alone is, how- 
ever, not sufficient to meet the needs we 
are going to face. Plans should be launched 
immediately for the creation of a national 
contributory pension plan, related to earn- 
ings and portable so that workers changing 
their jobs would retain their interest in the 
plan. 

Public attention has recently been focused 
on the fact that Canada is one of the few 
advanced countries that has failed to pro- 
vide a comprehensive medical plan for its 
people. We need a health program that is 
available equally to all, that provides the 
most comprehensive type of services of 
high quality, that encourages medical educa- 
tion and research, and that is free from the 
dominant control of any particular interest 
group. 

There is need now for a review of family 
allowances. We are all aware of the in- 
creased emphasis that has been placed on 
the need for education. If children are to 
stay in school longer — and we certainly 
hope they will — this will increase the finan- 
cial burden on families. In fact, in many 
cases the length of school training a child 
receives will be determined by the family's 
resources. To meet this condition, allow- 
ances should not stop at 16 years, as at 
present, but should be extended up to 21 
years for children still attending school. 

Many other aspects of our social security 
program need bringing up to date to meet 
today's conditions. The opposition that is 
now being heard about such changes is the 
same kind of opposition that was expressed 
at suggestions that there should be free 
compulsory education, unemployment insur- 
ance, workmen's compensation, and old age 
pensions. Today all of these provisions for 
meeting the needs of people have become 
an accepted part of our social fabric. Yet 
the opposition to them was every bit as 
bitter and as strong as is the opposition to 
social change today. 

While it is natural that our attention 
centres largely on matters within our own 
country, we must not lose sight of the vital 
world situation. It is regrettable that another 
Labour Day has come without any marked 
easing in the severe international tensions 
that have now existed for so long. 

We, as a labour movement, must continue 
to press for policies that will lead to an 
easing of these tensions and that will 
contribute to world peace. The spirit of 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

59897-9—2 



• AUGUST 7962 



913 



brotherhood on which the labour movement 
is founded is not one that can be restricted 
by international borders. We cannot rest 
until all men share in bread, peace and 
freedom. 

At the same time we can make a great 
contribution to world freedom and demo- 



cracy by establishing the highest possible 
standards here in Canada. We may be 
proud that labour has always been in the 
forefront of efforts to gain improvements 
for all people. We must maintain that posi- 
tion. Let us make Labour Day 1962 a day 
of dedication to that end. 



Jean Marchand, General President, 
Confederation of National Trade Unions 

(Translation) 



The inertia of Canadian authorities and 
leaders of our economic life in the face 
of our problems may cause the nation to 
fall into the worst depression it has ever 
known. 

While most of the industrialized western 
countries have, since the last war, recon- 
structed their economies so as to obtain 
maximum production and development, we 
in Canada are still imputing intentions to 
the progressive elements and upholding 
hackneyed concepts of another generation. 

To try to make people believe that the 
dilemma facing Canada is the choice be- 
tween free enterprise and socialism is close 
to deceit and irresponsibility. 

Workers have not yet come to discussing 
ideological issues. They want solutions to 
their problems, and these problems are: full 



employment, adequate economic develop- 
ment, peace in the world and a better dis- 
tribution of wealth. The year just ended 
does not show that we have even begun 
to solve these problems. 

Contrary to common sense and to ap- 
proved techniques in economics, the federal 
Government has decided to offer us, as a 
remedy to some of our troubles, tight money 
and austerity, which can only make our 
difficulties worse than they are now. 

The future is not bright and we will 
again this year celebrate Labour Day in 
distress, as we see nothing at hand to give 
us any hope. 

As we have done in the past, we are 
again offering to co-operate with govern- 
ments and employers so that jointly we may 
try to achieve together what we are power- 
less to do alone. 






A. A. Hutchinson, Chairman, 

National Legislative Committee, 

International Railway Brotherhoods 



As we approach another Labour Day the 
working people of the world are grateful 
that there has been no major military con- 
flict in the world and that the uneasy peace 
which prevailed a year ago seems to have 
become somewhat easier. 

The past year has seen some improve- 
ment in the employment situation in Canada 
but the outlook, with curtailment of govern- 
ment spending on public works and other 
projects, does not augur well for a con- 
tinued improvement. 

Disposal of the surplus grain that was 
held in Western Canada, as well as present 
prospects for at least a fair crop this year, 
is cause for reasonable optimism in Western 
Canada. The prosperity of Western Canada 
has a definite influence upon the welfare 
of the railways and the railway employees; 
for this prosperity Railway Labour is grate- 
ful. 

Mechanization of railway operation con- 
tinues to expand, and as it expands, the 
need for railway labour continues to di- 



minish, thus aggravating the already critical 
unemployment situation. 

We have come through a federal election 
that has left the country with a confused 
situation at a time when we need a strong 
and stable Government. The result of the 
election is cause for concern to all those 
who have the welfare of Canada at heart. 

It is to be hoped that good sense and 
good judgment will prevail in the forth- 
coming session of Parliament so that the 
interests of Canada may be placed ahead 
of the interests of party. 

Organized Labour has the welfare of 
Canada as its main objective and I feel 
quite sure that it can be depended upon 
to do everything within reason to further 
that welfare, so that the future may yield 
the rich rewards which are the right of all 
the people of the nation. 

The promises of prosperity and happiness 
can be achieved by the joint efforts of all 
phases of our society and only by their 
fullest co-operation; this should be the 
objective for the coming year. 



914 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



Human Consequences of Industrialization 

Summaries of addresses by Prince Philip, Right Honourable Vincent Massey 
and Dr. W. A. Lewis delivered at the Duke of Edinburgh's Second Commonwealth 
Conference on the human consequences of the changing of industrial environment 



Although a prosperous country, a success- 
ful business and happy community are 
valuable in themselves, all must ultimately 
be judged by their effect on individuals, 
H.R.H. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, 
said in his keynote address at the opening 
of the Second Commonwealth Study Con- 
ference (L.G., July, p. 772). 

"The important thing, to my mind, is to 
recognize those factors in the changing en- 
vironment which cause human misery, and 
plan them out of future developments as 
much as possible," he said. "If at the same 
time you succeed in planning in those fea- 
tures which make for human contentment, 
so much the better." 

Prince Philip served as President of the 
Second Conference, as he had at the first. 
Chairman of the Conference was Rt. Hon. 
Vincent Massey, former Governor-General, 
who also spoke at the opening session in 
Montreal on May 14. Another opening day 
speaker was Dr. W. A. Lewis, Vice-Chan- 
cellor of the University of the West Indies. 

In referring to the origins of the first 
conference, Prince Philip said that two 
developments in the Commonwealth had 
caused him to think seriously about such 
a meeting. 

"In the first place, while the purely indus- 
trial side of the developments, such as 
design, layout, and equipment of the factory 
or the mines, was done using all the latest 
techniques, the provision for the community 
which was going to operate the industry 
varied very greatly. In some cases a lot 
of thought had been given to the planning 
of the community, in others it was rather 
obviously only a secondary consideration. 

"It occurred to me that while it was 
obviously not possible to lay down the law 
about how communities should be developed, 
at least there was plenty of evidence in 
most countries how it should not be done." 

The second point that struck him, Prince 
Philip went on to say, was that with the 
rapid advance of industry in the Common- 
wealth, agricultural nations were on the 
verge of becoming industrialized, and would 
be "going through the pangs of readjustment 
which industrialization makes necessary. 

"It seemed to me that if these thoughts 
came to me during these journeys it might 
be a good idea to expose people with expe- 
rience in industry, and with prospects of 
authority, to the same kind of treatment, 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

59897-9— 2i 



• AUGUST 1962 



in order to give them a chance to take a 
broad view of their responsibilities during 
the process of industrialization or during 
the further development of existing indus- 
trial communities." 

Canada had many examples to offer of 
the problems created by industrial develop- 
ment, he said. "There are old, well-estab- 
lished industrial and commercial centres 
like Montreal and Toronto; there are old, 
single-industry towns, some coping with 
problems of expansion and diversification, 
and some with contraction. 

"There are new towns built to serve 
mining operations in the far north, like 
Schefferville, or to serve an industrial proc- 
ess like the smelting of aluminum at 
Arvida and Kitimat. There are towns where 
the mines are worked out and only the 
old people hang on, and new towns where 
there are no old people at all. Other com- 
munities are centres of great agricultural 
areas." 

In his address to the closing session of 
the Conference, in Vancouver on June 6, 
Prince Philip said: 

"It is up to people like you to make 
certain that mankind retains responsibility 
for, and control of his environment, and 
does not let the world slide into a state 
of confusion merely for lack of thought or 
foresight." 

Whatever use they made of the expe- 
rience gained during the Conference, he 
went on, "I would only ask you one thing: 
To remember that whenever you are respon- 
sible for taking a decision in your industry 
or community, it is going to react on 
people." This was the crux of the Con- 
ference, he said. 

Growing population, greater centralization 
of control of industry and commerce, grow- 
ing mechanization and automation made the 
individual less and less important. "Progress 
means nothing unless people come along 
with it of their own free will. Efficiency 
is merely another name for tyranny unless 
it is consciously achieved by the voluntary 
actions of groups of human beings." 

Canadian experience had taught the dele- 
gates many lessons, the Prince continued, 
and perhaps the most important of these 
was that "a high standard of living does 
not insulate communities from the harsh 
problems of industrialization which are 
experienced in every part of the Common- 
wealth. 



915 



"The main lesson you seem to have 
learned about both communities as well as 
industries is that expediency is a bad way 
of working for the future. Only careful 
study, careful planning and resolute execu- 
tion all the time, and not just by fits and 
starts, can prevent the worst mistakes and 
the worst results of industrialization," he 
pointed out. 

Canada offered a valuable example to 
the rest of the Commonwealth in its treat- 
ment of minorities, he said; but he re- 
marked that minorities must take part in 
the life of the community and not simply 
keep to themselves. 

"The basic difficulty of the minorities is 
to avoid living solely in the past instead of 
allowing their culture to develop parallel 
with that of the majority," the Prince con- 
tinued. "Any human organization that re- 
mains static eventually disintegrates." 

Referring to education as another sub- 
ject that had received the careful atten- 
tion of the Conference, he said that "the 
need for education to be directed toward 
the needs of science, industry, commerce 
and so on" had been emphasized; but that 
this raised "the age-old argument between 
vocational education and the general de- 
velopment of the individual as a person 
and a citizen." 

"I don't pretend to know what the proper 
balance should be," Prince Philip said, 
"but every country must work to achieve 
such a balance, so that the demands of the 
material world are met without ignoring 
the heritage of thousands of years of 
human spiritual and cultural endeavour." 

Rt. Hon. Vincent Massey 

As a result of pioneer habits of living, 
we in Canada have all too often not built 
for beauty or permanence, and "the atmos- 
phere of our towns still often suggests that 
of the mining camp or the logging drive," 
said Rt. Hon. Vincent Massey in his address 
to the Conference. 

"We have often ignored the long-term 
aesthetic and social needs of town planning, 
in order to pursue immediate economic 
ends. We have given to our communities, not 
the fine squares and noble public buildings 
and pleasant urban parks which belong to 
peoples who have known better how to 
embellish life, but have surrendered too 
fully to those means of transportation upon 
which of course our livelihood and sur- 
vival have depended. In a way perhaps un- 
surpassed even in the United States, we 
have worshipped first the railway and then 
the automobile," Mr. Massey said. 



He went on to point out that what trans- 
portation and construction will do to our 
urban scene is by no means settled yet. 
Much the most important phase of our 
industrialization belongs to the past 20 
years, but the biggest changes are yet to 
come. Within the next two generations we 
shall probably undertake as much new 
building as there has been in this country 
since the beginning. 

"Our secondary and service industries are 
expected to take corresponding strides for- 
ward. And we have begun to face the prob- 
lem of fostering the human resources which 
we have often neglected in the past. 

"But the full powers of an industrial 
society are still before us," the speaker 
continued. "To a degree not found in more 
industrialized nations, we still have it within 
us to decide what kind of society we are 
to be and how we may guide the economic 
and cultural revolution we have begun to 
face." 

Contrasting business and labour in Can- 
ada with business and labour in the United 
States, Mr. Massey intimated that financial 
and industrial concerns in Canada were 
characterized by "prudence" and "modera- 
tion," that Canadians were sometimes 
criticized for "a lack of boldness and im- 
agination and the will to live danger- 
ously. . . . 

"One result of this caution and of the 
limited amount of money for investment 
available in Canada is that the great major- 
ity of ventures requiring large quantities of 
capital have been undertaken by non-Cana- 
dians and particularly in this century by 
Americans." 

Mr. Massey went on to say that the in- 
flux of American capital and American 
entrepreneurs had been "of immense eco- 
nomic benefit to this country," and he de- 
precated the fear that this benefit was being 
bought at the cost of future political inde- 
pendence. On the contrary, he thought that 
"the financial and industrial stimulus we 
have thus received may well have been one 
of those things which have enabled us to 
assert our political independence so effec- 
tively." 

Mr. Massey went on to speak of the 
handicaps imposed by "our loose federal 
constitutional structure, with immense re- 
serves of power vested in the provinces." 
This made it particularly difficult to tackle 
the problems "which come from rapid in- 
dustrialization, problems which are national 
in scope, but provincial in constitutional 
terms. 

"The big problems are not ones which 
can really ever be settled and 'fixed' by 
some magic formula, some act of revolu- 
tion, some political system," Mr. Massey 



916 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



said at the conclusion of his address. "They 
are the problems we must teach ourselves 
to live with, just as all peoples, for the 
first time in human history, are now simply 
forced to learn to live with one another, 
if we are to survive at all. . . ." 

Dr. W. A. Lewis 

Industrialization comes in three stages, 
and the first one is the most trying, Dr. 
Lewis told the delegates in an address in 
which he spoke up in defence of industrial- 
ization, capitalism, and democracy. 

"The early decades of industrialization 
are always a time of troubles, presenting 
the paradox that though society is growing 
richer, it simultaneously grows angrier, and 
most angry at the points where most de- 
velopment is taking place," he said. 

This first stage of industrialization begins 
"when money-making is given its head," 
he went on. "Capitalists challenge the old 
rulers. They insist on making new laws 
to protect persons and property. They de- 
mand administrative reforms. They seize 
a share, even the dominating share in the 
government. They even change the national 
ideology. Profit-making, which in most re- 
ligions is slightly , immoral, comes to be 
sanctified as a reward for enterprise." 

Industrialization gives rise to unrest on 
account of the unemployment brought 
about by development and the efforts of 
those in one sector of the economy to 
keep up with cost increases generated by 
development in other sectors, Dr. Lewis 
explained. 

Once the first phase has passed, however, 
"social peace" is restored as a logical result 
of the advance of economic development. 
This comes about from several causes, he 
said. 

"Industrialization abolishes one of the 
causes of social strife" by abolishing eco- 
nomic misery. In face of rising national 
output per head, slums, famine, early mor- 
tality, ignorance, and other great social evils 
are rolled away. 

"In the early phase of industrialization 
men worry about whether their children 
will die of hunger; in the later phase they 



worry about whether they can maintain the 
payments on their television set." 

Another result of economic development 
is the lessening of the number of significant 
human differences, Dr. Lewis explained. 
He attributed the growth of religious and 
racial toleration to "the evolution of an 
economic system which rewards primarily 
by performance, and not by affiliation, and 
which, in doing so, has reduced conflicts 
of race, religion and tribe to the significance 
of children's games." 

The third great consequence of indus- 
trialization is development of equality and 
the abolition of social classes, the speaker 
contended. "Industrialization takes the hu- 
miliation out of the lives of the masses of 
the people." 

Dr. Lewis warned the delegates, how- 
ever, many of whom were from the new 
states of Africa and Asia, that democracy is 
on trial in these countries. But he thought 
that their troubles would prove to be tem- 
porary, "and that the very forces which 
have created them, the forces of economic 
development, will also take us through to 
relative calm." 

Regarding Communism, he said that 
"Marxist revolution may be a necessary 
prelude to reform in countries dominated 
by reactionary landlords, as for example 
in one or two Latin American countries." 
But, he argued, such revolutions were not 
necessary in capitalist countries, "since 
capitalists can be made to yield by other 
pressures." 

Dr. Lewis rejected the theory that in 
the new nations economic development can 
be achieved only under a dictator. "The 
kind of social peace which we seek to 
reach is one where people accept their 
political system because they have hope 
and confidence that their aspirations can 
be met within that system," he said. 

To establish such a system there must be 
"democratic leaders who will rise above 
sectional interests" and "a devoted admin- 
istrative class." Given these, "the relative 
peace which the developed countries took 
a century to win can be achieved by us in 
two generations," Dr. Lewis declared. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



917 



Civilian Rehabilitation 



Baker Foundation for Blindness Prevention 

Canadian National Institute for the Blind sets up E. A. Baker Foundation for 
Prevention of Blindness in recognition of outstanding service of Col. E. A. 
Baker, who has retired as Managing Director of the Institute after 42 years 



After 42 years of service to the blind 
in Canada, Col. E. A. Baker, O.B.E., M.C., 
Croix de Guerre, B.Sc., LL.D., retired at 
the end of June as Managing Director of 
the Canadian National Institute for the 
Blind. Col. Baker has devoted most of his 
life to the development of services for the 
blind and to prevention of blindness pro- 
grams. 

In recognition of his outstanding service, 
the CNIB has set up the E. A. Baker 
Foundation for Prevention of Blindness. 

This year is Prevention of Blindness 
year, dedicated to directing public attention 
to visual health, and being observed in 
109 member countries of the World Health 
Organization. 

The Baker Foundation will assist in many 
prevention of blindness projects. It will pro- 
vide fellowships and scholarships to en- 
courage young doctors to study ophthal- 
mology. There is an ever-growing need for 
more eye doctors in Canada. At present 
there are only 250 certified ophthalmologists 
in this country. 

A grant of $3,000 to the University of 
British Columbia for this purpose was made 
during the past year. Ophthalmic research 
will also receive support from the Foun- 
dation. 

Provision of special equipment required 
by eye specialists will be another under- 
taking of the Foundation. During the year 
the CNIB made a grant of $4,000 to the 
University of Toronto to supply four micro- 
scopes for use in teaching in the Depart- 
ment of Ophthalmology at the University. 
This is in addition to two fellowships of 
$2,000 each presented annually by the 
National Council and the Ontario Board 
of Management. 

Grants to encourage and assist nurses 
to take special training in ophthalmic nurs- 
ing will also be provided by the Foundation. 

The Foundation will provide research 
grants to the Eye Bank of Canada to study 
ways of restoring sight to more blind 
Canadians. Some 600 persons have already 
benefited from this service. The Baker 
Foundation will aid the expansion of the 
low vision clinic in Toronto, which has 
improved the vision of many Canadians 
who could not be helped by ordinary lenses. 
Through special grants to these and other 
services of prevention, the Baker Foundation 



will aid in the promotion of visual health 
across the country. 

Although Col. Baker worked untiringly 
for the betterment of services for the blind 
in Canada, he did not confine his interests 
to his own country. He is now serving his 
third term as President of the World Coun- 
cil for the Welfare of the Blind, which 
seeks to aid the sightless in more than 40 
countries. He was interested in the forma- 
tion of the Royal Commonwealth Society 
for the Blind, London, England, which now 
serves the blind in the underprivileged coun- 
tries of the Commonwealth. The Baker 
Foundation will assist, to some degree, pre- 
vention of blindness programs now under- 
way in underdeveloped countries. 

Blinded himself during the First World 
War, Col. Baker has maintained an active 
interest in veterans' affairs. He is Honorary 
Chairman of the National Council of 
Veterans Associations in Canada, Honorary 
President of the War Pensioners of Canada, 
a Life Member of the Canadian Legion and 
the Army, Navy, and Air Force Veterans 
in Canada. He was Vice-President and later 
Secretary of the Sir Arthur Pearson Asso- 
ciation of War Blinded for more than 30 
years. 

Col. Baker was the first recipient of the 
Helen Keller Award for outstanding leader- 
ship at international levels. The award was 
presented by Helen Keller herself in New 
York in 1960. 

With the passing of the Vocational Re- 
habilitation of Disabled Persons Act, the 
Minister of Labour appointed Col. Baker 
as a member of the National Advisory 
Council for the Vocational Rehabilitation 
of Disabled Persons as a representative of 
the voluntary agencies. During the past ten 
years Col. Baker has given outstanding 
assistance to the Government of Canada in 
the development of plans for vocational 
rehabilitation of disabled persons. 



Wally Kennedy, blind for the last 15 
years, has just completed ten years of what 
his employers describe as "very satisfactory" 
service at the Canadian General Electric 
plant in Barrie, Ont. Wally is employed at 
tasks requiring skill and careful workman- 
ship. 

At present he is engaged in sandblasting 
the sole plates of electric irons. 



918 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



Older Workers 



OECD Seminar on Age and Employment 

Hope of sponsors was to obtain positive suggestions that could be laid before 
the bodies, national and international, that could take action on them. Two 
Department of Labour officials among the specialists invited to participate 



Under the sponsorship of the Organiza- 
tion for Economic Co-operation and De- 
velopment (OECD) a five-day seminar on 
age and employment was held in Stockholm, 
Sweden, from April 15 to 19 this year. 
Participation was by invitation to specialists 
from various countries, mostly European, 
and representatives from 13 nations at- 
tended. Canada and the United States sent 
representatives. 

Attending from Canada were Ian Camp- 
bell, National Coordinator, Civilian Re- 
habilitation, Department of Labour, and 
Chairman, Interdepartmental Committee on 
Older Workers, and Dr. Gil Schonning, 
Assistant Director, Economics and Research 
Branch, Department of Labour. 

The seminar was convened to provide 
positive suggestions that could be laid before 
those bodies — both national and interna- 
tional — that might be in a position to act 
upon them. The two principal areas of 
discussion were employment and research. 

Topics discussed included: attitudes to- 
ward age and employment and toward 
premature retirement; psychological reasons 
for unemployment; aging and working 
capacity; problems of measuring functional 
age and assessment of fitness; vocational 
training and retraining; training for retire- 
ment; the effect of pension regulations and 
the relationship between pension schemes 
and attitudes toward retirement; the need 
for further research; the need for public 
education to eliminate age-discriminatory 
practices; and many other related aspects 
of the problem. 

Foot Proposals 

One paper presented at the seminar out- 
lined four practical proposals for alleviating 
the employment problem for older persons. 
The paper proposed that: 

— attempts be made to alter working con- 
ditions so that they were better suited to 
the capabilities of older people; 

— efforts be made to find the aging 
worker a new job that is physiologically, 
psychologically and socially better suited 
to his capabilities; 

— in dealing with the problem, thought 
be given to the procedures for guiding 
workers and transferring them to other 
jobs, with consideration given to the facili- 
ties that would enable the older worker 
to do his new job properly; 



A final obvious point was the importance 
of wage considerations in the employment 
of aging workers. 

The following six conclusions were agreed 
upon as representing satisfactorily the main 
results of the deliberations: 

1. There was satisfactory evidence that 
in all participating countries a new and 
growing problem existed concerning age and 
employment. Those involved were in the 
second half of their working lives — above 
the age of 40 years. 

2. The present nature and extent of the 
problem in a particular country is a com- 
plex function of its population structure 
and trends, its labour market economy, its 
rate of technological change, and its social 
and educational pattern. 

3. Three specific problems could be dis- 
tinguished and, although related, should be 
given separate attention. These were: 

— The effects on men and women beyond 
the mid-point of their working lives of 
recent acceleration in the rate of tech- 
nological change. These effects were prin- 
cipally those of increased stress and diffi- 
culty of re-employment. 

— The transitional phase around the usual 
pensionable ages, in which men and women 
were, in general, still capable of socially 
useful activity whether remunerated or 
voluntary, while probably not fully capable 
of continuing further their previous full- 
time employment. 

— The phase — essentially a new one for 
the majority of the working population — 
in which many years must be spent in full 
retirement. 

4. The problems faced by those usually 
described as the unskilled and semi-skilled, 
whether in factory or office, were found to 
be generally much greater than those faced 
by the skilled or highly-trained persons. 

5. The chronological age of a person is a 
highly unsatisfactory measure of his occu- 
pational utility and adaptability. 

6. The communication of facts obtained 
by research workers in a variety of discip- 
lines to those in government, in management 
and in the trade unions, who alone can 
implement them, appears not to have been 
highly successful to date. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



919 



Women's Bureau 



U.N. Commission on the Status of Women 

16th session deals with several subjects relating to women's position within 
the labour force; vocational guidance and training, equal pay, retirement age 



At its 16th session, held March 19 to 
April 6, the United Nations Commission 
on the Status of Women dealt with several 
subjects relating to women's position within 
the labour force. 

Vocational Guidance and Training — Com- 
mission members agreed that vocational 
guidance and training were the key to the 
economic advancement of women workers. 
Professional classes are fairly well served 
with vocational guidance and training cour- 
ses but very little training is available for 
clerical and unskilled jobs, in which the 
greatest number of women are. 

Delegates expressed the view that ade- 
quate guidance in the choice of jobs and 
training was of vital importance not only 
for girls seeking their first job but also 
for older women re-entering the labour 
force. 

In a resolution, member states were 
urged (a) to consider how to improve the 
vocational guidance and vocational and 
technical training of women and girls and 
to achieve free educational facilities in that 
field, (b) to ensure men and women equal 
access to existing vocational and profes- 
sional schools, (c) to establish new centres, 
where necessary, for vocational and pro- 
fessional training of men and women on 
the basis of equality and (d) to encourage 
on-the-job vocational training of women in 
industrial and other establishments. 

The Commission expressed the hope that 
the ILO Panel of Consultants on the Prob- 
lems of Women Workers will discuss voca- 
tional guidance and counselling at its next 
session and that the ILO will place the 
subject on the agenda of an early session 
of its General Conference. 

Equal Pay for Equal Work — It was re- 
ported that 39 countries had ratified the 
ILO Convention (No. 100) concerning 
equal remuneration for men and women 
workers for work of equal value. The long- 
term trend in respect to equal pay was 
encouraging. 

In the Commission's debate on this sub- 
ject, the members stressed the following 
obstacles to full acceptance of the prin- 
ciple: lack of objective analysis of "job 
content and lack of simple job evaluation 
methods; inadequate vocational guidance 
and training; lack of child care facilities, 
which increases absenteeism among work- 
ing mothers; the cost of maternity benefits, 
which the employer tends to charge as 



wages; the existence of special categories 
of "typically feminine work"; and women's 
acceptance of lower wages, especially in 
the developing countries. 

A resolution was passed requesting mem- 
ber states who had not already done so to 
ratify ILO Convention 100 and also to 
implement the provisions of the companion 
Recommendation (No. 90). Voluntary 
organizations, both national and interna- 
tional, were urged to advocate equal pay 
in all their activities and to work for equal 
pay legislation and practical application of 
the principle. 

Age of Retirement — Complying with a 
resolution passed at the Commission's 14th 
session (L.G. 1960, p. 594), the ILO under- 
took a global study of the age of retirement 
for women and their rights to pension. In 
its study, the ILO had considered the age of 
retirement in the light of information from 
biologists, public health experts, doctors, 
psychologists and industrial personnel spe- 
cialists. 

To give members time to consider the 
ILO report thoroughly, the Commission 
decided to defer discussion until the 17th 
session. 

Children of Working Mothers — The Com- 
mission considered a report of a seminar 
on creches and day nurseries sponsored by 
the International Children's Centre, Paris 
(L.G., July, p. 829). Differing opinions 
were expressed, depending on the social and 
economic situations of the member coun- 
tries. It was generally agreed, however, 
that "Female employment is a social fact 
against which it is naive and useless to 
protest." 

Members thought: there was need for 
improving the quality of existing institu- 
tions; the financing of creches and day 
nurseries should be from public funds, from 
private capital or funds supplied by non- 
governmental organizations according to the 
economic, social and cultural structure of 
different countries; and the scope of help 
to working mothers should be widened to 
include other aids such as home helps and 
visiting nurses. 

A resolution was passed requesting that 
information on the most important ap- 
proaches and facilities to assist working 
mothers in the care of their children be 
obtained from WHO, the ILO and the Inter- 
national Children's Centre for the 18th 
session of the Commission. 



920 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



Latest Labour Statistics 

(Latest statistics available at August 15, 1962) 



Principal Items 



Date 



Amount 



Percentage Change 
From 



Previous Previous 
Month Year 



Manpower 

Total civilian labour force (a) (000) 

Employed (000) 

Agriculture (000) 

Non-agriculture (000) 

Paid workers (000) 

At work 35 hours or more (000) 

At work less than 35 hours (000) 

Employed but not at work (000) 

Unemployed (000) 

Atlantic (000) 

Quebec (000) 

Ontario (000) 

Prairie (000) 

Pacific (000) 

Without work and seeking work (000) 

On temporary layoff up to 30 days (000) 

Industrial employment (1949 = 100) 

Manufacturing employment (1949 = 100) 

Immigration 

Destined to the labour force 

Strikes and Lockouts 

Strikes and lockouts 

No. of workers involved 

Duration in man-days 

Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries (ind. comp.) . . 

Average hourly earnings (mfg.) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly wages (mfg.) 

Consumer price index (1949 = 100) 

Index numbers of weekly wages in 1949 dollars 

(1949 = 100) 

Total labour income $000,000 

Industrial Production 

Total (average 1949 = 100) 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-durables 



July 
July 
July 
July 
July 

July 
July 
July 

July 
July 
July 
July 
July 
July 

July 
July 
May 
May 

1st 6 Mos. 

1962 
1st 6 Mos. 

1962 



July 
July 
July 



May 
May 
May 
May 
July 

May 

May 



June 
June 
June 
June 



6,877 
6,569 
746 
5,823 
5,359 

5,141 
580 

848 



46 
109 
94 
26 
33 

292 

16 

121.0 

113.4 



34,061 
17,214 



47 

16,775 

133,650 



$ 80.76 

$ 1.89 

41.0 

$ 77.50 

131.0 



142.3 
1,674 



194.9 
176.0 
178.5 
173.9 



+ 1.9 

+ 1.8 

+ 8.6 

+ 1.0 

+ 1.1 

- 8.0 

- 13.7 
+ 341.7 



2.3 
2.2 
3.8 
2.2 
0.0 
0.0 



+ 0.7 

+ 45.5 

+ 3.7 

+ 2.7 



11.3 
15.3 

48.7 



+ 



0.7 

0.0 

+ 1.0 

+ 1.3 

+ 0.4 



1.0 
3.4 



+ 3.5 

+ 4.6 

+ 4.5 

+ 5.0 



2.0 
2.8 
5.8 
4.0 
4.5 

3.4 
5.6 
2.3 

13.0 
7.0 
10.7 
16.1 
29.7 
17.5 

12.3 

23.8 

3.2 

4.6 



7.4 
6.9 



14.6 
90.1 
41.3 



3.5 
2.7 
1.2 
4.1 
1.6 

2.9 
7.1 



+ 8.8 

+ 9.2 

+ 12.8 

+ 6.1 



(a) Distribution of these figures between male and female workers can be obtained from Labour 
Force, a monthly publication of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. These figures are the result of a 
monthly survey conducted by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics for the purpose of providing esti- 
mates of the employment characteristics of the civilian non-institutional population of working age. 
(More than 35,000 households chosen by area sampling methods in approximately 170 different areas 
in Canada are visited each month.) The civilian labour force is that portion of the civilian non-institu- 
tional population 14 years of age and over that was employed or unemployed during the survey week. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



921 



Employment Review 



Employment and Unemployment, July 



Employment rose by 118,000 between 
June and July. The increase was somewhat 
larger than usual for the month in the 
non-farm sector of the economy; there 
was also an increase in farm employment 
but it was much less than seasonal. 

Employment in July totalled 6,569,000, 
which was 180,000 higher than in July last 
year. 

Unemployment remained virtually un- 
changed during the month. It totalled 308,- 
000, compared with 301,000 in June. The 
July unemployment total was 46,000 lower 
than a year earlier. 

The unemployment total in July was 
4.5 per cent of the labour force, compared 
with 5.2 per cent a year earlier. 

The estimated labour force in July was 
6,877,000, an increase of 134,000, or 2.0 
per cent, from a year earlier. 

The increase during the month in the 
total labour force and in the number 
employed was accounted for almost entirely 
by a further influx of students into the 
labour market. An estimated 173,000 teen- 
agers were added to the labour force, most 
of whom found work. This addition was 
partly offset by the seasonable withdrawal 
of a significant number of married women 
from the labour force. 

Employment 

Seasonal requirements of agriculture were 
somewhat smaller than in previous years, 
but nevertheless accounted for half of the 
net increase in employment from June to 
July. 

The advance in non-agricultural employ- 
ment stemmed mainly from increased activ- 
ity in construction, transportation, and 
trade. Employment in the service industry 
showed little change during the month, 
whereas it normally registers a sizable 
decline. 



Manufacturing employment was at about 
the same level as in June. It was seasonally 
retarded by layoffs for model changeover 
in the automobile industry. But virtually all 
other manufacturing industries were con- 
siderably busier than at this time last year. 

Employment in July was 2.8 per cent 
higher than in July 1961. Non-farm employ- 
ment was 4.0 per cent higher. The main 
increases were 84,000 in service and 71,000 
in manufacturing. Smaller gains took place 
in construction, transportation, and mining. 

Seasonal labour requirements in agricul- 
ture were much lower than usual in July, 
particularly in Ontario. Compared with a 
year ago, farm employment was lower in 
the Atlantic, Quebec and Ontario regions; 
there was little change in the western 
regions. 

Non-farm employment was substantially 
higher in all regions than a year earlier. 
Gains ranged from about 3 per cent in the 
Atlantic region to better than 5 per cent in 
Quebec. 

Unemployment 

Between June and July, the number of 
unemployed showed no appreciable change. 
In comparison, the change in unemployment 
between June and July over the past five 
years has varied from an increase of 15,000 
to a decrease of 29,000. Virtually all of the 
46,000 year-to-year drop in unemployment 
was among unemployed men, and all of the 
decrease was among those 20 years of age 
and over. 

About two thirds of those unemployed 
in July had been out of work for three 
months or less. Another 12 per cent had 
been unemployed for four to six months, 
and 20 per cent for more than six months. 
Long-term unemployment was substantially 
lower than last year. 



LABOUR MARKET CONDITIONS 





Labour Surplus 


Approximate Balance 


Labour Market Areas 


1 


2 


3 




July 
1962 


July 

ir,6i 


July 
1962 


July 
1961 


July 

1962 


July 
1961 




1 

2 


l 


3 
16 

3 
18 


7 

19 

1 

24 


8 

8 

11 

40 


4 




6 




13 




34 






Total 


3 


2 


40 


51 


67 


57 







922 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS-JULY 





SUBSTANTIAL 


MODERATE 


APPROXIMATE 


LABOUR 


— 


LABOUR SURPLUS 


LABOUR SURPLUS 


BALANCE 


SHORTAGE 




Group 1 


Group 2 


Group 3 


Group 4 




WINDSOR- < — 


Quebec-Levis 


->CALGARY 






LEAMINGTON 


St. John's 


— ^EDMONTON 




METROPOLITAN AREAS 




Vancouver- 
New Westminster 


Halifax 
Hamilton 




(labour force 75,000 or more) 






— ^MONTREAL 
Ottawa-Hull 
Toronto 
Winnipeg 






Lac St. Jean 


Brantford 


— »-FT. WILLIAM- 






OSHAWA -< 


Corner Brook 

Cornwall 

Farnham-Granby 

Joliette 

Kingston 

Moncton 


PT. ARTHUR 
Guelph 
Kitchener 
London 




MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 




— >SARNIA 
Sudbury 
— KTIMMINS- 




(labour force 25.000-75,000; 60 




New Glasgow 




per cent or more in non- 




Niagara Peninsula 


KIRKLAND LAKE 




agricultural activity) 




Peterborough 
Rouyn-Val d'Or 
Saint John 
Shawinigan 
Sherbrooke 
Sydney _ 
Trois Rivieres 


— ^VICTORIA 
















Chatham 


— >-BARRIE 








Riviere du Loup 


Brandon 








Thetford-Megantic- 


Charlottetown 




MAJORAGRICULTURAL 
AREAS 




Ville St. Georges 


Lethbridge 
Moose Jaw 
North Battleford 




(labour force 25.000-75.000: 40 






Prince Albert 




per cent or more agricultural) 






Red Deer 
Regina 
— ^-SASKATOON 
Yorkton 








Beauharnois 


— >SAULT STE. MARIE 








Campbellton 


— >-BATHURST 








CENTRAL -< — 


— >-BELLEVILLE-TRENTON 








VANCOUVER ISLAND 


— >-BRACEBRIDGE 








Dawson Creek 


Brampton 








Drummondville 


Bridgewater 








Edmundston 


— >-CHILLIWACK 








Fredericton 


— >-CRANBROOK 








Gaspe 


Dauphin 








Lindsay 


Drumheller 








Newcastle 


Gait 








Okanagan Valley 


Goderich 








Prince George- 


Grand Falls 








Quesnel 


>-KAMLOOPS 








Ouebec North Shore 


Kentville 








— H*IMOUSKI 


Kitimat 








Ste. Agathe- 
St. Jerome 
St. Jean 


Lachute-Ste. Therese 




MINOR AREAS 




Listowel 
Medicine Hat 




(labour force 10.000-25.000) 




Summerside 
Valleyfield 


— >-MONTMAGNY 

North Bay 

Owen Sound 

Pembroke 

Portage la Prairie 

Prince Rupert 

St. Hyacinthe 
— >-ST. STEPHEN 

St. Thomas 

Simcoe 

Sorel 

Stratford 

Swift Current 

Trail-Nelson 

Truro 

Victoriaville 

Walkerton 

Weyburn 

Woodstock. N.B. 

Woodstock-Tillsonburg 

Yarmouth 





>The areas shown in capital letters are those that have been reclassified during the month; an arrow indicate* the group from which they 

moved. For an explanation of the classification system used, see page 642. June issue. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



923 



COLLECTIVE BARGAINING REVIEW 



Major Settlements in 1962 

During the first six months of 1962, more than 120 settlements applying 
to bargaining units of 500 or more employees were negotiated in industries 
outside the construction sector. Agreements of one year's duration were con- 
cluded in 32 per cent of the settlements, and two-year contracts accounted for 40 
per cent of the new major agreements. Approximately one quarter of all settle- 
ments were for a period of three years. 

Wage increases amounting to Hi cents 
an hour were the pattern in the meat pack- 
ing industry where Burns and Company, 
Canada Packers and Swift Canadian Com- 
pany negotiated four agreements covering 
a total of 11,400 employees. 

Among the major agreements granting an 
increase of 13 cents an hour over two years 
were three contracts covering 7,600 textile 
workers of Dominion Textile Company 
and Montreal Cottons Limited. 

Most of the major three-year settlements 
of the first half of 1962 were concluded 
in the mining and manufacturing industries. 
In the asbestos, copper, iron and uranium 
mining sectors, six major agreements, cover- 
ing 4,500 employees, were negotiated; they 
provided for wage increases in the range of 
10 to 20 cents an hour. 

In manufacturing, three-year agreements 
were negotiated by some of the largest 
steel, farm implements and automobile 
companies. The Steel Company of Canada 
agreed to increase base rates by 10 cents 
an hour during the life of three contracts 
applying to approximately 10,280 workers. 
In the agricultural machinery industry, 
International Harvester signed an agreement 
that granted a total base-rate increase of 
13 cents an hour, and Massey-Ferguson 
concluded a contract increasing base rates 
by 18 cents an hour over a three-year 
period. 

By April 1962, the three largest automo- 
bile manufacturers had signed new three- 
year contracts. Early in the year, Ford 
Motor Company of Canada signed two 
agreements providing for base-rate increases 
of 18 cents an hour. The wages of Chrysler 
Corporation employees were increased by 
17 cents an hour over the term of a 
contract concluded in April. At General 
Motors, a three-year settlement had been 
reached toward the end of 1961. 



More than half of the one-year settlements 
provided for base rate increases of 4 or 5 
cents an hour, with the latter wage increase 
being the more common. 

In the manufacturing sector a wage 
increase of 4 cents an hour was agreed to 
in the contracts of a sugar refining com- 
pany, a confectionery manufacturer and 
two pulp and paper firms. Five-cent-an-hour 
increases were granted by five pulp and 
paper companies — Abitibi Power and Paper, 
Great Lakes Paper, Ontario Paper, Ontario- 
Minnesota Paper and Provincial Paper — and 
by Dunlop Canada Limited, Firestone Tire 
and Rubber Company, B. F. Goodrich 
Rubber Company and Goodyear Tire and 
Rubber Company in the rubber industry. 

In two other one-year settlements nego- 
tiated by MacMillan, Bloedel and other 
pulp and paper companies in British Colum- 
bia, the base rates were increased by 7 
cents an hour. Four one-year agreements in 
the manufacturing sector provided for no 
wage increases but made improvements in 
such areas as paid holidays, vacations, pen- 
sion benefits, and company contributions to 
welfare plans. 

In the service sector, eight major agree- 
ments were signed for a term of one year. 
Six of these increased the base rates of 
employees in municipal and provincial 
governments, hospitals and restaurants by 4 
or 5 cents an hour. 

Of the major two-year settlements nego- 
tiated in the first six months of 1962, close 
to one half increased base rates by 10 to 
13 cents an hour. Among the two-year 
agreements providing for a total wage 
increase of 10 cents an hour were contracts 
signed by Consolidated Paper, Spruce Falls 
Power and Paper Company and Kimberley- 
Clark Limited, Aluminum Company of 
Canada and Consolidated Mining and 
Smelting Company of Canada. 



This review is prepared by the Collective Bargaining Section, Labour-Manage- 
ment Division, of the Economics and Research Branch. 



924 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST J962 



WAGE SETTLEMENTS DURING THE FIRST HALF OF 1962, BY INDUSTRY 

Collective agreements covering 500 or more employees concluded between January 1 and June 30, 1962, excluding 
agreements in the construction industry and agreements with wage terms in piece or mileage rates only. 



Industry and 

Total Wage 

Increase in Cents 

per Hour* 


Term of Agreement in Months 


Under 15 


15-20 


21-26 


27-32 


33 and over 


Agts. 


Empls. 


Agts. 


Empls. 


Agts. 


Empls. 


Agts. 


Empls. 


Agts. ' 


Empls. 


Forestry 

71 


1 


900 
500 


















M 


















16(1 






1 
1 

1 


27,000 
6,000 

1,200 










2H 


















Mining 


















10fi 














1 
2 

1 
1 
1 


600 


12fi 


















1,100 


15^ 


















600 


18j« 


















1,700 


20 1 


















500 


Manufacturing 


4 
2 
4 
9 


2,600 
9,500 
2,250 
11,740 
















H 


















a 


















M 






1 
1 
3 


730 

800 

2,100 










M 










1 


800 


H 


2 


6,300 












H 










2 


2,150 


Qi 














1 


600 




104 










8 
1 
6 
4 
1 
1 
1 


12,900 
1,900 

12,750 

8,250 

1,300 

900 

1,500 


4 


10,780 


Hi 
















12£ 


















13fi 










1 
1 


2,500 
1,000 


1 
1 

2 
4 

1 


2,000 


15fi 










750 


17^ 










3,980 


18«f 














12,250 


26^ 














600 












1 


3,500 
1,300 








32(f 


















39^ 














1 
1 


1,500 


424 


















1,000 


Transportation, 
Storage and 
Communication 
0)f 


1 

1 
1 
1 


1,200 

980 

1,380 

1,150 
















2^ 


















H 


















H 


















it 






2 


2,130 










H 














124 














1 


650 


\"\t 






1 


530 








154 














1 
1 


1,200 


184 










1 


1,000 






730 


Public Utility 
Operations 






1 


730 








244 














1 


700 












1 


900 








Trade 
44 


1 


1,000 




















1 

2 


700 
2,180 




























17/ 














1 


2,400 
















1 


540 




Service 
34 


1 

1 


3,900 
600 














44 














1 


1,266 


Be 






















1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 


750 
1,200 
2,500 

550 
1,050 
3,400 
1,000 
































































































40(5 


















Total 




50,050 


1 


730 


49 


100,020 


4 


4,640 


30 


47,190 



* Wage increases shown relate to base rates only. Fractions of a cent are rounded to nearest cent. Data on employees 
covered are approximate and include all employees covered by the settlement. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



925 



Collective Bargaining Scene 

Agreements covering 500 or more employees, 
excluding those in the construction industry 

Part I— Agreements Expiring During August, September and October 

(except those under negotiation in July) 

Company and Location Union 

Alta. Govt. Telephones I.B.E.W. (AFL-CIO/CLC) (plant empl.) 

Bata Shoe, Batawa, Ont Boot & Shoe Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Christie, Brown, Toronto, Ont Bakery Wkrs. (CLC) 

Continental Can, Chatham, Toronto, Ont. & 

Vancouver, B.C Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

DeHavilland Aircraft, Toronto, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) (clerical empl.) 

Dom. Bridge, Lachine & Longue Pointe, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Steel & Coal (Cdn. Bridge), Walkerville, 

Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dryden Paper, Dryden, Ont Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Duplate Canada, Oshawa, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

General Steel Wares & Easy Washing Machine, 

London, Toronto, Ont. & Montreal, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Great Lakes Paper, Fort William, Ont Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Great Western Garment, Edmonton, Alta United Garment Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Iron Ore of Can., Schefferville, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

K.V.P. Company, Espanola, Ont Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 
Kimberley-Clark & Spruce Falls Paper, Kapus- Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 

kasing & Longlac, Ont CIO/CLC) 

Marathon Corp., Port Arthur, Ont Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Maritime Tel. & Tel., company-wide I.B.E.W. (AFL-CIO/CLC) (traffic empl.) 

Northern Electric (western region), Toronto, Communication Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) (shop, 

Ont warehouse & installation empl.) 

Northern Forest Products, Port Arthur, Ont Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Outboard Marine, Peterborough, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

St. Lawrence Corp., East Angus, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

St. Lawrence Corp., Nipigon, Ont Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Sask. Government Sask. Civil Service (Ind.) (classified services) 

Sask. Govt. Telephone Communications Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Shell Oil, Montreal East, Que Empl. Council (Ind.) 

Toronto Star, Toronto, Ont Newspaper Guild (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Part II— Negotiations in Progress During July 

Bargaining 

Company and Location Union 

Abitibi Power & Paper, Northern Ontario Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Asbestos Corp. & others, Thetford Mines, Que. Mining Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

B.C. Hydro & Power Authority Street Railway Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Breweries (various), Winnipeg, Man Brewery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Canadair, St. Laurent, Que Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Can. & Dom. Sugar, Montreal, Que Bakery Wkrs. (CLC) 

Cdn. Acme Screw & Gear, Monroe Acme & 

Gait Machine, Toronto, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Car, Fort William, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. National Nfid. Steamship Service (CNR) Railway, Transport & General Wkrs. (CLC) 
Clothing Mfrs. Assn., Farnham, Quebec & Vic- 

toriaville, Que Clothing Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Consolidated Paper, Les Escoumins, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Consolidated Paper, Port Alfred, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Consolidated Paper, Ste-Anne de Portneuf, Que. Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Consumers' Gas, Ont Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Consumers Glass, Ville St. Pierre, Que Glass Bottle Blowers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Courtaulds Canada, Cornwall, Ont , Textile Wkrs. Union (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

David & Frere, Montreal, Que Empl. Assn. (Ind.) 

Dominion Glass, Montreal, Que Glass & Ceramic Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dow Brewery, Montreal & Quebec, Que Brewery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

DuPont of Can., Maitland, Ont Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Eastern Can. Stevedoring, Halifax, N.S Railway Clerks (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Edmonton City, Alta Public Empl. (CLC) (clerical empl.) 

Glove Mfrs. Assn., Loretteville, Montreal, St. . ^ ttx 

Raymond & St. Tite, Que Clothing Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

926 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



Company and Location Union 

Hotel Chateau Frontenac, (CPR), Quebec, Que. Railway, Transport & General Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotel Chateau Laurier, (CNR), Ottawa, Ont Railway, Transport & General Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotel Empress, (CPR), Victoria, B.C Railway, Transport & General Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotel Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C Railway, Transport & General Wkrs. (CLC) 

Hotels & taverns (various), Toronto, Ont Hotel EmpL (AFL-CIO/CLC) (beverage dis- 
pensers) 

International Harvester, Chatham, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Men's Clothing Mfrs. Assn., Toronto, Ont Amalgamated Clothing Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

John Murdock, St. Raymond, Que Bush Wkrs., Farmers' Union (Ind.) 

National Harbours Board, Montreal, Que Railway Clerks (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

New Brunswick Telephone I.B.E.W., (AFL-CIO/CLC) (traffic empl.) 

Ottawa City, Ont Public Empl. (CLC) 

Price Bros., Kenogami & Riverbend, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Que. North Shore Paper, Baie Comeau, Que Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) & Pulp & 

Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 
St. Raymond Paper, Desbiens & St. Raymond, 

Que Bush Wkrs., Farmers' Union (Ind.) 

Sask. Power Corp Oil Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Sask. Wheat Pool (Country Elevator Div.), Sask. Sask. Wheat Pool Empl. (CLC) (operating 

empl.) 

Sask. Wheat Pool (Elevator Div.), Ont., Man., Sask. Wheat Pool Empl. (CLC) (office & 

Sask. & B.C salaried empl.) 

TCA, Canada-wide Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

University of Sask., Saskatoon, Sask CLC-chartered local 

Conciliation Officer 

B.C. Shipping Federation, various ports Longshoremen & Warehousemen (CLC) 

Bldg. mtce. & window cleaning contractors, 

Vancouver, B.C Bldg. Service Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Can. Iron Foundries, Three Rivers, Que Moulders (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Can. Wire & Cable, Leaside, Ont U.E. (Ind.) 

Cdn. Celanese, Sorel, Que Textile Wkrs. Union (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dairies (various), Vancouver & New West- 
minster, B.C Teamsters (Ind.) 

DuPont of Can., Kingston, Ont Mine Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Howard Smith Paper, Cornwall, Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) & Pulp & 

Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

International Nickel, Port Colborne, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Interior Forest Labour Relations Assn., Southern 

B.C Woodworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

K.V.P. Company, Espanola, Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC), Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & I.B.E.W. 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Motor Trans. Ind. Relations Bureau, (north, 

general freight), Ont Teamsters (Ind.) 

Price Bros., Dolbeau, Kenogami & Shipshaw, 

Que Bush Wkrs., Farmers' Union (Ind.) 

Conciliation Board 

Acme, Borden's & other dairies, Toronto, Ont Teamsters (Ind.) 

C.N.R., C.P.R. & other railways, system-wide .... 15 unions (non-operating empl.) 

C.P.R., system-wide Trainmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dominion Glass, Hamilton, Ont Glass & Ceramic Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Rubber (Tire Div.), Kitchener, Ont Rubber Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Structural Steel, Montreal, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

John Inglis, Toronto, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Okanagan Shippers' Assn., Okanagan Valley, 

B.C CLC-chartered local 

Phillips Electrical, Brockville, Ont I.U.E. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Power Super Markets, Hamilton, Oshawa & 

Toronto, Ont Butcher Workmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Que. Iron & Titanium, Sorel, Que Metal Trades Federation (CNTU) 

Safeway, Shop-Easy & others, Victoria, Van- 
couver & New Westminster, B.C Butcher Workmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Steep Rock Mines, Steep Rock Lake, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Toronto Metro. Municipality, Ont Public Empl. (CLC) (inside empl.) 

Post-Conciliation Bargaining 

Brewers' Warehousing, province-wide, Ont Brewery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Building material suppliers, Vancouver & Fraser 

Valley, B.C Teamsters (Ind.) 

Fisheries Assn. & Cold Storage Cos., B.C United Fishermen (Ind.) & Native Brotherhood 

(Ind.) (shore wkrs.) 

Fisheries Assn., B.C United Fishermen (Ind.) (tendermen) 

Garment Mfrs. Assn., Winnipeg, Man Amalgamated Clothing Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Noranda Mines, Noranda, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Normetal Mining, Normetal, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Quemont Mining, Noranda, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Shawinigan Chemicals, Shawinigan, Que CNTU-chartered local 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 927 



Arbitration 

Company and Location Union 

Assn. Patronale des Services Hospitaliers, (5 

hospitals), Drummondville & other points, Que. Service Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

Associated Clothing Mfrs., Montreal, Que Amalgamated Clothing Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Hospitals (11), Montreal & district, Que Service Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Que Service Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

Ottawa Civic Hospital, Ottawa, Ont Public Empl. (CLC) 

Quebec City, Que Municipal & School Empl. Federation (Ind.) 

(inside empl.) 
Quebec City, Que Municipal & School Empl. Federation (Ind.) 

(outside empl.) 

Work Stoppage 

Dom. Engineering Works, Lachine, Que Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Part III— Settlements Reached During July 1962 

(A summary of major terms on the basis of information immediately available. Figures on 
the number of employees covered are approximate.) 

American Motors, Brampton, Ont. — Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 3-yr. agreement 
covering 750 empl. — wage increases of 60 an hr. eff. July 1, 1962, 1963 and 1964; 80 of cost-of- 
living allowance incorporated into wage rates; 20 of 1962 wage increase and 10 of cost-of-living 
allowance applied to welfare cost; evening and night shift premiums increased to 120 and 180 
respectively (formerly 100); 3 wks. vacation after 15 yrs. of service (previously no provision); 
group life insurance increased to $5,000 (formerly $2,500); weekly sickness and accident indem- 
nity increased to $45 (formerly $35); fully-paid medical and hospital plan (company paid 50% 
previously); S.U.B. plan established; pension plan to be negotiated in third yr. of agreement; 
labour rate after July 1, 1964 will be $2.23 an hr. 

Assn. des Marchands Detaillants (Produits Alimentaires), Quebec, Que. — Commerce 
Empl. Federation (CNTU) : 2-yr. agreement covering 1,500 empl. — wage increases to casual 
empl. 

Bathurst Power & Paper, Bathurst, N.B.— Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC), Pulp & 
Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others: 1-yr. agreement covering 800 empl. — wage 
increase of 20 an hr. eff. July 1, 1962; evening and night shift premiums increased to 70 and 100 
(formerly 50 and 80) respectively; sick leave increased to 2 wks. (formerly 1 wk.); any or all 
production units may operate for 7 days a wk. for a maximum of 26 wks. per ^ contract yr. 
(regular operations are 6 days a wk. with 24-hr. shutdown on Sunday); labourer's rate is $2 
an hr. 

B.C. Hotels Assn., Vancouver, B.C. — Hotel Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 2-yr. agreement 
covering 500 empl. — eff. May 1, 1962, wage increases of 60 an hr. at Class A hotels, 40 an hr. 
at Class B hotels and of 20 an hr. at Class C hotels; eff. Nov. 1, 1962 and May 1, 1963, wage 
increases of 40 an hr. at Class A hotels, 20 an hr. at Class B hotels and 20 an hr. at Class C 
hotels; 3 wks. vacation after 5 yrs. of service (formerly after 8 yrs.). 

B.C. Telephone & subsidiaries — B.C. Telephone Wkrs. (Ind.): 2-yr. agreement covering 
5,180 empl. — wage increase of 3% eff. April 1, 1962 for plant and clerical empl. and of li% 
eff. April 1, 1963 for traffic empl.; weekly hrs. of work for traffic empl. reduced to 35 (formerly 
37i); plant and clerical empl. will continue to work 40 hrs. and 37i hrs. a wk. respectively; 
3 wks. vacation after 6 yrs. of service (formerly after 7 yrs.) for traffic and clerical empl. and 
3 wks. vacation after 7 yrs. of service (formerly after 8 yrs.) for plant empl.; 4 wks. vacation 
after 20 yrs. of service (formerly after 25 yrs.); lineman's rate will be $12.06 a day, Vancouver 
operator's rate will be $8.53 a day and typist's rate will be $9.54 a day. 

Cascapedia Mfg. & Trading, Gaspe Peninsula, Que. — Bush Wkrs., Farmers' Union (Ind.) : 
1-yr. agreement covering 800 empl. — wage increase of 50 per cord raising the minimum to $6.05 
per cord; vacation credit increased to 2i% of gross wages after 85 days of service; compulsory 
union membership after 30 days of service (formerly after 35 days). 

Cloak Mfrs. Assn., Toronto, Ont. — Ladies Garment Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 2-yr. 
agreement covering 1,400 empl. — wage increase of 7% eff. July 1, 1962; 6 paid holidays eff. July 1, 
1963 (formerly 5); cutter's and presser's rate is $2.20 an hr. 

DeHavilland Aircraft, Toronto, Ont. — Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 3-yr. agreement 
covering 1,900 empl. — wage increases of 60 an hr. eff. June 23, 1962, June 22, 1963 and June 20, 
1964; additional wage increase of 40 an-hr. for skilled trades eff. June 23, 1962; cost-of-living 
allowance formula (10 for each .6 point change in Consumer Price Index) continued, with 30 
of existing bonus incorporated into wage rates and 20 applied to welfare cost; half-holiday with 
pay the day before Christmas; 3 wks. vacation after 12 yrs. of service (formerly after 15 yrs.); 
weekly sickness and accident benefit increased to $55 (formerly $45) for 26 wks. and waiting 
period reduced from 7 to 5 days; pension benefits increased to $2.40 a mo. per yr. of service 
(formerly $2) eff. Feb. 1, 1962 and to $2.80 a mo. per yr. of service eff. Feb. 1, 1964; S.U.B. 
to be established together with short work week benefit; union shop (formerly Rand formula); 
labour rate after June 20, 1964 will be $1.98 an hr. 

928 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



Eastern Can. Newsprint Group, Que. & N.S. — Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC), Pulp & 
Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others: 1-yr. agreement covering 5,000 empl.— wage 
increase of 50 an hr. retroactive to May 1, 1962; evening and night shift premiums increased to 70 
and 10^ (formerly 60 and 90) respectively; 4 wks. vacation after 23 yrs. of service (formerly 
after 25 yrs.); companies will contribute an additional 500 a mo. per married employee toward 
the cost of welfare plans eff. May 1, 1962; labourer's rate is $2.03 an hr. 

E. B. Eddy, Hull, Que.— Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC), Pulp & Paper Mill Wkrs. 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) & others: 1-yr. agreement covering 1,750 empl. — general wage increase of 50 
an hr. retroactive to May 1, 1962; evening and night shift premiums increased to 60 and 110 
(formerly 50 and 100) respectively; company contribution to welfare plan increased by 500 a mo. 
per employee with dependents; labourer's rate is $1.90 an hr. 

Food stores (various), Vancouver, Victoria & New Westminster, B.C. — Retail Clerks 
(AFL-CIO/CLC): 2-yr. agreement covering 3,000 empl. — wage increases of 50 an hr. eff. April 
23, 1962, Nov. 5, 1962 and April 22, 1963; 4 wks. vacation after 20 yrs. of service (no previous 
provision); after April 22, 1963, male food clerk's rate will be $1.60 an hr. and female food 
clerk's rate $1.50 an hr. 

Fraser Cos., Atholville, Edmundston & Newcastle, N.B. — Pulp & Paper Mill Wkrs. 
(AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. agreement covering 1,100 empl. — wage increase of 80 an hr.; evening 
and night shift premiums increased to 70 and 100 (formerly 50 and 80) respectively; sick leave 
increased to 2 wks. (formerly 1 wk.); employer contribution to Blue Cross increased to $3.10 a 
mo. (formerly $2.15); base rate is $1.98 an hr. 

Gaspesia woods contractors, Chandler, Que. — Bush Wkrs., Farmers' Union (Ind.): 
1-yr. agreement covering 500 empl. — wage increase of 50 per cord raising the minimum to $6.05 
per cord; vacation bonus increased to 2i% of gross wages after 75 days of service; compulsory 
union membership after 30 days of service (formerly after 35 days). 

Hotel Dieu St. Valuer, Chicoutimi, Que. — Service Empl. Federation (CNTU) : 2-yr. 
agreement covering 600 empl. — minimum salary increase of $8 a wk. retroactive to July 1, 1961 
for male empl. and minimum salary increase of $6 a wk. retroactive to July 1, 1961 for female 
empl.; weekly hrs. of work reduced to 40 eff. July 1, 1962 (previously 44); 4 wks. vacation 
after 20 yrs. of service (previously no provision); Rand formula supersedes voluntary check-off. 

Kingsway Transport, Smith Transport & others, Montreal, Que. & other centres — 
Teamsters (Ind.): 4-yr. agreement covering 1,500 empl. — wage increases of 90 an hr. eff. July 1, 

1962, 90 an hr. eff. Aug. 1, 1963, and 80 an hr. eff. Sept. 1, 1964 for employees based in Montreal; 
wage increases of 100 an hr. eff. July 1, 1962, 110 an hr. eff. Aug. 1, 1963; and 90 an hr. eff. 
Sept. 1, 1964 for employees in the branches; mileage rates (formerly 6.750 a mile) increased 
to 6.950 eff. July 1, 1962, to 7.150 eff. Aug. 1, 1963 and to 7.250 eff. Sept. 1, 1964; weekly hrs. of 
work maintained at 50 by Kingsway Transport and Smith Transport and reduced from 55 to 50 
by other companies; Kingsway Transport and Smith Transport vacation provisions extended to 
other companies: 1 wk. after 1 yr. of service, 2 wks. after 2 yrs., 3 wks. after 10 yrs.; companies' 
contributions to social security plan (life insurance, weekly indemnity, medical and surgical 
coverage) increased to $7 a mo. per employee (formerly $5); job protection for highway drivers 
when piggyback service is used; helper's rate will be $1.51 an hr. and chauffeur's (semi-trailer) rate 
will be $1.86 an hr. after Sept. 1, 1964. 

Lake Asbestos of Que., Black Lake, Que. — Mining Empl. Federation (CNTU): 3-yr. 
agreement covering 500 empl. — wage increases of 3£% retroactive to Jan. 1, 1962, 2i% eff. 
Jan. I, 1963 and 3% eff. Jan. 1, 1964; evening and night shift premiums (formerly 50 and 80 
respectively) increased to 60 and 100 in 1962, to 70 and 110 in 1963 and to 80 and 120 in 
1964; bereavement leave provision introduced. 

Motor Trans. Ind. Relations Bureau, Ont. — Teamsters (Ind.) (drivers, dockmen, 
warehousemen & checkers) : 4-yr. agreement covering 7,000 empl. — settlement pay of $80, 
prorated for employees hired after Sept. 30, 1961; wage increases of 50 an hr. eff. July 7, 1962 
(40 an hr. for dockmen and checkers eff. June 1, 1962), 40 an hr. eff. Mar. 1, 1963, 50 an hr. eff. 
Dec. 1, 1963, 60 an hr. eff. Sept. 1, 1964 plus 20 an hr. for drivers, warehousemen and checkers 
eff. June 1, 1965; increases in mileage rates; hotel allowance increased from $2.50 to $3.50 a 
night; employer contributions toward a pension fund of $3 a mo. from July 7, 1962 to May 30, 

1963, of $4 a mo. from June 1, 1963 to May 30, 1964, $5 a mo. from June 1, 1964 to May 30, 
1965 provided that employees contribute equal amounts; job protection for employees with 3 or 
more yrs. seniority when piggyback service is used. 

Motor Trans. Ind. Relations Bureau, Ont. — Teamsters (Ind.) (maintenance empl.): 
44-mo. agreement covering 1,000 empl. — wage increases for skilled mechanics of 60 an hr. eff. 
June 1, 1962, 50 an hr. eff. Mar. 1, 1963, 60 an hr. eff. Dec. 1, 1963 and 70 an hr. eff. Sept. 1, 
1964; other terms along the lines of settlement listed above. 

North. Interior Lumbermen's Assn., B.C. — Woodworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) : 2-yr. agree- 
ment covering 1,500 empl. — wage increases of 60 an hr. eff. Sept. 1, 1962 and 40 an hr. eff. 
Sept. 1, 1963; labourer's rate after Sept. 1, 1963 will be $1.89 an hr. 

Ontario Hydro, company-wide — Public Service Empl. (CLC): 3-yr. agreement covering 
9,000 empl. — arbitration award granting wage increases of 2% retroactive to April 1, 1961, 2\% 
retroactive to April 1, 1962 and 3% eff. April 1, 1963 for hourly rated empl.; increases for 
weekly salaried empl. of 2% retroactive to April 1, 1961, 2% retroactive to April 1, 1962 and 
2±% eff. April 1, 1963; existing escalator clause for hourly rated empl. (3% increase or decrease 
for each 3% change in the consumer price index) extended to cover weekly salaried empl. as 
well. 

Victoria Hospital, London, Ont. — Building Service Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) : 3-yr. agree- 
ment covering 750 empl. — salary increases of 2\% eff. Jan. 1, 1962, 2\% eff. July 1, 1963 and 
3% eff. July 1, 1964; male cleaner's rate after July 1, 1964 will be $261.82 a mo. 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 929 



INTERNATIONAL 
LABOUR ORGANIZATION 



Two Conventions, Two Recommendations 

Adopted by 46th ILO Conference 

Conventions concern equality of treatment of nationals and non-nationals in 
social security, basic aims and standards of social policy. Recommendations 
concern reduction of hours of work, vocational training and technical education 



The 46th Session of the International 
Labour Conference ended in Geneva on June 
28. The session, which had opened on 
June 6, achieved these main results: 

— Adoption of a Convention concerning 
equality of treatment of nationals and non- 
nationals in social security (see text, page 
936). 

— Adoption of a Convention concerning 
basic aims and standards of social policy 
(see text, page 933). The two new Con- 
ventions bring to 118 the number of ILO 
Conventions adopted since the establishment 
of the Organization in 1919. 

— Adoption of a Recommendation con- 
cerning reduction of hours of work. 

— Adoption of a Recommendation con- 
cerning vocational training and of a Reso- 
lution concerning vocational training and 
technical education. The number of ILO 
Recommendations now stands at 117. 

— Adoption of conclusions to serve as 
the basis for a Convention and for a sup- 
plementary Recommendation concerning 
the prohibition of the sale, hire and use 
of inadequately guarded machinery. 

— Adoption of conclusions to serve as 
the basis for a Recommendation concern- 
ing termination of employment. 

— Adoption of a Constitutional amend- 
ment to increase the size of the ILO Gov- 
erning Body from 40 to 48 members. 

— Adoption of the ILO budget for 1963. 
The budget calls for a total net expendi- 
ture of $14,006,834. 

In addition, the Conference discussed 
at length the annual Report of David "A. 
Morse, ILO Director-General. Mr. Morse 
addressed the Conference in reply to the 
200 speakers who had taken part in the 
general discussion. (For a report of ad- 
dresses given by Canadian delegates dur- 
ing the discussion, see L.G., July, p. 830). 



The session was attended by more than 
1,000 delegates, technical advisers and ob- 
servers from 92 member countries and 7 
territories. The United Nations, its special- 
ized agencies, other official international 
organizations and non-governmental inter- 
national organizations also were repre- 
sented by observers. 

John Lynch, Irish Minister for Industry 
and Commerce, was elected President of the 
Conference. 

Convention Concerning Equality of Treatment 

The Conference adopted, by a vote of 
259 to 1 with 50 abstentions, a Conven- 
tion concerning equality of treatment of 
nationals and non-nationals in social 
security. 

The Convention provides that a member 
country having ratified it shall grant within 
its territory to the nationals of any other 
member country which also has ratified 
it, equality of treatment with its own na- 
tionals under its social security legislation. 
Equality of treatment is to apply both as 
regards coverage and as regards the right to 
benefits and in respect of every branch of 
social security for which the country con- 
cerned has accepted the obligations of the 
Convention. 

Member countries may accept the obli- 
gations of the Convention in respect of 
any one or more of the following branches 
of social security: medical care, sickness 
benefit, maternity benefit, invalidity bene- 
fit, old-age benefit, survivors' benefit, em- 
ployment injury benefit, unemployment 
benfit, and family benefit. 

The Convention states that equality of 
treatment as regards the grant of benefits 
shall be accorded without any condition 
of residence, except for a specified time in 
certain cases. 



930 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



In addition, the Convention lays down a 
conditional obligation to pay old-age pen- 
sions, invalidity and survivors' benefits and 
death grants to beneficiaries resident abroad. 
The provisions of the Convention apply to 
refugees and stateless persons without any 
condition of reciprocity. 

The Conference also had before it a 
draft Recommendation the purpose of which 
was to supplement the Convention. The 
Recommendation was not adopted, however, 
for want of a quorum when the final record 
vote was taken. 

Convention Concerning Aims of Social Policy 

The Conference adopted a Convention 
concerning basic aims and standards of 
social policy. The vote was 294 to with 
15 abstentions. The new instrument is a 
revision of the Social Policy Convention, 
1947 (No. 82), and its main purpose is 
to make ratification or application possible 
for independent States. 

The new Convention reiterates certain 
principles contained in the 1947 Conven- 
tion, and raffirms these general principles: 

1. All policies shall be primarily directed 
to the well-being and development of the 
population and to the promotion of its de- 
sire for social progress. 

2. All policies of more general applica- 
tion shall be formulated with due regard 
to their effect upon the well-being of the 
population. 

The Convention then reproduces, with 
the necessary changes in wording, the pro- 
visions of the 1947 Convention bearing 
on: improvement of standards of living; 
migrant workers; remuneration of workers 
and related questions; non-discrimination on 
grounds of race, colour, sex, belief, tribal 
association or trade union affiliation; edu- 
cation and training. 

The new Convention contains a final 
provision according to which its coming into 
force is not to involve ipso jure denunci- 
ation of the 1947 Convention by any mem- 
ber for which that Convention continues to 
remain in force, nor is it to close that 
Convention to further ratification. 

Recommendation on Reduction of Hours of Work 

The Conference adopted a Recommen- 
dation concerning reduction of hours of 
work (which may be cited as the Reduction 
of Hours of Work Recommendation, 1962), 
by a vote of 255 to 22, with 46 absten- 
tions. 

This instrument indicates in its preamble 
the 40-hour week as a social standard to 
be reached, by stages if necessary, accord- 
ing to the principle set out in the 40-Hour 



Week Convention, 1935 (No. 47). It also 
states in its preamble that maximum hours 
of work should be set according to the 
Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 
1919 (No. 1), which provides for an 
8-hour day and a 48-hour week. 

One of the general principles contained 
in the new Recommendation is that normal 
hours of work should be progressively re- 
duced, when appropriate, so as to reach 
the social standard indicated in the pre- 
amble without any reduction in the wages 
of the workers as at the time hours of work 
are reduced. 

The Recommendation states further that 
each member country "should formulate 
and pursue a national policy designed to 
promote by methods appropriate to na- 
tional conditions and practice, and to con- 
ditions in each industry, the adoption of 
the principle of the progressive reduction 
of normal hours of work." 

In addition, the new instrument provides 
that "where the duration of the normal 
working week exceeds 48 hours, immediate . 
steps should be taken to bring it down 
to this level without any reduction in the 
wages of the workers as at the time hours 
of work are reduced." 

Recommendation Concerning Vocational Training 

The Conference adopted a Recommen- 
dation concerning vocational training. The 
vote was 320 to with 1 abstention. This 
instrument, to be known also as the Vo- 
cational Training Recommendation, 1962, 
supersedes the Vocational Training Recom- 
mendation, 1939; the Apprenticeship Rec- 
ommendation, 1939; and the Vocational 
Training (Adults) Recommendation, 1950. 

The new Recommendation applies "to 
all training designed to prepare any person 
for initial or later employment or promo- 
tion in any branch of economic activity" 
with the exception of: (1) training for 
management or high-level supervisory posts, 
(2) training for seafarers (covered by a 
1946 Recommendation) and (3) training 
in agriculture (covered by a 1956 Recom- 
mendation). 

The guiding principle postulated at the 
outset is that "training is not an end in 
itself, but a means of developing a per- 
son's occupational capacities, due account 
being taken of the employment opportuni- 
ties, and of enabling him to use his abilities 
to the greatest advantage of himself and 
the community." The text also describes 
training as a "process continuing through- 
out the working life of the individual ac- 
cording to his needs as an individual and 
as a member of the community." 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



931 



It states further that "training should be 
free from any form of discrimination on 
the basis of race, colour, sex, religion, 
political opinion, national extraction or 
social origin." It stresses the need for the 
continuous co-operation of all those con- 
cerned, notably public authorities, educa- 
tional bodies and employers' and workers' 
organizations. 

Resolution Concerning Vocational Training 

The Conference adopted, in addition to 
the Recommendation, a resolution con- 
cerning vocational training and technical 
education. Noting that the ILO and 
UNESCO are co-ordinating their activities 
in these fields and co-operating in the prep- 
aration of comprehensive recommendations 
covering vocational training and technical 
education in the interests of all peoples, the 
resolution expresses the hope that mem- 
ber States and international organizations 
"will take these recommendations fully 
into account in the co-ordination of plan- 
ning and implementation of national pro- 
grams of vocational training, technical ed- 
ucation and technical assistance." 

Preparation of New International Standards 

Two items on the agenda for this 
session — prohibition of the sale, hire and 
use of inadequately guarded machinery 
and termination of employment (dismissal 
and layoff) — were before the Conference 
for first discussion, with a view to the 
elaboration of new international labour 
standards. The conclusions adopted by the 
Conference on these two questions will 
serve as a basis for the preparation, after 
consultation with governments, of draft 
instruments to be submitted for final decis- 
ion to next year's session of the Conference. 

In adopting the report of its committee 
on unguarded machinery, the Conference 
opened the way for the adoption next year 
of a Convention and of a supplementary 
Recommendation to prohibit the sale, hire 
and use of inadequately guarded machinery. 
It is intended that both instruments should 
apply to all branches of economic activity 
and to all machinery, new or second-hand, 
driven by power other than manual power; 
and to all machinery, new or second-hand, 
driven by manual power in so far as it 
presents a risk of injury to the worker. 

The proposed conclusions also state that 
the use of machinery, any dangerous part 
of which is without appropriate guards, 
should be prohibited. They lay down 
further that no person is to use a machine 
if the necessary guards are not in position, 



or is to make such guards inoperative. The 
provisions to be embodied in the contem- 
plated supplementary Recomendation are 
similar to, but more inclusive than, those 
to be embodied in the contemplated Con- 
vention. 

The Report of the committee on termina- 
tion of employment, adopted by the Con- 
ference with the great majority of the 
Employers' group abstaining, contains a 
set of proposed conclusions in the form 
of a draft Recommendation. 

The Conference decided in a separate 
resolution to "place on the agenda of its 
next session the question of termination of 
employment at the initiative of the em- 
ployer for a second discussion with a view 
to the adoption of a Recommendation." 

Other Resolutions 

The Conference adopted a number of 
resolutions relating to matters not included 
in an item on the agenda, as follows: 

— Concerning the activities of the ILO 
in the field of workers' education. 

— Concerning the expansion of the activi- 
ties of the ILO for the advancement of 
social security. 

— Concerning the activities of the ILO 
to contribute to the eradication of the ad- 
verse consequences of colonialism in the 
fields of the conditions of work and stand- 
ards of living of the workers. 

— Concerning the strengthening of re- 
search in the labour field. (This resolution, 
approved unanimously, was sponsored by 
Canada (L.G., July, p. 831).) 

— Concerning the United Nations De- 
velopment Decade. 

— Concerning the promotion of good in- 
dustrial relations, particularly in countries 
in course of development, and consulta- 
tion of employers' and workers' organiza- 
tions. 

Reply of the Director-General 

In his reply to the speakers who had 
taken part in the general discussion, Mr. 
Morse stressed the need for a new aware- 
ness of "interdependence" as a key to 
success in meeting world development 
goals. 

He told the Conference that the elimi- 
nation of poverty and progress toward 
widespread prosperity could be attained 
only if all countries, developing and indus- 
trialized alike, achieved and sustained high 
rates of economic growth. 

Turning to the problems of sustained 
growth in the industrialized countries, Mr. 
Morse expressed the view that here, too, 
the ILO had a useful function to perform. 



932 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



The question of automation and techno- 
logical change had, in fact, been examined 
by the Conference in 1957 and since then 
by ILO committees concerned with specific 
industries. But, he added, the situation is 
no longer what it was five years ago. 

Mr. Morse said he believed the time was 
coming "for the ILO to take a new initi- 
ative in this field, acting as a catalyst to 
national efforts and promoting fuller tech- 
nical co-operation among the countries con- 
cerned". 

Mr. Morse informed the Conference that 
he would devote his Report next year to 
the adequacy of ILO programs and to the 
adjustment of the ILO to a changing world. 
He appealed to the delegates to observe a 
"moratorium on resolutions" so that the 
coming discussion of the whole range of 
ILO activities would not be put out of 
balance by draft resolutions giving special 
prominence to a few aspects only. 



Canadian Participation 

Canadians served on conference com- 
mittees as follows: G. V. Haythorne and 
Lise Gauthier on the standing orders com- 
mittee; John Mainwaring and S. C. H. 
Nutting on the resolutions committee; Edith 
Lorentsen on the committee on the applica- 
tion of conventions and recommendations; 
D. C. Dickson on the committee on voca- 
tional training; J. A. Blais on the committee 
on social security; G. G. Greene on the 
committee on unguarded machinery; G. V. 
Haythorne (Chairman) and R. M. Adams 
on the committee on termination of em- 
ployment; John Mainwaring and Lise Gau- 
thier on the committee on the amendment 
of Article 7 of the constitution; Guy de 
Merlis on the committee on hours of work; 
and John Mainwaring and W. E. Bauer on 
the finance committee of government repre- 
sentatives. 



Text of Convention Concerning Basic Aims and Standards of Social Policy 



The General Conference of the Interna- 
tional Labour Organization, 

Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International La- 
bour Office, and having met in its Forty- 
sixth Session on 6 June 1962, and 

Having decided upon the adoption of certain 
proposals concerning the revision of the 
Social Policy (Non-Metropolitan Terri- 
tories) Convention, 1947, which is the 
tenth item on the agenda of the Session, 
primarily with a view to making its con- 
tinued application and ratification possible 
for independent States, and 

Considering that these proposals must take 
the form of an international Convention, 
and 

Considering that economic development must 
serve as a basis for social progress, and 

Considering that every effort should be 
made, on an international, regional or 
national basis, to secure financial and 
technical assistance safeguarding the in- 
terests of the population, and 

Considering that, in appropriate cases, in- 
ternational, regional or national action 
should be taken with a view to estab- 
lishing conditions of trade which would 
encourage production at a high level of 
efficiency and make possible the main- 
tenance of a reasonable standard of liv- 
ing, and 

Considering that all possible steps should be 
taken by appropriate international, re- 
gional and national measures to promote 
improvement in such fields as public 
health, housing, nutrition, education, the 
welfare of children, the status of women, 
conditions of employment, the remunera- 
tion of wage earners and independent 
producers, the protection of migrant 
workers, social security, standards of 
public services and general production, 
and 
Considering that all possible steps should 
be taken effectively to interest and asso- 
ciate the population in the framing and 
execution of measures of social progress, 



adopts this 22nd day of June of the year 
one thousand nine hundred and sixty-two the 
following Convention, which may be cited 
as the Social Policy (Basic Aims and Stand- 
ards) Convention, 1962: 

Part I. General Principles 
Article J 

1. All policies shall be primarily directed 
to the well-being and development of the 
population and to the promotion of its desire 
for social progress. 

2. All policies of more general application 
shall be formulated with due regard to their 
effect upon the well-being of the population. 

Part II. Improvement of Standards 
of Living 

Article 2 

The improvement of standards of living 
shall be regarded as the principal objective 
in the planning of economic development. 

Article 3 

1. All practicable measures shall be taken 
in the planning of economic development to 
harmonize such development with the healthy 
evolution of the communities concerned. 

2. In particular, efforts shall be made to 
avoid the disruption of family life and of 
traditional social units, especially by — 

(a) close study of the causes of migratory 
movements and appropriate action where 
necessary; 

(b) the promotion of town and village plan- 
ning in areas where economic needs 
result in the concentration of population; 

(c) the prevention and elimination of con- 
gestion in urban areas; 

(d) the improvement of living conditions in 
rural areas and the establishment of suit- 
able industries in rural areas where ade- 
quate manpower is available. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



933 



Article 4 

The measures to be considered by the 
component authorities for the promotion of 
productive capacity and the improvement of 
standards of living of agricultural producers 
shall include — 

(a) the elimination to the fullest practicable 
extent of the causes of chronic indebted- 
ness; 

(b) the control of the alienation of agri- 
cultural land to non-agriculturalists so as 
to ensure that such alienation takes place 
only when it is in the best interests of 
the country; 

(c) the control, by the enforcement of ade- 
quate laws or regulations, of the owner- 
ship and use of land and resources to 
ensure that they are used, with due re- 
gard to customary rights, in the best in- 
terests of the inhabitants of the country; 

(d) the supervision of tenancy arrangements 
and of working conditions with a view 
to securing for tenants and labourers the 
highest practicable standards of living 
and an equitable share in any advantages 
which may result from improvements in 
productivity or in price levels; 

(e) the reduction of production and distri- 
bution costs by all practicable means and 
in particular by forming, encouraging and 
assisting producers' and consumers' co- 
operatives. 

Article 5 

1. Measures shall be taken to secure for 
independent producers and wage earners con- 
ditions which will give them scope to improve 
living standards by their own efforts and will 
ensure maintenance of minimum standards 
of living as ascertained by means of official 
inquiries into living conditions, conducted 
after consultation with the representative or- 
ganizations of employers and workers. 

2. In ascertaining the minimum standards 
of living, account shall be taken of such es- 
sential family needs of the workers as food and 
its nutritive value, housing, clothing, medical 
care and education. 

Part III. Provisions Concerning 

Migrant Workers 

Article 6 

Where the circumstances under which work- 
ers are employed involve their living away 
from their homes, the terms and conditions 
of their employment shall take account of their 
normal family needs. 

Article 7 

Where the labour resources of one area 
are used on a temporary basis for the benefit 
of another area, measures shall be taken to 
encourage the transfer of part of the workers' 
wages and savings from the area of labour 
utilisation to the area of labour supply. 

Article 8 
1. Where the labour resources of a country 
are used in an area under a different adminis- 
tration, the competent authorities of the coun- 
tries concerned shall, whenever necessary or 
desirable, enter into agreements for the purpose 
of regulating matters of common concern 
arising in connection with the application of 
the provisions of this Convention. 



2. Such agreements shall provide that the 
worker shall enjoy protection and advantages 
not less than those enjoyed by workers resident 
in the area of labour utilization. 

3. Such agreements shall provide for facili- 
ties for enabling the worker to transfer part 
of his wages and savings to his home. 

Article 9 

Where workers and their families move from 
low-cost to higher-cost areas, account shall 
be taken of the increased cost of living result- 
ing from the change. 

Part IV. Remuneration of Workers and 
Related Questions 

Article 10 

1. The fixing of minimum wages by collec- 
tive agreements freely negotiated between trade 
unions which are representative of the workers 
concerned and employers or employers' organi- 
sations shall be encouraged. 

2. Where no adequate arrangements exist 
for the fixing of minimum wages by collective 
agreement, the necessary arrangements shall be 
made whereby minimum rates of wages can 
be fixed in consultation with representatives of 
the employers and workers, including repre- 
sentatives of their respective organizations, 
where such exist. 

3. The necessary measures shall be taken 
to ensure that the employers and workers con- 
cerned are informed of the minimum wage rates 
in force and that wages are not paid at less 
than these rates in cases where they are applic- 
able. 

4. A worker to whom minimum rates are 
applicable and who, since they became applic- 
able, has been paid wages at less than these 
rates shall be entitled to recover, by judicial 
or other means authorized by law, the amount 
by which he has been underpaid, subject to 
such limitation of time as may be determined 
by law or regulation. 

Article 11 

1. The necessary measures shall be taken to 
ensure the proper payment of all wages earned 
and employers shall be required to keep regis- 
ters of wage payments, to issue to workers 
statements of wage payments and to take other 
appropriate steps to facilitate the necessary 
supervision. 

2. Wages shall normally be paid in legal 
tender only. 

3. Wages shall normally be paid direct to 
the individual worker. 

4. The substitution of alcohol or other 
spirituous beverages for all or any part of 
wages for services performed by the worker 
shall be prohibited. 

5. Payment of wages shall not be made in 
taverns or stores, except in the case of workers 
employed therein. 

6. Unless there is an established local cus- 
tom to the contrary, and the competent author- 
ity is satisfied that the continuance of this 
custom is desired by the workers, wages shall 
be paid regularly at such intervals as will lessen 
the likelihood of indebtedness among the wage 
earners. 

7. Where food, housing, clothing and other 
essential supplies and services form part of 
remuneration, all practicable steps will be taken 
by the competent authority to ensure that they 
are adequate and their cash value properly 
assessed. 



934 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



8. All practicable measures shall be taken — 

(a) to inform the workers of their wage rights; 

(b) to prevent any unauthorized deductions 
from wages; and 

(c) to restrict the amounts deductible from 
wages in respect of supplies and services 
forming part of remuneration to the proper 
cash value thereof. 

Article 12 

1. The maximum amounts and manner of 
repayment of advances on wages shall be 
regulated by the competent authority. 

2. The competent authority shall limit the 
amount of advances which may be made to a 
worker in consideration of his taking up 
employment; the amount of advances permitted 
shall be clearly explained to the worker. 

3. Any advance in excess of the amount 
laid down by the competent authority shall 
be legally irrecoverable and may not be re- 
covered by the withholding of amounts of pay 
due to the worker at a later date. 

Article 13 

1. Voluntary forms of thrift shall be en- 
couraged among wage earners and independent 
producers. 

2. All practicable measures shall be taken 
for the protection of wage earners and in- 
dependent producers against usury, in particular 
by action aiming at the reduction of rates of 
interest on loans, by the control of the opera- 
tions of money lenders, and by the encourage- 
ment of facilities for borrowing money for 
appropriate purposes through co-operative cre- 
dit organizations or through institutions which 
are under the control of the competent authority. 

Part V. Non-Discrimination on Grounds of 

Race, Colour, Sex, Belief, Tribal 

Association or Trade Union 

Affiliation 

Article 14 

1. It shall be an aim of policy to abolish all 
discrimination among workers on grounds of 
race, colour, sex, belief, tribal association or 
trade union affiliation in respect of — 

(a) labour legislation and agreements which 
shall afford equitable economic treatment 
to all those lawfully resident or working 
in the country; 

(b) admission to public or private employment; 

(c) conditions of engagement and promotion; 

(d) opportunities for vocational training; 

(e) conditions of work; 

(/) health, safety and welfare measures; 

(g) discipline; 

(h) participation in the negotiation of collec- 
tive agreements; 

(/) wage rates, which shall be fixed according 
to the principle of equal pay for work 
of equal value in the same operation and 
undertaking. 

2. All practicable measures shall be taken 
to lessen, by raising the rates applicable to the 
lower-paid workers, any existing differences in 
wage rates due to discrimination by reason of 
race, colour, sex belief, tribal association or 
trade union affiliation. 

3. Workers from one country engaged for 
employment in another country may be granted 
in addition to their wages benefits in cash or 
in kind to meet any reasonable personal or 
family expenses resulting from employment 
away from their homes. 



4. The foregoing provisions of this Article 
shall be without prejudice to such measures 
as the competent authority may think it 
necessary or desirable to take for the safe- 
guarding of motherhood and for ensuring 
the health, safety and welfare of women 
workers. 

Part VI. Education and Training 
Article 15 

1. Adequate provision shall be made to the 
maximum extent possible under local condi- 
tions, for the progressive development of 
broad systems of education, vocational train- 
ing and apprenticeship, with a view to the 
effective preparation of children and young 
persons of both sexes for a useful occupation. 

2. National laws or regulations shall pre- 
scribe the school-leaving age and the minimum 
age for and conditions of employment. 

3. In order that the child population may be 
able to profit by existing facilities for educa- 
tion and in order that the extension of such 
facilities may not be hindered by a demand 
for child labour, the employment of persons 
below the school-leaving age during the hours 
when the schools are in session shall be pro- 
hibited in areas where educational facilities are 
provided on a scale adequate for the majority 
of the children of school age. 

Article 16 

1. In order to secure high productivity 
through the development of skilled labour, 
training in new techniques of production 
shall be provided in suitable cases. 

2. Such training shall be organized by or 
under the supervision of the competent author- 
ities, in consultation with the employers' and 
workers' organizations of the country from 
which the trainees come and of the country 
of training. 

Part VII. Final Provisions 
Article 17 

The formal ratifications of this Convention 
shall be communicated to the Director-Gen- 
eral of the International Labour Office for 
registration. 

Article 18 

1. This Convention shall be binding only 
upon those Members of the International La- 
bour Organization whose ratifications have 
been registered with the Director-General. 

2. It shall come into force twelve months 
after the date on which the ratifications of 
two Members have been registered with the 
Director-General. 

3. Thereafter, this Convention shall come 
into force for any Member twelve months 
after the date on which its ratification has 
been registered. 

Article 19 

The coming into force of this Convention 
shall not involve the ipso jure denunciation 
of the Social Policy (Non-Metropolitan Terri- 
tories) Convention, 1947, by any Member 
for which that Convention continues to remain 
in force, nor shall it close that Convention to 
further ratification. 

Article 20 

1. A Member which has ratified this Con- 
vention may denounce it after the expiration 
of ten years from the date on which the Con- 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



935 



vention first comes into force, by an act 
communicated to the Director-General of the 
International Labour Office for registration. 
Such denunciation shall not take effect until 
one year after the date on which it is 
registered. 

2. Each Member which has ratified this Con- 
vention and which does not, within the year 
following the expiration of the period of ten 
years mentioned in the preceding paragraph, 
exercise the right of denunciation provided for 
in this Article, will be bound for another 
period of ten years and, thereafter, may de- 
nounce this convention at the expiration of 
each period of ten years under the terms 
provided for in this Article. 

Article 21 

1. The Director-General of the Interna- 
tional Labour Office shall notify all Members 
of the International Labour Organization of 
the registration of all ratifications and de- 
nunciations communicated to him by the 
Members of the Organization. 

2. When notifying the Members of the Or- 
ganization of the registration of the second 
ratification communicated to him, the Di- 
rector-General shall draw the attention of the 
Members of the Organization to the date upon 
which the Convention will come into force. 

Article 22 

The Director-General of the International 
Labour Office shall communicate to the Sec- 
retary-General of the United Nations for 
registration in accordance with Article 102 of 
the Charter of the United Nations full par- 
ticulars of all ratifications and acts of de- 



nunciation registered by him in accordance 
with the provisions of the preceding Articles. 

Article 23 

At such times as it may consider necessary 
the Governing Body of the International La- 
bour Office shall present to the General Con- 
ference a report on the working of this Con- 
vention and shall consider the desirability of 
placing on the agenda of the Conference the 
question of its revision in whole or in part. 

Article 24 

1. Should the Conference adopt a new Con- 
vention revising this Convention in whole or in 
part, then, unless, the new Convention other- 
wise provides — 

(a) the ratification by a Member of the new 
revising Convention shall ipso jure involve 
the immediate denunciation of this Con- 
vention, notwithstanding the provisions 
of Article 20 above, if and when the new 
revising Convention shall have come into 
force; 

(b) as from the date when the new revising 
Convention comes into force this Con- 
vention shall cease to be open to ratifi- 
cation by the Members. 

2. This Convention shall in any case remain 
in force in its actual form and content for 
those Members which have ratified it but have 
not ratified the revising Convention. 

Article 25 

The English and French versions of the 
text of this Convention are equally author- 
itative. 



Text of Convention Concerning Equality of Treatment of Nationals and Non-Nationals 

in Social Security 



The General Conference of the Interna- 
tional Labour Organization, 
Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International 
Labour Office, and having met in its 
Forty-sixth Session on 6 June 1962, and 
Having decided upon the adoption of certain 
proposals with regard to equality of 
treatment of nationals and non-nationals 
in social security, which is the fifth 
item on the agenda of the session, and 
Having determined that these proposals 
shall take the form of an international 
Convention, 
adopts this 28th day of June of the year one 
thousand nine hundred and sixty-two the fol- 
lowing Convention, which may be cited as 
the Equality of Treatment (Social Security) 
Convention, 1962: 

Article 1 
In this Convention — 

(a) the term "legislation" includes any social 
security rules as well as laws and regula- 
tions; 

(b) the term "benefits" refers to all benefits, 
grants and pensions, including any sup- 
plements or increments; 

(c) the term "benefits granted under transi- 
tional schemes" means either benefits 
granted to persons who have exceeded a 
prescribed age at the date when the legis- 



lation applicable came into force, or 
benefits granted as a transitional measure 
in consideration of events occurring or 
periods completed outside the present 
boundaries of the territory of a Member; 

(d) the term "death grant" means any lump 
sum payable in the event of death; 

(e) the term "residence" means ordinary 
residence; 

(/) the term "prescribed" means determined 
by or in virtue of national legislation as 
defined in subparagraph (a) above; 

(g) the term "refugee" has the meaning as- 
signed to it in Article 1 of the Con- 
vention relating to the status of Refugees 
of 28 July 1951; 

(h) the term "stateless person" has the mean- 
ing assigned to it in Article 1 of the 
Convention relating to the Status of State- 
less Persons of 28 September 1954. 

Article 2 

1. Each Member may accept the obligations 
of this Convention in respect of any one or 
more of the following branches of social 
security for which it has in effective operation 
legislation covering its own nationals within 
its own territory: 

(a) medical care; 

(b) sickness benefit; 

(c) maternity benefit; 



936 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



(d) invalidity benefit; 

(<?) old-age benefit; 

(/) survivors' benefit; 

(g) employment injury benefit; 

(h) unemployment benefit; and 

(/) family benefit. 

2. Each Member for which this Conven- 
tion is in force shall comply with its provisions 
in respect of the branch or branches of social 
security for which it has accepted the obliga- 
tions of the Convention. 

3. Each Member shall specify in its ratifica- 
tion in respect of which branch or branches 
of social security it accepts the obligations of 
this Convention. 

4. Each Member which has ratified this 
Convention may subsequently notify the Di- 
rector-General of the International Labour 
Office that it accepts the obligations of the 
Convention in respect of one or more branches 
of social security not already specified in its 
ratification. 

5. The undertakings referred to in para- 
graph 4 of this Article shall be deemed to be 
an integral part of the ratification and to 
have the force of ratification as from the 
date of notification. 

6. For the purpose of the application of this 
Convention, each Member accepting the obli- 
gations thereof in respect of any branch of 
social security which has legislation providing 
for benefits of the type indicated in clause 
(a) or (b) below shall communicate to the 
Director-General of the International Labour 
Office a statement indicating the benefits pro- 
vided for by its legislation which it con- 
siders to be — 

(a) benefits other than those the grant of 
which depends either on direct financial 
participation by the persons protected or 
their employer, or on a qualifying period 
of occupational activity; or 

(b) benefits granted under transitional 
schemes. 

7. The communication referred to in para- 
graph 6 of this Article shall be made at the 
time of ratification or at the time of notification 
in accordance with paragraph 4 of this Article; 
as regards any legislation adopted subsequently, 
the communication shall be made within three 
months of the date of the adoption of such 
legislation. 

Article . 3 

1. Each Member for which this Conven- 
tion is in force shall grant within its territory 
to the nationals of any other Member for 
which the Convention is in force equality of 
treatment under its legislation with its own 
nationals, both as regards coverage and as 
regards the right to benefits, in respect of every 
branch of social security for which it has 
accepted the obligations of the Convention. 

2. In the case of survivors' benefits, such 
equality of treatment shall also be granted 
to the survivors of the nationals of a Mem- 
ber for which the Convention is in force, 
irrespective of the nationality of such survivors. 

3. Nothing in the preceding paragraphs of 
this Article shall require a Member to apply 
the provisions of these paragraphs, in respect 
of the benefits of a specified branch of social 
security, to the nationals of another Member 
which has legislation relating to that branch 
but does not grant equality of treatment in 
respect thereof to the nationals of the first 
Member. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

59897-9—3 



• AUGUST 7962 



Article 4 

1. Equality of treatment as regards the grant 
of benefits shall be accorded without any 
condition of residence: Provided that equality 
of treatment in respect of the benefits of a 
specified branch of social security may be 
made conditional on residence in the case of 
nationals of any Member the legislation of 
which makes the grant of benefits under that 
branch conditional on residence on its terri- 
tory. 

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of para- 
graph 1 of this Article, the grant of the bene- 
fits referred to in paragraph 6 (a) of Article 2 
— other than medical care, sickness benefit, 
employment injury benefit and family benefit 
— may be made subject to the condition that 
the beneficiary has resided on the territory of 
the Member in virtue of the legislation of 
which the benefit is due, or, in the case of a 
survivor, that the deceased had resided there, 
for a period which shall not exceed — 

(a) six months immediately preceding the 
filing of claim, for grant of maternity 
benefit and unemployment benefit; 

(b) five consecutive years immediately pre- 
ceding the filing of claim, for grant of 
invalidity benefit, or immediately pre- 
ceding death, for grant of survivors' 
benefit; 

(c) ten years after the age of 18, which 
may include five consecutive years im- 
mediately preceding the filing of claim, 
for grant of old-age benefit. 

3. Special provisions may be prescribed in 
respect of benefits granted under transitional 
schemes. 

4. The measures necessary to prevent the 
cumulation of benefits shall be determined, 
as necessary, by special arrangements between 
the Members concerned. 

Article 5 

1. In addition to the provisions of Article 4, 
each Member which has accepted the obli- 
gations of this Convention in respect of the 
branch or branches of social security con- 
cerned shall guarantee both to its own na- 
tionals and to the nationals of any other 
Member which has accepted the obligations of 
the Convention in respect to the branch or 
branches in question, when they are resident 
abroad, provision of invalidity benefits, old- 
age benefits, survivors' benefits and death 
grants, and employment injury pensions, sub- 
ject to measures for this purpose being taken, 
where necessary, in accordance with Article 8. 

2. In case of residence abroad, the pro- 
vision of invalidity, old-age and survivors' 
benefits of the type referred to in paragraph 6 
(a) of Article 2 may be made subject to the 
participation of the Members concerned in 
schemes for the maintenance of rights as pro- 
vided for in Article 7. 

3. The provisions of this Article do not 
apply to benefits granted under transitional 
schemes. 

Article 6 

In addition to the provisions of Article 4, 
each Member which has accepted the obli- 
gations of this Convention in respect of 
family benefit shall guarantee the grant of 
family allowances both to its own nationals 
and to the nationals of any other Member 
which has accepted the obligations of this 
Convention for that branch, in respect of 

937 



children who reside on the territory of any 
such Member, under conditions and within 
limits to be agreed upon by the Members 
concerned. 

Article 7 

1. Members for which this Convention is in 
force shall, upon terms being agreed between 
the Members concerned in accordance with 
Article 8, endeavour to participate in schemes 
for the maintenance of the acquired rights 
and rights in course of acquisition under their 
legislation of the nationals of Members for 
which the Convention is in force, for all 
branches of social security in respect of which 
the Members concerned have accepted the 
obligations of the Convention. 

2. Such schemes shall provide, in particular, 
for the totalization of periods of insurance, 
employment or residence and of assimilated 
periods for the purpose of the acquisition, 
maintenance or recovery of rights and for 
the calculation of benefits. 

3. The cost of invalidity, old-age and sur- 
vivors' benefits as so determined shall either 
be shared among the Members concerned, or 
be borne by the Member on whose territory 
the beneficiaries reside, as may be agreed 
upon by the Members concerned. 

Article 8 

The Members for which this Convention 
is in force may give effect to their obligations 
under the provisions of Articles 5 and 7 by 
ratification of the Maintenance of Migrants' 
Pension Rights Convention, 1935, by the ap- 
plication of the provisions of that Con- 
vention as between particular Members by 
mutual agreement, or by any multilateral or 
bilateral agreement giving effect to these 
obligations. 

Article 9 

The provisions of this Convention may be 
derogated from by agreements between Mem- 
bers which do not affect the rights and 
duties of other Members and which make pro- 
vision for the maintenance of rights in course 
of acquisition and of acquired rights under 
conditions at least as favourable on the 
whole as those provided for in this Con- 
vention. 

Article 10 

1. The provisions of this Convention apply 
to refugees and stateless persons without any 
condition of reciprocity. 

2. This Convention does not apply to 
special schemes for civil servants, special 
schemes for war victims, or public assistance. 

3. This Convention does not require any 
Member to apply the provisions thereof to 
persons who, in accordance with the provisions 
of international instruments, are exempted 
from its national social security legislation. 

Article 11 

The Members for which this Convention 
is in force shall afford each other administra- 
tive assistance free of charge with a view to 
facilitating the application of the Convention 
and the execution of their respective social 
security legislation. 

Article 12 

1. This Convention does not apply to ben- 
efits payable prior to the coming into force of 
the Convention for the Member concerned in 
respect of the branch of social security under 
which the benefit is payable. 



2. The extent to which the Convention 
applies to benefits attributable to contingen- 
cies occurring before its coming into force 
for the Member concerned in respect of the 
branch of social security under which the 
benefit is payable thereafter shall be deter- 
mined by multilateral or bilateral agreement 
or in default thereof by the legislation of the 
Member concerned. 

Article 13 

This Convention shall not be regarded as 
revising any existing Convention. 

Article 14 

The formal ratifications of this Convention 
shall be communicated to the Director-Gen- 
eral of the International Labour Office for 
registration. 

Article 15 

1. This Convention shall be binding only 
upon those Members of the International 
Labour Organization whose ratifications have 
been registered with the Director-General. 

2. It shall come into force twelve months 
after the date on which the ratifications of 
two Members have been registered with the 
Director-General. 

3. Thereafter, this Convention shall come 
into force for any Member twelve months 
after the date on which its ratification has 
been registered. 

Article 16 

1. A Member which has ratified this Con- 
vention may denounce it after the expiration 
of ten years from the date on which the 
Convention first comes into force, by an act 
communicated to the Director-General of the 
International Labour Office for registration. 
Such denunciation shall not take effect until 
one year after the date on which it is 
registered. 

2. Each Member which has ratified this 
Convention and which does not, within the 
year following the expiration of the period of 
ten years mentioned in the preceding paragraph, 
exercise the right of denunciation provided for 
in this Article, will be bound for another period 
of ten years and, thereafter, may denounce 
this Convention at the expiration of each 
period of ten years under the terms provided 
for in this Article. 

Article 17 

1. The Director-General of the International 
Labour Office shall notify all Members of the 
International Labour Organization of the regis- 
tration of all ratifications and denunciations 
communicated to him by the Members of the 
Organization. 

2. When notifying the Members of the Or- 
ganization of the registration of the second 
ratification communicated to him, the Director- 
General shall draw the attention of the Mem- 
bers of the Organization to the date upon 
which the Convention will come into force. 

Article 18 

The Director-General of the International 
Labour Office shall communicate to the Secre- 
tary-General of the United Nations for regis- 
tration in accordance with Article 102 of the 
Charter of the United Nations full particulars 
of all ratifications and acts of denunciation 
registered by him in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the preceding Articles. 



938 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



Article 19 

At such times as it may consider necessary 
the Governing Body of the International La- 
bour Office shall present to the General Con- 
ference a report on the working of this Con- 
vention and shall examine the desirability of 
placing on the agenda of the Conference the 
question of its revision in whole or in part. 

Article 20 

1. Should the Conference adopt a new Con- 
vention revising this Convention in whole or in 
part, then, unless the new Convention other- 
wise provides — 

(a) the ratification by a Member of the new 
revising Convention shall ipso jure involve the 



immediate denunciation of this Convention, 
notwithstanding the provisions of Article 16> 
above, if and when the new revising Conven- 
tion shall have come into force; 

(b) as from the date when the new revising^ 
Convention comes into force this Convention 
shall cease to be open to ratification by the 
Members. 

2. This Convention shall in any case remain 
in force in its actual form and content for 
those Members which have ratified it but have 
not ratified the revising Convention. 

Article 21 

The English and French versions of the text 
of this Convention are equally authoritative. 



Text of Recommendation Concerning Reduction of Hours of Work 



The General Conference of the International 

Labour Organization, 
Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International La- 
bour Office, and having met in its Forty- 
sixth Session on 6 June 1962, and 
Having decided upon the adoption of certain 
proposals with regard to hours of work, 
which is the ninth item on the agenda of 
the session, and 
Having determined that these proposals shall 
take the form of a Recommendation de- 
signed to supplement and facilitate the 
implementation of the existing international 
instruments concerning hours of work — 
by indicating practical measures for the 
progressive reduction of hours of work, 
taking into account the different eco- 
nomic and social conditions in the 
different countries as well as the variety 
of national practices for the regulation 
of hours and other conditions of work; 
by outlining in broad terms methods where- 
by such practical measures might be 
applied; and 
by indicating the standard of the forty- 
hour week, which principle is set out in 
the Forty-Hour Week Convention, 1935, 
as a social standard to be reached by 
stages if necessary, and setting a maxi- 
mum limit to normal hours of work, 
pursuant to the Hours of Work (Indus- 
try) Convention, 1919, 
adopts this 26th day of June of the year one 
thousand nine hundred and sixty-two the fol- 
lowing Recommendation, which may be cited 
as the Reduction of Hours of Work Recom- 
mendation, 1962: 

I. General Principles 

1. Each Member should formulate and pur- 
sue a national policy designed to promote by 
methods appropriate to national conditions and 
practice and to conditions in each industry the 
adoption of the principle of the progressive 
reduction of normal hours of work in con- 
formity with Paragraph 4. 

2. Each Member should, by means appro- 
priate to the methods which are in operation 
or which may be introduced for the regulation 
of hours of work, promote and, in so far as is 
consistent with national conditions and prac- 
tice, ensure the application of the principle of 
the progressive reduction of normal hours of 
work in conformity with Paragraph 4. 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 
59897-0— 3h 



3. The principle of the progressive reduction 
of normal hours of work may be given effect 
through laws or regulations, collective agree- 
ments, or arbitration awards, by a combination 
of these various means, or in any other manner 
consistent with national practice, as may be 
most appropriate to national conditions and to 
the needs of each branch of activity. 

4. Normal hours of work should be pro- 
gressively reduced, when appropriate, with a 
view to attaining the social standard indicated 
in the Preamble of this Recommendation with- 
out any reduction in the wages of the workers 
as at the time hours of work are reduced. 

5. Where the duration of the normal working 
week exceeds forty-eight hours, immediate steps 
should be taken to bring it down to this level 
without any reduction in the wages of the 
workers as at the time hours of work are 
reduced. 

6. Where normal weekly hours of work are 
either forty-eight or less, measures for the 
progressive reduction of hours of work in 
accordance with Paragraph 4 should be worked 
out and implemented in a manner suited to 
the particular national circumstances and the 
conditions in each sector of economic activity. 

7. Such measures should take into account — 

(a) the level of economic development attained 
and the extent to which the country is in 
a position to bring about a reduction in 
hours Of work without reducing total pro- 
duction or productivity, endangering its 
economic growth, the development of new 
industries or its competitive position in 
international trade, and without creating 
inflationary pressures which would ulti- 
mately reduce the real income of the 
workers; 

(b) the progress achieved and which it is 
possible to achieve in raising productivity 
by the application of modern technology, 
automation and management techniques; 

(c) the need in the case of countries still in 
the process of development for improving 
the standards of living of their peoples; and 

(d) the preferences of employers' and workers' 
organizations in the different branches of 
activity concerned as to the manner in 
which the reduction in working hours 
might be brought about. 

8. (1) The principle of the progressive reduc- 
tion of normal hours of work, as expressed in 
Paragraph 4, may be applied by stages which 
need not be determined at the international 
level. 



939 



(2) Such stages may include — 

(a) stages spaced over time; 

(b) stages progressively encompassing branches 
or sectors of the national economy; 

(c) a combination of the two preceding ar- 
rangements; or 

(d) such other arrangements as may be most 
appropriate to national circumstances and 
to conditions in each sector of economic 
activity. 

9. In carrying out measures for progressively 
reducing hours of work, priority should be 
given to industries and occupations which 
involve a particularly heavy physical or mental 
strain or health risks for the workers con- 
cerned, particularly where these consist mainly 
of women and young persons. 

10. Each Member should communicate to 
the Director-General of the International La- 
bour Office, at appropriate intervals, informa- 
tion on the results obtained in the application 
of the provisions of this Recommendation 
with all such details as may be asked for by 
the Governing Body of the International 
Labour Office. 

II. Methods of Application 
A. Definition 

11. Normal hours of work shall mean, for 
the purpose of this Recommendation, the 
number of hours fixed in each country by or 
in pursuance of laws or regulations, collective 
agreements or arbitration awards, or, where 
not so fixed, the number of hours in excess 
of which any time worked is remunerated at 
overtime rates or forms an exception to the 
recognized rules or custom of the establish- 
ment or of the process concerned. 

B. Determination of Hours of Work 

12. (1) The calculation of normal hours 
of work as an average over a period longer 
than one week should be permitted when 
special conditions in certain branches of ac- 
tivity or technical needs justify it. 

(2) The competent authority or body in 
each country should fix the maximum length 
of the period over which the hours of work 
may be averaged. 

13. (1) Special provisions may be formu- 
lated with regard to processes which, by 
reason of their nature, have to be carried on 
continuously by a succession of shifts. 

(2) Such special provisions should be so 
formulated that normal hours of work as an 
average in continuous processes do not ex- 
ceed in any case the normal hours of work 
fixed for the economic activity concerned. 

C. Exceptions 

14. The competent authority or body in 
each country should determine the circum- 
stances and limits in which exceptions to 
the normal hours of work may be permitted — 
{a) permanently — 

(i) in work which is essentially inter- 
mittent; 
(ii) in certain exceptional cases required 

in the public interest; 
j(iii) in operations which for technical 
reasons must necessarily be car- 
ried on outside the limits laid down 
for the general working of the un- 
dertaking, part of the undertaking, 
or shift; 



(b) temporarily — 

(i) in case of accident, actual or 

threatened; 
(ii) in case of urgent work to be done 

to machinery or plant; 
(iii) in case of force majeure; 
(iv) in case of abnormal pressure of 

work; 
(v) to make up time lost through col- 
lective stoppages of work due to 
accidents to materials, interruptions 
to the power supply, inclement 
weather, shortages of materials or 
transport facilities, and calamities; 
(vi) in case of national emergency; 

(c) periodically — 

(i) for annual stocktaking and the 
preparation of annual balance sheets; 
(ii) for specified seasonal activities. 

15. In cases where normal hours of work 
exceed forty-eight a week, the competent 
authority or body should, before authorizing 
exceptions in the cases mentioned in sub- 
paragraphs (a) (i) and (iii), (b) (iv) and 
(v) and (c) (i) and (ii) of Paragraph 14, 
most carefully consider whether there is a 
real need for such exceptions. 

D. Overtime 

16. All hours worked in excess of the 
normal hours should be deemed to be overtime, 
unless they are taken into account in fixing re- 
muneration in accordance with custom. 

17. Except for cases of force majeure, limits 
to the total number of hours of overtime 
which can be worked during a specified period 
should be determined by the competent 
authority or body in each country. 

18. In arranging overtime, due consideration 
should be given to the special circumstances 
of young persons under 18 years of age, 
of pregnant women and nursing mothers and 
of handicapped persons. 

19. (1) Overtime work should be remuner- 
ated at a higher rate or rates than normal 
hours of work. 

(2) The rate or rates of remuneration for 
overtime should be determined by the com- 
petent authority or body in each country: 
Provided that in no case should the rate be 
less than that specified in Article 6, para- 
graph 2, of the Hours of Work (Industry) 
Convention, 1919. 

E. Consultation of Employers and Workers 

20. (1) The competent authority should 
make a practice of consulting the most repre- 
sentative employers' and workers' organiza- 
tions on questions relating to the application 
of this Recommendation. 

(2) In particular, there should be such 
consultation on the following matters in so 
far as they are left to the determination of 
the competent authority in each country: 

(a) the arrangements provided for in Para- 
graph 8; 

(b) the maximum length of the period over 
which hours of work may be averaged 
as provided for in Paragraph 12; 

(c) the provisions which may be made in 
pursuance of Paragraph 13 concerning 
processes which have to be carried on 
continuously by a succession of shifts; 

(d) the exceptions provided for in Paragraph 
14; 



-94t 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



(e) the limitation and remuneration of over- 
time provided for in Paragraphs 17 and 
19. 

F. Supervision 

21. For the effective enforcement of the 
measures taken to reduce hours of worK 
progressively in pursuance of Paragraphs 4 
and 5 — 

(a) appropriate measures should be taken to 
ensure the proper administration of the 
provisions concerning hours of work by 
means of adequate inspection or other- 
wise; 

(b) the employer should be required to 
notify the workers concerned, by the 
posting of notices in the establishment 
or by such other methods as may be 
approved by the competent authority, of — 

(i) the times at which work begins and 

ends; 
(ii) where work is carried on by shifts, 

the time at which each shift begins 

and ends; 



(iii) rest periods which are not included 

in the normal hours of worK; 
(iv) the days worked during the week; 

(c) the employer should be required to keep, 
and on request to produce for inspection, 
a record in a form acceptable to the 
competent authority of the hours of work, 
wages and overtime for each worker; 

(d) provision should be made for such sanc- 
tions as may be appropriate to the 
method by which effect is given to the 
provisions of this Recommendation. 

G. General Provisions 

22. This Recommendation does not affect 
any law, regulation, award, custom, agreement, 
or negotiation between employers and workers 
which ensures, or aims at ensuring, more 
favourable conditions for the workers. 

23. This Recommendation does not apply 
to agriculture, to maritime transport and to 
maritime fishing. Special provisions should 
be formulated for these branches of eco- 
nomic activity. 



Text of Recommendation Concerning Vocational Training 



The General Conference of the International 

Labour Organization, 
Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International La- 
bour Office, and having met in its Forty- 
sixth Session on 6 June 1962, and 
Having decided upon the adoption of cer- 
tain proposals with regard to vocational 
training, which is the fourth item on the 
agenda of the session, with a view to 
superseding the Vocational Training Rec- 
ommendation, 1939, the Apprenticeship 
Recommendation, 1939, and the Voca- 
tional Training (Adults) Recommenda- 
tion, 1950, and 
Having determined that these proposals shall 

take form of a Recommendation, and 
Noting that the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific and Cultural Organization has 
in preparation a recommendation on 
technical education, 
adopts this 27th day of June of the year one 
thousand nine hundred and sixty-two the 
following Recommendation, which may be 
cited as the Vocational- Training Recom- 
mendation, 1962: 

I. General Principles 

1. This Recommendation applies to all train- 
ing designed to prepare or retain any person 
for initial or later employment or promotion 
in any branch or economic activity, including 
such general, vocational and technical educa- 
tion as may be necessary to that end, except — 

(a) training for management or for super- 
visory posts above the level of foreman 
in industry or the equivalent in other 
branches of economic activity; 

(b) training for seafarers, which continues 
to be governed by the Vocational Train- 
ing (Seafarers) Recommendation, 1946; 

(c) training in agriculture, which continues to 
be governed by the Vocational Training 
(Agriculture) Recommendation, 1956. 

2. (1) Training is not an end in itself, but 
a means of developing a person's occupational 
capacities, due account being taken of the 
employment opportunities, and of enabling 
him to use his abilities to the greatest ad- 



vantage of himself and the community; it 
should be designed to develop personality, 
particularly where young persons are con- 
cerned. 

(2) Training is a single whole characterized 
by the interdependence of its various parts. 

(3) Training is a process continuing through- 
out the working life of the individual accord- 
ing to his needs as an individual and as a 
member of the community. 

(4) Training should be free from any 
form of discrimination on the basis of race, 
colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national 
extraction or social origin. 

(5) Training requires the continuous co- 
operation of all the bodies and persons con- 
cerned with any aspect of it, as set forth in 
Paragraph 11. 

II. National Planning and Administration 

3. (1) Each country should have a network 
of training facUities, adjusted as regards 
number, location and curricula to the eco- 
nomic requirements and employment possibil- 
ities of the country as a whole or, where 
more appropriate, of each region or locality, 
to meet the training needs of the residents of 
the country. 

(2) The network should be so designed as to 
facilitate transfer from one type of training 
to another and access to successive stages and 
different levels of training, so that an individual 
may be able to reach the highest level of train- 
ing within his capacity and in accordance with 
his inclination. 

(3) The avenues of entry to occupations, 
particularly the trades, should be sufficient to 
meet the requirements of all branches of eco- 
nomic activity and the varied abilities, interests 
and circumstances of individual trainees. 

(4) Where national circumstances do not 
permit the development of a full national net- 
work, the country concerned should consider 
collaborating with neighbouring countries in 
developing a common network or in establishing 
one or more common training institution. 

4. (1) The respective responsibilities of public 
authorities concerned with training matters 
should be clearly defined. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



941 



(2) The public authorities and the various 
public and private bodies in each country 
which deal with training should, while allowing 
free play to initiate and ensuring adaptability 
to the requirements of the different branches 
of economic activity, regions and localities, 
co-operate in developing fully co-ordinated fa- 
cilities — 

(a) on the basis of a general programme 
centrally planned; 

(b) on a voluntary basis with the assistance of 
appropriate machinery; or 

(c) by a combination of these methods. 

(3) Whichever method is adopted, the meas- 
ures to be taken to develop the facilities re- 
ferred to in subparagraph (2) should, while 
respecting the freedom of occupational choice 
of the candidates, include measures for — 

(a) the determination of the scope and char- 
acter of training requirements and of the 
facilities available; 

(b) the determination of the occupations for 
which training should be given priority 
without neglecting other occupations and 
the training of the persons required for 
them; 

(c) the determination of the occupations for 
which standards of qualification are con- 
sidered necessary or desirable, the setting 
and application of such standards, the es- 
tablishment of appropriate training cur- 
ricula, and the setting and application of 
standards for the examinations on comple- 
tion of training in these occupations; 

(d) the setting and application of standards 
relating to the conditions and methods of 
training; 

(e) the setting and application of standards 
for training institutions, particularly those 
offering training for occupations in respect 
of which standards of qualification have 
been set; 

(/) the setting and application of standards of 
qualification for teaching staff in training 
institutions; 

(g) the provision, according to circumstances, 
of technical help and financial assistance 
to the institutions and undertakings provid- 
ing training. 

(4) Where a general programme has been 
adopted, the competent authorities should en- 
sure that the measures taken to give effect to 
it include the measures set out in subpara- 
graph (3). 

(5) Where co-ordination is developed volun- 
tarily, the measures set out in subparagraph (3) 
should be the responsibility of the authorities 
and bodies referred to in subparagraph (2) 
in their fields of competence. 

(6) The standards referred to in subpara- 
graph (3) should, whenever possible, be appli- 
cable throughout the territory of the Member. 

(7) When this is not possible, recommended 
standards should be drawn up to serve as a 
guide to the setting of standards which are 
as uniform as possible throughout the country. 

(8) In developing the fully co-ordinated 
training facilities referred to in subparagraph 
(2), due account should be taken of the follow- 
ing: 

(a) the occupational interests and the cultural 
requirements of the individual, the labour 
requirements, and the economic and social 
interests of the community; 

(b) national education and training policies; 

(c) existing and projected facilities for general 
education, vocational guidance, and selec- 
tion; 



(d) existing and projected training facilities 
including facilities for vocational and tech- 
nical education; 

(e) the structure of and trend of development 
in the employment market; 

(/) national economic policy and development; 
(g) the demographic situation and anticipated 

changes; 
(h) anticipated changes in techniques and 

methods of organization of work; 
(0 the existence of any population groups 

which, because of geographic isolation, 

ethnic differences or for any other reason, 

call for special consideration. 

(9) The fully co-ordinated training facilities 
should be kept under review and steps should 
be taken as necessary to keep them abreast of 
changing requirements. 

(10) The development of the fully co-ordi- 
nated training facilities should be undertaken 
on a national scale with the collaboration of 
the authorities concerned with the different 
aspects of the problem which are mentioned 
in subparagraph (8) and of other interested 
parties. 

5. (1) Co-operation at the national level 
should be achieved by means of some appropri- 
ate body or bodies fully representative of the 
interests concerned. 

(2) The body or bodies should be assisted by 
similarly representative bodies set up as neces- 
sary at the regional and local level. 

6. Advisory committees representative of 
branches of economic activity or of occupations 
should be established to collaborate with the 
bodies referred to in Paragraph 5 in assessing 
training requirements for the occupations with 
which they are concerned and developing train- 
ing programmes for these occupations. 

7. (1) Training in publicly operated training 
institutions should be given without charge to 
the trainee. 

(2) This should not however preclude insti- 
tutions from making a charge where the trainee 
is not under an obligation to attend the course 
or does not require training in order to obtain 
or retain employment. 

(3) During training in training institutions 
which is provided or approved by the com- 
petent authority, adults not in receipt of re- 
muneration and young persons in need should, 
in so far as economic and financial resources 
permit, receive adequate allowances from the 
competent authorities fixed with due regard 
to— 

(a) any unemployment benefit or any other 
allowance which they may receive; 

(b) other factors, such as family responsibil- 
ities, cost of living in the district concerned, 
special personal expenses connected with 
the training such as expenses for transport 
or housing, and, in special cases, age; 

(c) the need to encourage adults to undertake 
and complete training in accordance with 
the requirements of the employment market 
and the requirements of the community 
for trained persons. 

(4) Persons training in undertakings should 
be adequately remunerated, in accordance with 
criteria established by law or regulation, by 
collective agreement or by the rules of the 
undertaking concerned. 

(5) Attendance at publicly operated training 
institutions and at approved private institutions 
of a similar nature and participation in other 
approved forms of training should be facilitated 
as circumstances require by the grant of eco- 
nomic assistance in such forms as free meals, 
provision of working clothes, tools, equipment 



942 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



and textbooks, free transport or reduction in 
the cost of transport, maintenance or family 
allowances, scholarships, loans or bursaries or 
provision of lodging. 

8. (1) Measures should be taken to ensure 
that the conditions of work of persons, par- 
ticularly young persons, who are receiving 
training, whether in an undertaking or a 
training institution, are satisfactory, and in 
particular that the work done by them is 
suitably restricted so that it is essentially of 
an educative character. 

(2) The work of trainees in training insti- 
tutions should not be primarily intended for 
commercial profit. 

(3) Training institutions and undertakings 
in which training is given should be respon- 
sible for ensuring that rules and standards 
governing safety and the protection of the 
trainees while at work exist and are observed. 

9. (1) Training for occupations for which 
national standards of qualification have been 
set should include examinations for which 
the standards have been uniformly fixed at a 
high level of reliability and validity, and the 
necessary measures should be taken to ensure 
the observance of these examination standards. 

(2) The certificates issued as a result of 
such examinations should be recognized 
throughout the country. 

(3) Even when no national standards of 
qualification exist, it is desirable that persons 
who have completed any systematic course 
of training should receive a certificate to 
that effect from the training institution or 
undertaking; such a certificate should state the 
essential and main elements of the training 
given. 

10. Persons completing a training course 
should be assisted by the placement author- 
ities of the country concerned in obtaining 
work corresponding to the skill and knowl- 
edge they have acquired, the free choice of 
the place of work being guaranteed. 

III. Arrangements for Co-operation 

11. (1) All those concerned with training 
and particularly public authorities, educational 
bodies and employers' and workers' organiza- 
tions should take every opportunity of mutual 
assistance and consultation in planning, de- 
veloping and operating training schemes, and 
in dealing with training 'questions generally. 

(2) Provision should be made for all those 
responsible for training to visit the training 
site regularly in order to keep abreast with 
the conditions in which the training is being 
given. 

(3) Representatives of employers' and 
workers' organizations should be included in 
the bodies responsible for governing publicly 
operated training institutions and for super- 
vising their technical operation; where such 
bodies do not exist, representatives of em- 
ployers' and workers' organizations should 
be brought in other ways into close associa- 
tion with the running of such institutions. 

(4) Co-operation should be maintained and 
promoted between training institutions, or the 
competent authority providing the instruction, 
and undertakings, especially in cases where 
training is given partly within an undertaking 
and partly in training institutions outside the 
undertaking. 

(5) Without prejudice to the generality of 
subparagraph (1) and to the extent possible 
in the national circumstances — 



(a) educational and training bodies, employ- 
ers' and workers' organizations and others 
directly concerned should collaborate in — 

(i) defining the occupations for which 
standards of qualification are con- 
sidered necessary or desirable; 

(ii) establishing such standards and the 
appropriate training curricula; 

(iii) conducting the appropriate examina- 
tions and determining the nature 
and status of the qualifications ob- 
tainable; 

(b) there should be the fullest co-operation 
in the collection and dissemination of 
information about training opportunities 
referred to in Paragraph 12, in which 
the primary and secondary schools, tech- 
nical and vocational education institu- 
tions, educational authorities, vocational 
guidance services, employment counselling 
services, public employment services, em- 
ployers' and workers' organizations, pro- 
fessional institutions and undertakings 
should participate; 

(c) the assistance provided by the public 
employment services should also include — 

(i) the study of employment market 

trends; 
(ii) the assessment of current and future 

manpower needs; 
(iii) the placement of the trained per- 
sonnel. 

IV. Information about Training 
Opportunities 

12. (1) Information about training oppor- 
tunities for every occupation should be con- 
tinuously collected and be available to all 
interested persons and agencies. 

(2) This information should deal with such 
matters as — 

(a) the types of training available; 

(b) the duration of the various types of 
training; 

(c) the conditions for access to the various 
types of training; 

(d) the characteristics of each type of training 
in relation to the prospects of employ- 
ment or promotion; 

(e) the nature and conditions of any financial 
or other assistance obtainable by persons 
while undergoing training; 

(/) the examinations following such training 
and the qualifications obtainable. 

(3) The methods by which such informa- 
tion may be disseminated should include as 
appropriate all or any of the following: in- 
terviews, lectures, brochures, articles, posters, 
films, film strips, radio and television talks, 
visits to undertakings, and occupational ex- 
hibitions. 

V. Arrangements for Vocational 
Guidance and Selection 

13. (1) Candidates for training, and in 
particular those who have not yet received 
any training, should be able to have the 
benefit of individual guidance from the com- 
petent vocational guidance or employment 
counselling bodies before they enter a line 
of training or choose an occupation. 

(2) Workers should have the possibility of 
benefiting, within the framework of the em- 
ployment services, from an employment 
counselling system with a view to their guid- 
ance, their retraining or their further training. 

14. (1> The selection of trainees should be 
conducted in conformity with the requirements 
and specific nature of individual occupations, 
without prejudice to the freedom of occupa- 
tional choice. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



943 



(2) The selection procedure should be so 
designed as to reduce to a minimum the 
risk of accepting persons for training in oc- 
cupations for which they are not suited and 
the consequent risk of wastage of training and 
human effort. 

(3) The selection procedure should include 
provision for ascertaining that trainees have 
the physical and mental capacity required for 
the training and occupation in view. 

(4) When medical examinations form part 
of the selection procedure, they should be 
based on the specific requirements of the 
training and occupation in view. 

(5) When psychological tests form part of 
the selection procedure, they should be suited 
to the conditions of the country concerned, be 
sufficiently reliable, and be valid in terms of 
criteria directly related to the requirements of 
the occupation in view. 

VI. Prevocational Preparation 

15. (1) Prevocational preparation should 
provide young persons who have not yet en- 
tered employment with an introduction to a 
variety of forms of work; it should not be pur- 
sued to the detriment of general education, nor 
should it replace the first phase of actual train- 
ing. 

(2) The prevocational preparation should in- 
clude such general and practical instruction 
appropriate to the ages of the young persons 
as are calculated to — 

(a) continue and supplement the education 
already received; 

(b) give an idea of and develop a taste and 
esteem for practical work and develop 
an interest in training; 

(c) disclose vocational interests and aptitudes, 
and thus assist in vocational guidance; 

(d) facilitate future vocational adjustment. 

(3) The prevocational preparation should in- 
clude, wherever possible, familiarization with 
the equipment and materials common to a 
number of occupations. 

VII. Organization of Training 

16. (1) The training curriculum for each 
occupation should be worked out on the basis 
of a systematic analysis of the work, skills, 
knowledge, and health and safety factors in- 
volved in that occupation, due account being 
taken of developments and foreseeable changes 
therein. 

(2) The training curriculum should be peri- 
odically reviewed to keep it up to date. 

17. (1) The training curriculum should pro- 
vide for all trainees a sound basis of theoreti- 
cal and practical knowledge. 

(2) In addition to instruction in the work, 
skills, knowledge, and health and safety factors 
involved in the occupations concerned, and in 
the elements of social legislation, trainees should 
as far as possible be provided with background 
knowledge related to the occupations and to 
the branches of economic activity in which 
they wish to engage, with a view, in particular, 
to facilitating promotion. 

(3) Subjects of general educational value 
should be included in the curriculum for long- 
term training and, so far as the time available 
permits, for short-term training. 

18. (1) Curricula and training plans should 
be so drawn up as to facilitate the future 
adaptability of the trainee within the general 
framework of the occupation concerned. 

(2) For this purpose care should be taken 
in long-term training — 



(a) to enable the trainee to acquire a wide 
grasp of the theoretical principles under- 
lying the practice of his occupation; 

(b) to avoid specialization in the early period 
of training so as to provide the trainee 
with a broad basis of skill and knowledge 
on which subsequent specialization can be 
built with a minimum of additional train- 
ing or retraining. 

19. (1) Undertakings not in a position to 
furnish their trainees with all the theoretical 
and practical knowledge required for a par- 
ticular occupation should as necessary — 

(a) arrange for the deficiency to be made up 
in training institutions on the basis of one 
or more of the following: 

(i) day release; 

(ii) release for periods of several weeks 

at a time every year; 
(iii) alternating substantial periods of 
training within the undertaking with 
substantial periods of study in the 
training institution; 
(iv) other suitable training arrangements 
in accordance with national regu- 
lations; 

(b) establish and operate joint training 
schemes involving the use of their several 
facilities or the establishment of a com- 
mon training centre. 

(2) Trainees from undertakings attending 
training institutions under the arrangements 
referred to in subparagraph (1) should be 
released for this purpose during working hours 
without loss of pay. 

20. Undertakings should co-operate in the 
implementation of training schemes estab- 
lished by training institutions by providing 
substantial periods of practical on-the-job 
training for institution students. 

21. (1) Supplementary courses in further 
general education and technical knowledge 
relating to the occupations in which they 
are engaged should be available up to the 
age of 18 years for all young workers who are 
not receiving other training. 

(2) The young workers should be enabled 
to attend these courses on the conditions 
provided for in Paragraph 19 (2). 

22. Supplementary courses should be avail- 
able to all workers who wish to improve their 
general, technical or commercial knowledge 
in order to facilitate their promotion and 
thus to improve their social and economic 
standing. 

23. The duration of training should be de- 
termined having regard to — 

(a) the level and type of skill and knowl- 
edge to be attained; 

(b) the methods and means of training to 
be employed; 

(c) the minimum entrance qualifications re- 
quired and the qualifications actually 
possessed by the trainees on entrance; 

(d) in the case of adults, their past work 
experience and the need to qualify them 
as rapidly as possible for employment. 

24. Special attention should be given to 
the training of young persons and adults with 
physical or mental disabilities as well as to 
the training of young persons with little 
ability. 

VIII. Methods and Means of Training 

25. Training methods should be adapted 
to the nature of the course, the educational 
level, age and status of the trainees and their 
previous experience. 



944 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



26. As a general rule, active and partici- 
patory methods should be preferred to the 
one-way communication of knowledge. 

27. (1) Training should be as realistic as 
possible. 

(2) Practical training in training institutions 
should — 

(a) be given in conditions and surroundings 
as similar as possible to those of an 
undertaking; 

(b) if possible and necessary, include or be 
completed by periods of practical experi- 
ence in an undertaking so that trainees 
may not only become familiar with a 
working atmosphere but are also enabled 
to acquire normal work speed and skill 
on the job. 

28. (1) Practical training not given on the 
job should include the performance of the 
operations involved in the occupation and, in 
suitable cases, real work experience. 

(2) Such work experience should be ap- 
propriate to the needs of the training, - and 
there should be proper safeguards against the 
employment of trainees in competition with 
the ordinary workers. 

(3) In training on the job, work assigned to 
trainees should have real training value. 

29. Training exercises should be so designed 
that trainees can see the practical application 
of what they are doing and the usefulness of 
any article produced. 

30. (1) Complex operations should be 
broken down into their simple elements. 

(2) Trainees should be enabled to acquire 
facility in performing one operation before 
proceeding to the next and should move from 
the simple to the complex. 

31. Theory, including general education given 
as part of a training course, should be taught 
as far as possible in relation to the occupation 
in view. 

32. Technical and related instruction should 
be linked with the practical training and, 
when possible, be integrated with it. 

33. The pace of instruction should be ad- 
justed to the trainees' capacity to learn, and 
should allow for revision from time to time. 

34. Steps should be taken to provide system- 
atic technical supervision of trainees, particu- 
larly in the case of training on the job. 

35. A careful record should be kept of the 
training and progress made and, in addition, the 
trainees should be encouraged to keep then- 
own detailed record of the training received 
and to develop the habit of checking their own 
performances. 

36. (1) Instructional aids should be used 
whenever appropriate to facilitate the learn- 
ing process. 

(2) The responsible training authorities 
should keep abreast of newly developed train- 
ing techniques; and instructional materials and 
aids, and should ensure their use. 

37. When training facilities, particularly in 
isolated areas, do not meet the training needs 
of the local population they should be supple- 
mented as appropriate by one or more of the 
following: 

(or) correspondence courses adapted to local 
circumstances; 

(b) itinerant teachers and mobile demonstra- 
tion units; 

(c) instruction by radio, television or other 
means of mass communication; 



(d) release of trainees from undertakings for 
several weeks at a time every year to at- 
tend courses at a training institution in 
another locality; 

(e) other measures enabling training to be 
obtained in some other locality, such as 
grants, scholarships and assistance with 
travel or accommodation. 

IX. Training by Undertakings 

38. (1) Employers should establish policies 
in regard to the action required to meet their 
need for trained personnel. 

(2) Individual employers or groups of em- 
ployers should be encouraged to develop sys- 
tematic training schemes in accordance with 
their employment requirements, to such an 
extent as the technical operating conditions of 
their undertakings permit. 

39. Employers should consult and co-oper- 
ate with representatives of workers employed 
in their undertakings in the preparation and 
carrying out of training schemes therein. 

40. The responsibility within an undertaking 
for training matters should be clearly allo- 
cated either to a special training department 
or to one or more persons on a full-time or 
part-time basis depending on the nature and 
extent of the training requirements of the 
undertaking. 

41. The functions of departments or persons 
responsible for training should include — 

(a) suggesting training policies; 

(b) ensuring in consultation with the depart- 
ments concerned that training schemes 
are prepared; 

(c) participating in the selection of trainees; 

(d) ensuring the training of instructional staff; 

(e) supervising training within the under- 
taking ; 

(/) making arrangements on behalf of the 
undertaking concerning any instruction 
that has to be given outside the undertak- 
ing and for the co-ordination of such 
instruction with that given within the 
undertaking; 

(g) establishing and maintaining progress 
records of trainees; 

(/i) ensuring that the training takes proven 
methods into account; 

(0 undertaking, encouraging or sponsoring 
research and follow-up studies to ensure 
that training is efficient and up to date. 

42. Where appropriate, undertakings should 
arrange for their trainees to be given a sub- 
stantial initial period of broad basic training 
wholly in a training institution, with a view 
to reducing the over-all duration of the 
training period and increasing training effi- 
ciency. 

43. At all stages of their training, whether 
within or outside the undertaking, trainees 
should remain, with respect to their training, 
under the general supervision and control of 
the training department or person responsible 
for training. 

44. (1) In deciding where training should 
be given within an undertaking, the following 
factors should be taken into consideration: 

(a) the nature and duration of training; 

(b) the number, age, knowledge and experi- 
ence of the trainees; 

(c) the adequacy of training on the job for 
the occupation; 

(d) the congestion, noise or other distrac- 
tions, safety factors and risks of damage 
to equipment in the normal workplace; 

(e) any saving in time, teaching staff and 
equipment; 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

59897-9—4 



• AUGUST 7962 



945 



(/) the cost of separate accommodation; 
(g) the need to facilitate the transition from 
training to work to the greatest extent 
possible; 
(h) the technical possibilities of the under- 
taking. 
(2) Separate instructional accommodation 
or at least an instructional area set apart in 
the normal workplace and having the equip- 
ment necessary for training should be pro- 
vided, whenever practicable, in the early 
stages of training. 

45. (1) Undertakings should provide for the 
reception of all new entrants on arrival and 
organize a period of induction for them. 

(2) Special care should be taken with the 
initiation of young workers in the light of 
their need for training. 

X. Apprenticeship 

46. Systematic long-term training for a 
recognized occupation taking place substan- 
tially within an undertaking or under an 
independent craftsman should be governed 
by a written contract of apprenticeship and 
be subject to established standards. 

47. In deciding whether a particular occu- 
pation should be recognized as apprentice- 
ship, account should be taken of such matters 
as — 

(a) the degree of skill and theoretical techni- 
cal knowledge required for the occupa- 
tion in question; 

(b) the period of training necessary for the 
acquisition of the required skill and 
knowledge; 

(c) the suitability of apprenticeship training 
for imparting the required skill and 
knowledge; 

(d) the current and anticipated employment 
situation within the occupation in question. 

48. (1) The contract of apprenticeship 
should be entered into either with an in- 
dividual employer, a group of employers, or 
a body such as an apprenticeship committee 
or service specially entrusted with the con- 
trol of apprenticeship, as may be most ap- 
propriate to the national circumstances. 

(2) Where the apprentice is a minor, a 
parent, guardian or legal representative should 
be included in the contract as a party. 

(3) The parties responsible for providing 
the apprenticeship should either themselves be 
properly qualified to give the training or be 
in a position to arrange for the training to be 
given by a person or persons so qualified, 
and the facilities available for training the 
apprentice should be such as will enable him 
to secure complete training for the occupation 
being taught. 

(4) The competent authority should remain 
in regular contact with the undertaking or 
person providing the training, and should en- 
sure, by means of regular inspection or super- 
vision, that the objectives of the apprentice- 
ship are being achieved. 

49. The contract should — 

(a) contain an express or implied obligation 
to train in a particular occupation in 
return for an obligation of the same 
nature to serve as an apprentice during 
the period of apprenticeship; 

(b) incorporate such of the standards and 
regulations established for the occupation 
in question as may be necessary or 
desirable in the interests of the parties; 

(c) provide for such other mutual rights and 
obligations as may be relevant and not 
otherwise covered, including especially the 
observance of all safety regulations; 



(d) provide for the settlement of disputes be- 
tween the parties. 

50. According to the circumstances in the 
country concerned, an occupation may be 
recognized as apprenticeable, and the stan- 
dards referred to in Paragraph 46 and any 
regulations concerning apprenticeship may be 
established by — 

(a) statutory enactments; 

(b) decisions of bodies specially entrusted 
with the control of apprenticeship; 

(c) collective agreements; or 

(d) a combination of these various methods. 

51. Particular account should be taken of 
the following matters in the standards and 
regulations governing apprenticeship in respect 
of each recognized apprenticeable occupation; 

(a) the educational qualifications and mini- 
mum age governing entry into apprentice- 
ship; 

(b) provision for special cases of workers 
whose age exceeds the specified maximum 
age; 

(c) the duration of apprenticeship including 
the period of probation, having regard to 
the degree of skill and theoretical technical 
knowledge required; 

(d) measures for determining the extent to 
which the normal duration of the appren- 
ticeship might be reduced in the light of 
any prior training or experience the appren- 
tice may have had or of his progress 
during the apprenticeship; 

(e) the schedule of work processes, the theory 
and related instruction to be given, and 
the time to be spent on each unit; 

(/) the provision of day release, or such other 
forms of release as may be appropriate for 
attendance at a training institution; 

(g) the examinations to be held during or on 
the expiry of the apprenticeship; 

(h) the qualifications or certificates obtainable 
on completion of apprenticeship; 

(i) any control of the number of apprentices 
necessary to ensure adequate training avoid 
overcrowding in the occupation, and meet 
the manpower needs of the particular 
branch of economic activity concerned; 

(/) the rate of remuneration payable to the 
apprentice and the scale of increases dur- 
ing the apprenticeship; 

(k) the conditions of remuneration in case of 
absence through sickness; 

(/) accident insurance; 

(m) holidays with pay; 

(n) the nature and extent of the supervision 
to be exercised over the apprenticeship, 
particularly with a view to ensuring that 
the rules governing the apprenticeship are 
observed, that the training is in keeping 
with established standards and that there 
is reasonable uniformity in the conditions 
of apprenticeship; 

(o) the registration of apprentices and appren- 
ticeship contracts with appropriate bodies; 

(p) the form and content of the apprenticeship 
contract. 

52. Apprentices should receive comprehensive 
safety instruction so as to develop safe work- 
ing habits in the use of tools and machinery 
and learn to observe general safety measures, 
taking into account new hazards as they arise. 

53. (1) Entry into apprenticeship should in 
every case be preceded by comprehensive voca- 
tional guidance and by a medical examination 
related to the requirements of the occupation 
for which training is to be given. 



946 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



(2) Where the occupation in view calls for 
special physical qualities or mental aptitudes, 
these should be specified and verified by special 
tests. 

54. (1) It should be possible by agreement 
among all parties concerned to transfer an 
apprentice from one undertaking to another 
when this is considered necessary or desirable 
for the completion of his training 

(2) Where several types of apprenticeship 
exist, it should be possible by agreement among 
all parties concerned for an apprentice to 
transfer from one type to another when his 
aptitudes show that this would be to his 
advantage. 

XI. Accelerated Training 

55. (1) Permanent arrangements for acceler- 
ated training should be organized — 

(a) to assist in meeting urgent needs for trained 
manpower and in quickening the rate of 
industrialization; 

(b) as a permanent means of adapting man- 
power to technical progress; 

(c) for those categories of the population who 
need to achieve occupational competence 
quickly in order to obtain employment 
suitable to their age and capacity; 

(d) to further the development of occupational 
and social upgrading. 

(2) These permanent arrangements for accel- 
erated training should be planned in accordance 
with appropriate pedagogical methods, be im- 
plemented by instructors specially trained for 
the purpose and be based on concrete tech- 
niques directly related to industrial work. 

56. The acceleration of training should be 
achieved by — 

(a) applying strict selection procedures in 
order to ensure as far as possible that all 
trainees admitted have the ability to acquire 
the necessary knowledge and proficiency 
in the limited time set for the course, 
preference being given to candidates who 
also possess occupational experience of 
value to the new occupations; 

(b) using a detailed syllabus setting out the 
graduated exercises and related theory 
which will provide trainees with the skills 
and knowledge immediately essential for 
obtaining employment and based on ex- 
haustive analyses of the occupation and 
of the work involved in it; 

(c) concentrating on practical training and 
teaching the indispensable theoretical tech- 
nical knowledge in the course of practical 
training; 

(d) limiting the number of trainees in each 
class to such an extent that, having regard 
to the time available, each one may receive 
constant and close supervision throughout 
all stages of his instruction; 

(e) applying such of the other methods and 
means of training referred to in Para- 
graphs 25 to 37 as may be found par- 
ticularly appropriate. 

57. (1) After finishing an accelerated train- 
ing course the trainee should as soon as 
possible be placed in employment where, after 
induction, his training should be completed 
if necessary by on-the-job training. 

(2) Persons who have completed accelerated 
training and who are thereafter taking part 
in the production process should have the 
opportunity to participate in courses which 
should be organized for the purpose of increas- 
ing their versatility and skills. 



XII. Training of Supervisors up to the 
Level of Foremen 

58. (1) Supervisors should receive special 
training to ensure that they are fully equipped 
for their duties. 

(2) Such training should include as neces- 
sary — 

(a) further general education; 

(b) further technical training and experience; 

(c) instruction in — 

(i) leadership and human relations, in- 
cluding industrial relation and pro- 
cedures for the avoidance and settle- 
ment of disputes; 

(ii) administrative procedures; 

(iii) teaching method; 

(iv) occupational safety and hygiene; 

(v) co-ordination at the different levels of 
undertaking; 

(vi) adaptation to duties of responsibility; 

(vii) methods of work; 
(viii) labour legislation; 

(ix) specialized spheres of activity such as 
planning, work study and costing. 

(3) Supervisors should be sufficiently in- 
formed about vocational counselling to recog- 
nize its role and importance and the necessity 
for it to be given by specialists in this field. 

59. (1) In principle initial supervisor train- 
ing should be given before the assumption of 
supervisory duties; if this is not practicable, 
it should be given immediately after the as- 
sumption of such duties. 

(2) Further training should be given to 
supervisors on a continuing basis; it should 
include the provision of information about 
developments generally within the undertaking 
and in the supervisor's own technical field 
and should provide the basis for promotion in 
appropriate cases. 

XIII. Teaching Staff in Training 
Institutions and Undertakings 

60. The selection of teaching staff should be 
carried out with due regard to — 

(a) general education, technical qualifications 
and experience, character and personality, 
and aptitude for teaching; 

(Z>) the persons they will be called upon to 
teach; 

(c) the nature of the teaching; 

id) any applicable national standards. 

61. Teaching staff responsible for general 
education subjects should be recruited from 
among persons with the qualifications normally 
required of teachers of these subjects in gen- 
eral educational institutions. 

62. Teaching staff responsible for theo- 
retical technical courses should be recruited, 
according to the type of training involved — 

(a) from among persons who have been 
trained for and have had several years' 
practical experience in the occupation 
they are to teach, in addition to having 
a sound theoretical knowledge of it and 
a good background of general education, 
as well as teaching ability; or 

(b) from persons with appropriate practical 
experience as well as a degree or diploma- 
awarded after appropriate training in a 
university, technical institution or teach- 
ers' training college or by a body ap- 
proved by the public authorities. 

63. (1) Teaching staff responsible for prac- 
tical courses should be recruited from among 
persons with the qualifications specified in 
clause (a) of Paragraph 62. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

59897-9— 4i 



• AUGUST 7962 



947 



(2) When it is not possible to recruit, for 
practical courses, teaching staff with all the 
desirable qualifications, greater importance 
should be attached to technical competence, 
occupational experience and teaching ability 
Hhan to a high level of general education. 

64. Teaching staff responsible for courses in 
supervisory functions should be recruited from 
among persons who have been trained as 
supervisors and have had several years' ex- 
perience in that capacity in addition to hav- 
ing a good background of technical training 
and general education. 

65. Use should be made as far as possible 
of the experience of persons from industry, 
commerce or the professions by employing 
them as part-time teachers of special sub- 
jects in training institutions. 

66. In principle initial teacher training 
should be given before the assumption of 
teaching duties; if this is not practicable it 
should be given immediately after the as- 
sumption of such duties. 

67. (1) Teaching staff employed either full- 
time or part-time in training institutions or in 
undertakings should receive special training, 
including teaching practice, for the purpose of 
developing their teaching ability and, where 
necessary, their technical qualifications and 
general education. 

(2) The provision of such teaching practice 
for the teaching staff of training institutions 
should be facilitated by combining teacher 
training institutions as far as possible with 
ordinary training institutions. 

(3) Teaching staff in training institutions 
and undertakings should receive special train- 
ing on the subject of safety, with emphasis 
on safe working conditions and the safe use 
of tools and appliances used in the occupa- 
tions in which they instruct. 

(4) Further training should be made avail- 
able to teaching personnel on a continuing 
basis; it should include provision for them 
to keep abreast with teaching and technical 
developments and to qualify for promotion. 

(5) The following should also be taken 
into consideration as a means of further 
training: 

(a) the organization of periodical visits to 
undertakings or training institutions and 
of special courses such as in-service, 
weekend or holiday courses for individual 
teachers or groups of teachers; 

(b) the grant, in special cases, of travelling 
or research scholarships or special leave 
with or without pay. 

68. Teachers of general education and 
theoretical technical subjects should, as part 
of their training, acquire knowledge of the 
branch of activity which their trainees are 
intended to enter or have already entered. 

69. Full-time teachers responsible for prac- 
tical courses in training institutions should be 
enabled to carry out practical work in under- 
takings from time to time. 

70. The training of staff responsible for 
courses in supervisory functions should in- 
clude further instruction in the subjects listed 
in Paragraph 58 as may be required, and in- 
struction in methods and techniques of super- 
visory training. 

71. (1) In order to attract and retain an 
efficient teaching staff in training institutions, 
the conditions of employment of such staff 
should compare favourably with those enjoyed 
by persons with similar knowledge and ex- 



perience employed elsewhere on other than 
teaching duties, due account being taken of 
the extra qualifications required for teaching. 
(2) A similar policy should be applied to 
teaching staff within undertakings. 

72. Where national standards of qualification 
for teaching staff in training institutions have 
been established, undertakings giving training 
should be encouraged to apply such standards 
when appropriate to their own teaching staff. 

73. Persons concerned with the direct super- 
vision or technical administration of training 
institutions should, if possible, have had both 
production and teaching experience. 

74. The teaching staff of training institutions 
should be regularly inspected or supervised by 
the competent authorities with a view to 
assisting them in their work and improving 
the instruction given. 

XIV. Countries in Process of 

Industrialization 

75. (1) Industrializing countries should aim 
at developing their training systems pro- 
gressively in accordance with the provisions 
of this Recommendation. 

(2) They should pay primary attention to 
establishing an inventory of their current and 
future manpower needs and resources. 

(3) A plan should be drawn up for the 
establishment and development of training facil- 
ities to meet these needs, giving due priority 
as circumstances require to — 

(a) the creation of a body of competent teach- 
ing staff; 

(b) the provision and equipment of the neces- 
sary training premises; 

(c) the development of the most appropriate 
training schemes, including literacy courses 
for illiterate trainees. 

(4) The plan should be put into operation in 
accordance with the priorities established. 

76. (1) Industrializing countries should take 
special measures to meet the training needs 
of— 

(a) persons in rural areas in which it is 
intended to establish industrial activities; 

(b) persons who have left rural areas and seek 
industrial employment in urban areas. 

(2) Such measures should include the estab- 
lishment, particularly in rural areas, of special 
training institutions, such as simple training 
workshops covering a few basic trades, and 
the adaptation of training methods to suit the 
level of education and degree of advancement 
of the rural groups in the localities concerned. 

(3) The training in rural areas should take 
account of the possibility of developing new 
economic activities which utilize the natural 
resources of the area and are in keeping with 
the cultural traditions of the local population. 

77. Industrializing countries should examine 
the desirability of — 

(a) establishing joint training facilities with 
adjacent countries; 

(b) obtaining international assistance in the 
implementation of their training plans. 

XV. International Co-operation 

78. (1) Countries should co-operate in the 
field of training to the greatest extent possible 
and, where desired, with the help of inter- 
national organizations. 

(2) Such co-operation should extend to such 
measures as — 

(a) the organization of seminars and working 
parties on training matters of mutual in- 
terest; 

(Continued on page 984) 



948 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 
AND CONCILIATION 



Certification and Other Proceedings before 

the Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Canada Labour Relations Board 
met for two days during June. The Board 
issued five certificates designating bargaining 
agents, ordered one representation vote, 
granted one application for revocation- of 
certification and also granted a request un- 
der Section 61(2) of the Act for review of 
an earlier decision. 

During the month the Board received 
eight applications for certification, two ap- 
plications for revocation of certification, and 
one application under Section 19 of the Act 
for a provision for the final settlement of 
differences concerning the meaning or viola- 
tion of a collective agreement. The Board 
allowed the withdrawal of one application 
for certification. 

Applications for Certification Granted 

1. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, Inc., 
on behalf of first, second and third mates 
employed aboard the S.S. Montrealais by 
the Papachristidis Co. Ltd., Montreal, Que. 
(L.G., July, p. 834). 

2. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, on behalf 
of a unit of marine engineers employed by 
Deeks-McBride Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. 
(L.G., July, p. 834). 

3. International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union, Local 501, on be- 
half of a unit of Waterboys dispatched by 
the Canadian Stevedoring Company Limited 
to ships in the Ports of Vancouver and New 
Westminster, B.C. (see "Applications for 
Certification Received," below). 

4. Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship 
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Sta- 
tion Employees, on behalf of a unit of clerks 
employed by the Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company in its Regional Accounting Office, 
Merchandise Services, Winnipeg, Man. (see 
"Applications for Certification Received," 
below). 

5. Warehousemen and Miscellaneous 
Drivers' Union, Local 419, of the Inter- 



national Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf- 
feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of Amer- 
ica, on behalf of a unit of garage employees 
of De Luxe Transportation Ltd., North Bay, 
Ont. (see "Applications for Certification 
Received," below). 

Representation Vote Ordered 

International Longshoremen's and Ware- 
housemen's Union, Local 501, applicant, and 
Coastwise Pier Limited, Vancouver, B.C., 
respondent (L.G., June, p. 655) (Returning 
Officer: G. H. Purvis). 

Application for Revocation Granted 

The Board granted an application for 
revocation of certification affecting Wally 
Longul, Brendan Guilfoyle, et al, applicants, 
C.K.S.O. Radio Limited, Sudbury, Ont., 
respondent, and the National Association of 
Broadcast Employees and Technicians, re- 
spondent (see "Applications for Revocation 
Received," below). 

Request for Review under Section 61(2) of Act 

Canadian Maritime Union, applicant, and 
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, 
respondent (unlicensed personnel aboard 
the S.S. Keewatin and S.S. Assiniboia) (L.G. 
July, p. 834). The Board granted the re- 
quest for review and issued a new certificate 
which included in the unit employees in 
the steward's department below the rank 
of chief steward who are employed only 
for the summer passenger-carrying season, 
in addition to regular crew members in 
similar classifications who are employed 
throughout the entire navigation season and 
noncertificated crew members employed in 
the deck and engine room departments. 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union, Local 501, on be- 
half of a unit of Waterboys dispatched by 
the Canadian Stevedoring Company Lim- 



This section covers proceedings under the Industrial Relations and Disputes Investi- 
gation Act, involving the administrative services of the Minister of Labour, the Canada 
Labour Relations Board, and the Industrial Relations Branch of the Department. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



949 



ited to ships in the Ports of Vancouver and 
New Westminster, B.C. (Investigating Offi- 
cer: G. H. Purvis) (see "Applications for 
Certification Granted," above). 

2. Brotherhood of Railway and Steam- 
ship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees, on behalf of a unit of 
clerks employed by the Canadian Pacific 
Railway Company in its Regional Account- 
ing Office, Merchandise Services, Winnipeg, 
Man. (Investigating Officer: C. E. Poirier) 
(see "Applications for Certification 
Granted," above). 

3. Warehousemen and Miscellaneous 
Drivers' Union, Local 419, of the Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf- 
feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America, on behalf of a unit of garage em- 
ployees of De Luxe Transportation Ltd., 
North Bay, Ont. (Investigating Officer: A. 
B. Whitfield) (see "Applications for Certi- 
fication Granted," above). 



4. General Teamsters* Union, Local 885 
of the International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Help- 
ers of America, on behalf of a unit of dock- 
men and warehousemen employed by 
BlackBall Transport Incorporated, Victoria, 
B.C. (Investigating Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

5. Syndicat National des Chauffeurs de 
Camion du Quebec, on behalf of a unit 
of truck drivers, dockmen, warehousemen, 
and helpers employed by Montreal Ottawa 
Express Limited, Montreal, Que. (Investi- 
gating Officer: R. L. Fournier). 

6. International Union, United Automo- 
bile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement 
Workers of America (UAW), on behalf of 
a unit of employees of The British Over- 
seas Airways Corporation at Toronto In- 
ternational Airport, Malton, Ont. (Investi- 
gating Officer: A. B. Whitfield). 

7. International Woodworkers of America, 
on behalf of a unit of employees of the 



Scope and Administration of Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 



Conciliation services under the Industrial 
Relations and Disputes Investigation Act are 
provided by the Minister of Labour through 
the Industrial Relations Branch. The branch 
also acts as the administrative arm of the 
Canada Labour Relations Board, in matters 
under the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on Sep- 
tember 1, 1948. It revoked the Wartime 
Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 1003, 
which became effective in March, 1944, and 
repealed the Industrial Disputes Investigation 
Act, which had been in force from 1907 
until superseded by the Wartime Regulations 
in 1944. Decisions, orders and certificates 
given under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime Labour 
Relations Board are continued in force and 
effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, shipping, 
interprovincial railways, canals, telegraphs, 
interprovincial and international steamship 
lines and ferries, aerodromes and air trans- 
portation, radio broadcasting stations and 
works declared by Parliament to be for the 
general advantage of Canada or two or 
more of its provinces. Additionally, the Act 
provides that provincial authorities, if they 
so desire, may enact similar legislation for 
application to industries within provincial 
jurisdiction and make mutually satisfactory 
arrangements with the federal Government 
for the administration of such legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is directly 
responsible for the appointment of con- 
ciliation officers, conciliation boards, and 
Industrial Inquiry Commissions concerning 
complaints that the Act has been violated 
or that a party has failed to bargain collec- 
tively, and for application for consent to 
prosecute. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 



the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the certi- 
fication of bargaining agents, the writing of 
provisions — for incorporation into collective 
agreements — fixing a procedure for the final 
settlement of disputes concerning the mean- 
ing or violation of such agreements and the 
investigation of complaints referred to it by 
the minister that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively and to make every 
reasonable effort to conclude a collective 
agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regulations 
made under the Act, and the Rules of 
Procedure of the Canada Labour Relations 
Board are available upon request to the 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: (1) 
Certification and other Proceedings before 
the Canada Labour Relations Board, and 
(2) Conciliation and other Proceedings 
before the Minister of Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the De- 
partment of Labour are stationed at Vancou- 
ver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, 
Fredericton, Halifax and St. John's, New- 
foundland. The territory of four officers 
resident in Vancouver comprises British 
Columbia, Alberta and the Yukon and 
Northwest Territories; two officers stationed 
in Winnipeg cover the provinces of Sas- 
katchewan and Manitoba and Northwestern 
Ontario; four officers resident in Toronto 
confine their activities to Ontario; five 
officers in Montreal are assigned to the 
province of Quebec, and a total of three 
officers resident in Fredericton, Halifax and 
St. John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. The 
headquarters of the Industrial Relations 
Branch and the Director of Industrial Rela- 
tions and staff are situated in Ottawa. 



*50 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



Upper Ottawa Improvement Co., Ottawa, 
Ont. (Investigating Officers: G. E. Plant 
and G. A. Lane). 

8. National Association of Broadcast Em- 
ployees and Technicians, on behalf of a 
unit of employees of the Western Ontario 
Broadcasting Company Limited, Windsor, 
Ont., in its News and Photographic Depart- 
ment (Investigating Officer: A. B. Whit- 
field). 

Applications for Revocation Received 

1. Wally Longul, Brendan Guilfoyle, et 
al, applicants, C.K.S.O. Radio Limited, Sud- 
bury, Ont., respondent, and the National 
Association of Broadcast Employees and 
Technicians, respondent. The application 
was for the revocation of the certification 
issued by the Board to the National Associa- 
tion of Broadcast Employees and Techni- 
cians in respect of a unit of employees en- 
gaged by the company in its Television 
Division (see "Application for Revocation 
Granted," above). 



2. P. G. Robertson, H. R. Douglas, et al, 
applicants, Trans-Canada Air Lines, Mont- 
real, Que., respondent, and the Interna- 
tional Association of Machinists, respond- 
ent. The application was for revocation of 
the certification issued by the Board to the 
International Association of Machinists in 
respect of a unit of employees in the Pro- 
duction Planning Department of the com- 
pany. 

Application under Section 19 of Act Received 

Application for the provision for final 
settlement of differences concerning the 
meaning or violation of the collective agree- 
ment between the National Association of 
Broadcast Employees and Technicians, ap- 
plicant, and CJMS Radio Montreal Limitee, 
Montreal, Que., respondent. 

Application for Certification Withdrawn 

Office Employees' International Union, 
Local 131, applicant, and Smith Transport 
Limited, Oshawa, Ont., respondent (L.G., 
July, p. 834). 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officers Appointed 

During June, the Minister of Labour ap- 
pointed conciliation officers to deal with the 
following disputes: 

1. Active Cartage Limited, Toronto, and 
Local 879 of the International Brotherhood 
of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen 
and Helpers of America (Conciliation Offi- 
cer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

2. Motor Transport Industrial Relations 
Bureau (Hanson Transport Company Lim- 
ited, Inter-City Truck Lines Limited, The 
Walter Little Limited, McKinlay Transport 
Limited, The Overland Express Limited, 
Smith Transfer Limited) (Northern General 
Agreement) and Local 938 of the Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf- 
feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America (Conciliation Officer: F. J. Ains- 
borough). 

3. Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
(S.S. Princess Helene and Seafarers' Inter- 
national Union of Canada) (Conciliation 
Officer: H. R. Pettigrove). 

4. Millar & Brown Ltd., Cranbrook, B.C., 
and Locals 987, 181 and 605 of the Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf- 
feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of Am- 
erica (Conciliation Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 



Settlements Reported by Conciliation Officers 

1. British Columbia Telephone Company, 
Vancouver, and Federation of Telephone 
Workers of British Columbia (Traffic, Plant 
and Clerical Divisions) (Conciliation Offi- 
cer: D. S. Tysoe) (L.G., July, p. 835). 

2. Radio-Laurentides Inc. (CKJL), St. 
Jerome, Que., and National Association of 
Broadcast Employees and Technicians 
(Conciliation Officer: C. E. Poirier) (L.G., 
July, p. 835). 

3. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 
Montreal, and Building Service Employees' 
International Union, Local 298 (Concilia- 
tion Officer: C. E. Poirer) (L.G., July, p. 
835). 

4. National Harbours Board, Prescott, 
Ont., and Civil Service Association of Can- 
ada (Conciliation Officer: T. B. McRae) 
(L.G., July, p. 835). 

5. Canadian Arsenals Limited (Small 
Arms Division), Long Branch, Ont., and 
United Steelworkers of America (Concilia- 
tion Officer: T. B. McRae) (L.G., July, 
p. 835). 

6. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 
and Locals 204, 183 and 308 of the Build- 
ing Service Employees' International Union 
(Conciliation Officer: F. J. Ainsborough) 
(L.G., July, p. 835). 

{Continued on page 97S) 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



951 



LABOUR LAW 



Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 



Supreme Court of Canada affirms that arbitration board constituted under a 
collective agreement is not subject to certiorari. Manitoba Court of Queen's 
Bench rules on status of trade unions in province. Quebec Court of Queen's 
Bench declares union dues agreement valid, binding on all employees. Ontario 
High Court quashes decision of arbitration board under collective agreement 



The Supreme Court of Canada has up- 
held the decision of the British Columbia 
Court of Appeal that an arbitration board 
constituted by the parties under a collective 
agreement pursuant to the British Columbia 
Labour Relations Act is not a statutory 
tribunal, and therefore not subject to cer- 
tiorari. On the other hand, the Court held 
that the jurisdiction of an arbitration board 
or the validity of its award could be chal- 
lenged in the courts under the British 
Columbia Arbitration Act or under the 
common law. 

In Manitoba, the Court of Queen's Bench 
held that under the Manitoba Labour Rela- 
tions Act, a trade union is primarily a 
voluntary, unincorporated association and 
has no legal status to maintain proceedings 
for a mandamus order to compel a com- 
pany to carry out provisions of a collective 
agreement relating to a pension plan. 

In Quebec, the Court of Queen's Bench, 
allowing an appeal from a judgment of 
the Superior Court, held that under the 
Industrial Relations and Disputes Investi- 
gation Act, a union dues agreement be- 
tween the CNR and the unions certified 
as bargaining agents for the employees 
concerned was valid and binding on all 
the employees covered by the collective 
agreements in force, whether or not they 
were union members. 

In Ontario, the High Court, in certiorari 
proceedings, quashed an arbitration award 
on the ground that the board, by refusing 
to hear a grievance submitted by a union 
under collective agreement, declined to 
exercise its jurisdiction under the term's of 
the collective agreement, and the provisions 
of the Ontario Labour Relations Act. 



Supreme Court of Canada . . . 

. . .upholds ruling that certiorari not applicable 
to arbitration board under collective agreement 

On March 26, 1962, the Supreme Court 
of Canada, dismissing an appeal from a 
judgment of the British Columbia Court of 
Appeal, confirmed that the arbitrators ap- 
pointed by the parties under a collective 
agreement pursuant to the British Columbia 
Labour Relations Act were not statutory 
arbitrators and, therefore, not subject to 
certiorari. 

Further, the Supreme Court held that the 
British Columbia Labour Relations Act 
does not prohibit recourse to the courts 
by either party to a collective agreement 
to challenge the jurisdiction of an arbi- 
tration board sitting pursuant to a collective 
agreement, or the validity of its award, 
in a manner as permitted by the Arbitra- 
tion Act or by the common law. 

The judgment of the Court was delivered 
by Mr. Justice Cartwright, who related the 
following facts of the dispute. 

On June 8, 1944, Local 663 of the 
International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers (Canada) was certified 
as bargaining representative of the em- 
ployees of Britannia Mining and Smelting 
Co. Ltd. Later, the company's operations 
were taken over by Howe Sound Company 
and, on December 23, 1958, the British 
Columbia Labour Relations Board varied 
the certificate by deleting the name Bri- 
tannia Mining and Smelting and substi- 
tuting in its place the name Howe Sound 
Company. 

In August 1956 the Standard Life As- 
surance Co. issued a group pension policy 
to the Britannia company providing for 
pensions and death benefits for its em- 



This section, prepared by the Legislation Branch, reviews labour laws as they are 
enacted by Parliament and the provincial legislatures, regulations under these laws, and 
selected court decisions affecting labour. 



952 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



ployees. In August 1958 the Britannia 
company assigned all its rights in the 
policy to Howe Sound Company. 

A collective agreement dated November 
27, 1958, and effective from December 1, 
1958, was entered into between Local 663 
and Howe Sound Company. Article 16 of 
the agreement dealt with grievance pro- 
cedure leading through various stages to 
the formation of an arbitration board. The 
decision of the arbitration board was to be 
final and binding on the parties concerned, 
"insofar as such decision is not incon- 
sistent with any law, order or directive of 
any government, agency of government, or 
other body constituted to enact, administer 
or issue such law, order or directive, and 
such authority has jurisdiction on the date 
of the rendering of such decision." 

Article 25 of the agreement reads as fol- 
lows: 

This Agreement between the union and the 
company is made in recognition of and subject 
to the provisions of all Dominion and/ or Pro- 
vincial regulations pertaining thereto and to 
the laws in force in the Province of British 
Columbia from time to time. 

Article 23 of the collective agreement 
dealt with the retirement plan and read as 
follows: 

The Company agrees to contribute to a 
Retirement Benefit Plan in accordance with 
an agreement between Howe Sound Company 
and the Standard Life Assurance Company. 
For the purpose of this Article the Company 
agrees to recognize past service of those ex- 
employees of Britannia Mining and Smelting 
Co. Limited (dissolved) who have not with- 
drawn from the Plan prior to the date of 
this agreement. 

The nature of the grievance that was sub- 
mitted to the arbitration board by the union 
was that the company refused to carry out 
the provisions of Article 23 of the collective 
agreement regarding the coverage by the 
pension plan of all former employees of the 
Britannia company, whether such employees 
were hired by the Howe Sound Company 
Britannia Division or not, who had not 
withdrawn from the plan prior to the date 
of the collective agreement. 

The company took the position that the 
alleged grievance was not properly arbi- 
trable under Article 16 of the collective 
agreement and that any ex-employee of 
Britannia company claiming to be entitled 
to coverage by the group pension plan 
should begin a court action against the as- 
surance company underwriting the plan 
and a court decision would be binding on 
all the parties. On the other hand, a deci- 
sion of the board of arbitration could not 
hind the assurance company or an ex- 
employee who had not been rehired by the 
Howe Sound Company. 



The company had consistently main- 
tained its position that the alleged grievance 
was not a proper subject for arbitration 
under the terms of Article 16 of the Agree- 
ment and, in the opinion of Mr. Justice 
Cartwright, by taking part in this arbitra- 
tion, had not lost its right to assert that the 
arbitrators had no authority to make an 
award. The law on this point was stated in 
the following passages in Russell on Arbi- 
tration, 16th ed., at pp. 162 and 163: 

If a party to a reference objects that the 
arbitrators are entering upon the consideration 
of a matter not referred to them and protests 
against it, and the arbitrators nevertheless go 
into the question and receive evidence on it, 
and the party, still under protest, continues 
to attend before the arbitrators and cross- 
examines the witnesses on the point objected 
to, he does not thereby waive his objection, 
nor is he estopped from saying that the arbi- 
trators have exceeded their authority by award- 
ing on the matter. 

Continuing to take part in the proceedings 
after protest made does not amount to consent. 

When the arbitration board met on No- 
vember 4, 1960, counsel for the company 
raised a preliminary objection to the board's 
jurisdiction and the board reserved its de- 
cision on the objection and adjourned the 
hearing until November 21. 

On November 18, the board gave its 
decision, in which it noted, inter alia, that 
by Article 16 of the collective agreement, 
the company and the union agreed to arbi- 
trate "any dispute or grievance arising as 
to the interpretation of this agreement. . . 
whether the dispute or grievance is claimed 
by any person employed, or by the men 
as a whole. . ." when they failed to reach 
agreement about such disputes. 

The company argued that this article 
applied only to the grievances of specific 
present employees. In the board's opinion, 
such interpretation of Article 16 was too 
restrictive because, when the union entered 
into the agreement with the company, it 
was acting on behalf of "the men as a 
whole," and when it alleged that the com- 
pany was not complying with an article 
of the agreement, it was complaining on 
behalf of "the men as a whole," and it was 
not necessary for the union to show that 
some particular employee was prejudiced. 

The board added that if the company 
failed to carry out any term of the agree- 
ment, it was a matter of concern for the 
whole body of employees covered by the 
agreement, and they had a grievance, even 
though the immediate beneficiary of the 
promise by the company might be a third 
party to the agreement. The board held 
that the grievance of the union, involving 
the interpretation of an article of the collec- 
tive agreement, came within the provisions 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



953 



of Article 16 and the board had jurisdiction 
to proceed with the hearing of the union's 
grievance. 

On November 21, the board reconvened 
and, at its request, the parties agreed on a 
formulation of the issue before it, which 
read as follows: 

Does Article 23 of the collective agreement 
dated December 1, 1958, impose on the com- 
pany the obligation to make pension contribu- 
tions for past service of ex-employees of 
Britannia Mining and Smelting Co., Limited 
who had not withdrawn prior to the date of 
the agreement from the Retirement Benefit 
Plan referred to in that Article and who have 
not been rehired by the company since that 
date? 

The hearing before the board followed 
and the union called its first witness, but 
the proceedings were stopped upon the 
board's being served with the notice of 
motion for a writ of certiorari. 

The motion for a writ of certiorari was 
heard before Mr. Justice Mclnnes, who, 
after considering the terms of the collective 
agreement and certain sections of the La- 
bour Relations Act, said in part: 

The plain meaning and intent of the whole 
agreement, and particularly Articles 16 and 23, 
is that employees of the present company who 
were formerly employed by the Britannia Com- 
pany shall retain the full benefits to which they 
were entitled under the pension plan which was 
in existence between the old company and its 
employees. No other meaning is possible or 
was ever intended to be conveyed by the terms 
of the present collective agreement and in 
particular, Article 23 thereof. 

In the opinion of Mr. Justice Cartwright, 
that was not the question which Mr. Justice 
Mclnnes was called upon to decide; his 
function was to determine whether or not 
the board had jurisdiction to decide the 
matter referred to it. 

In the result, Mr. Justice Mclnnes ordered 
that the ruling of the board of November 
18, 1960, be quashed. 

In the Court of Appeal (L.G., Jan., 
p. 72), for the first time, the question was 
raised whether certiorari would lie against 
the arbitration board in question and the 
Court of Appeal held unanimously that it 
would not and consequently allowed the 
appeal without dealing with any other ques- 
tions. 

In this respect, Mr. Justice Cartwright 
quoted the following passage from the judg- 
ment of Mr. Justice Tysoe of the Court of 
Appeal: 

Certiorari does not lie against an arbitrator 
or arbitration board unless the arbitrator or 
board is a statutory arbitrator or statutory 
board; that is, a person or board to whom by 
statute the parties must resort. Prerogative 
writs of certiorari and prohibition do not go 
to ordinary private arbitration boards set up 
by agreement of parties: Ex parte Neate; Reg. 
v. National Joint Council for Craft of Dental 
Technicians (1953), 1 QB 704, (1953) 2 WLR 
342. We must, therefore, decide whether this 



arbitration board is a private arbitration body 
set up by agreement or a statutory board. 

In Ex Parte Neate: Reg. v. National Joint 
Council of Dental Technicians, Lord God- 
dard said: 

But the bodies to which in modern times the 
remedies of these prerogative writs have been 
applied have all been statutory bodies on wnom 
Parliament has conferred statutory powers and 
duties which, when exercised, may lead to the 
detriment of subjects who may have to submit 
to their jurisdiction . . . 

. . . There is no instance of which I know 
in the books where certiorari or prohibition 
has gone to any arbitrator except a statutory 
arbitrator, and a statutory arbitrator is one to 
whom by statute the parties must resort. 

Counsel for the company submitted that, 
by the combined effect of Sections 21, 22, 
24 and 60 of the Labour Relations Act, 
the arbitration board set up under Article 
16 of the collective agreement is, in sub- 
stance, a statutory board to which, by statute, 
the parties must resort. It was argued that, 
while its creation is provided for and its 
powers are conferred upon it by the agree- 
ment, and two of its members are appointed 
by the parties and the third pursuant to the 
request of those two, all these things are 
agreed to, not of the free will of the parties, 
but under the compulsion of the statute. In 
support of this submission, the company 
relied, among others, on Re International 
Nickel Co. of Can. and Rivando (L.G. 
1956, p. 1155), a unanimous decision of the 
Court of Appeal for Ontario. 

Mr. Justice Cartwright noted that there 
are differences between the Ontario legis- 
lation and that in force in British Colum- 
bia, and whether the company's argument 
should prevail must depend chiefly on the 
wording of the British Columbia statute. 

The sections of the British Columbia 
Labour Relations Act upon which the com- 
pany relied read as follows: 

S. 21. Every person who is bound by a col- 
lective agreement, whether entered into before 
or after the coming into force of this Act, shall 
do everything he is required to do, and shall 
refrain from doing anything that he is required 
to refrain from doing, by the provisions of 
the collective agreement, and failure to do or 
refrain from so doing is an offence against this 
Act. 

S. 22 (1). Every collective agreement entered 
into after the commencement of this Act shall 
contain a provision for final and conclusive 
settlement without stoppage of work, by arbi- 
tration or otherwise, of all differences between 
the persons bound by the agreement concerning 
its interpretation, application, operation, or any 
alleged violation thereof. 

S. 22 (2). Where a collective agreement, 
whether entered into before or after the com- 
mencement of this Act, does not contain a 
provision as required by this section, the Minis- 
ter shall by order prescribe a provision for 
such purpose, and a provision so prescribed 
shall be deemed to be a term of the collective 
agreement and binding on all persons bound 
by the agreement. 



954 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 9 AUGUST 1962 



S. 24. Each of the parties to a collective 
agreement shall forthwith, upon its execution, 
file one copy with the Minister. 

S. 60. Every trade-union, employers' organi- 
zation, or person who does anything prohibited 
by this Act, or who refuses or neglects to do 
anything required by this Act to be done by 
him, is guilty of an offence and, except where 
some other penalty is by this Act provided for 
the act, refusal, or neglect is liable, on summary 
conviction, 

(a) if an individual, to a fine not exceeding 
fifty dollars; or 

(b) if a corporation, trade-union, or em- 
ployers' organization, to a fine not 
exceeding two hundred and fifty dollars. 

Counsel for the company argued that 
the provision in the collective agreement 
stating that the decision of the arbitration 
board shall be final, when read in the light 
of Section 22(1) of the Act requiring "a 
provision for final and conclusive settle- 
ment ... of all differences," had the effect 
of prohibiting recourse to the courts by 
either party to question the jurisdiction of 
the board or the validity of its award, and 
thus left prohibition and certiorari as the 
only available remedies. 

Mr. Justice Cartwright did not accept 
this argument. In his opinion, even if the 
collective agreement did not contain Article 
25 and the sentence about the finality of 
the arbitration board's decision in Article 
16, quoted above, words clearer than those 
used in the collective agreement and in the 
statute would be necessary to have the ef- 
fect of ousting the jurisdiction of the 
courts. In his view, it is open to the parties, 
should the occasion arise, to question the 
jurisdiction of the arbitration board or the 
validity of any award it makes in such 
manner as is permitted by the Arbitra- 
tion Act or by the common law. 

For these reasons and those given by 
Mr. Justice Tysoe in the Court of Appeal, 
Mr. Justice Cartwright reached the con- 
clusion that the arbitration board, in the 
case under review, was not one to which 
certiorari could be applied and, conse- 
quently, the company's appeal should be 
dismissed. 

He also agreed with the view of Mr. 
Justice Tysoe that the question of what 
the situation would be should the parties 
to a collective agreement fail to include 
in it a provision for final and conclusive 
settlement without stoppage of work so as 
to bring into operation the provisions of 
Subsection (2) of Section 22 of the La- 
bour Relations Act should be reserved for 
future consideration. Re Crown Office Rules 
Act, Certiorari Proceedings (B.C.), Howe 
Sound Company v. International Union of 
Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers (Canada), 
Local 663, (1962), 37 W.W.R., Part 14, 
p. 646. 



Manitoba Court of Queen's Bench . . . 

...rules that a trade union in Manitoba has no 
legal status to obtain mandamus order from court 

On October 19, 1961, Chief Justice Wil- 
liams of the Manitoba Court of Queen's 
Bench held that a trade union in Manitoba 
had no legal status to obtain an order from 
the Court to compel an employer to carry 
out a term of a collective bargaining agree- 
ment relating to a pension plan. 

The Bakery and Confectionery Workers' 
International Union of America, Local 389, 
Winnipeg, entered on May 1, 1959 into a 
collective agreement with Brothers Bakery 
Ltd. The agreement, in Article 17, provided 
for a pension plan, which the company 
agreed to make effective from January 1, 
1961 once the plan was approved by the 
vote of the employees concerned. Appar- 
ently, the company refused to take neces- 
sary steps to put the plan into effect. 

On May 4, 1961 the Manitoba Labour 
Relations Board granted the union's request 
for consent to prosecute the company for 
alleged violation of the Labour Relations 
Act in failing to put the pension plan 
into effect. 

No prosecution of the company had 
been undertaken and the reason given by 
the union for not prosecuting was that, 
while the prosecution might result in a 
fine, it would not necessarily result in the 
company's taking necessary steps to make 
the pension plan effective. 

Also, the union did not apply for arbitra- 
tion of the problem under the collective 
agreement grievance procedure because, in 
the union's opinion, the issue between the 
union and the company was not any dif- 
ferent as to matters of fact or matters of 
law, but simply a refusal by the company 
to do what it had contracted to do, and 
an arbitration board has no power to en- 
force the execution of the pension plan 
by the company, and any reference to 
arbitration would simply be a waste of 
time and money. 

Instead, the union brought the matter 
before the Court by way of originating 
notice to obtain a mandamus order com- 
pelling the company to take necessary steps 
to implement the provisions of the collec- 
tive agreement in order to put the pension 
plan into effect. 

In connection with the arbitration pro-, 
vision in the collective agreement, Chief 
Justice Williams drew attention to Sec- 
tion 19(4) of the Labour Relations Act, 
which reads: 

The Arbitration Act does not apply to an 
arbitration under a collective agreement. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



955 



It was argued that, because of this Sec- 
tion, an arbitration award under the col- 
lective agreement would be ineffective be- 
cause it could not be enforced by the Court. 
In the Chief Justice's opinion, if the person 
or corporation had a proper status, the 
effect of Section 19(4) would not be to 
bar an application to the court to enforce 
the award, relying upon the common law 
or equitable jurisdiction of the court. The 
insertion of Section 19(4) in 1957, how- 
ever, does point up the differences between 
collective agreements and ordinary com- 
mercial contracts. 

Chief Justice Williams dismissed the mo- 
tion on the ground that mandamus, a man- 
datory order, or a mandatory injunction, 
cannot be obtained on originating notice. 
Another ground for dismissing the motion 
was that a trade union in Manitoba had 
no legal status to obtain an order compel- 
ling the employer to carry out a term of a 
collective bargaining agreement. 

In the opinion of the Chief Justice, the 
matter of status of trade unions in Mani- 
toba was settled by the judgment of the 
Manitoba Court of Appeal in Re Walterson 
and Laundry & Dry Cleaning Workers' 
Union and New Method Launderers Ltd., 
(L.G. 1955, p. 565) where, in affirming a 
court order prohibiting a magistrate from 
hearing certain prosecutions authorized by 
the Labour Relations Board and brought 
by the union in its own name, Chief Jus- 
tice Adamson stated that the union was 
not a legal entity and, as such, could not 
sue or be sued in civil proceedings and 
could not prosecute or be prosecuted in 
criminal proceedings. 

Further, Chief Justice Adamson stated 
that a number of unincorporated individu- 
als cannot be a party to judicial proceed- 
ings in their club, union or association 
name, and Section 46(1) of the Manitoba 
Labour Relations Act gave a trade union 
status in courts only to be prosecuted for 
an offence under the Act. This specific pro- 
vision as to when a trade union could be 
a party in legal proceedings negated the 
submission that the intention of the Act 
was to make trade unions legal entities for 
all purposes within the purview of the 
Act. 

Further, Chief Justice Adamson noted 
that the same principle was upheld, in so 
far as the province of Quebec was con- 
cerned, in the Supreme Court of Canada' in 
International Ladies' Garment Workers' 
Union v. Rothman (1941) S.C.R. 388, and 
under the federal Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act in Can. Seamen's 
Union v. Can. Labour Relations Board 
(L.G. 1951, p. 697). 



Chief Justice Williams, in the case under 
review, concluded that the judgment in the 
Walterson case was binding and all Mani- 
toba decisions prior to the Walterson case 
must be read in its light, and that there was 
nothing in the Therien v. International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters case (L.G. 1960, 
p. 276) that could weaken its effect. 

Further, Chief Justice Williams said that 
primarily, a trade union is a voluntary un- 
incorporated association; it is not a legal 
entity known to the law. It may not sue or 
be sued in civil proceedings and may not 
prosecute or be prosecuted in criminal 
proceedings. The Legislature may confer 
upon or impose upon such an association 
powers and liabilities, but this should be 
done by clear and unambiguous words. 

The Courts have, however, by implica- 
tion from the words or intent of the statute 
in question, found that in certain instances 
such unions are given a status or quasi 
status. They have been held to be suable 
for certain torts. They have been given 
a status in some cases to conduct prose- 
cutions for breaches of the statute. They 
have apparently been authorized or required 
to enter into arbitration agreements. But, 
in his opinion, the Court should not be 
required to go too far in "implying" status. 

Chief Justice Williams could not see, on 
consideration of the Labour Relations Act, 
any power given by express words or 
reasonable implication to the union in the 
case at bar to maintain the proceedings in 
question, and he held that it had no status 
to do so. Also, he said that the use of the 
words "or otherwise" after the word "arbi- 
tration" in Section 19(1) of the Act does 
not give any right of action in a case such 
as this under review. This section reads: 

Section 19(1): Every collective agreement 
entered into after the twenty-first day of April, 
1948, shall contain a provision for final settle- 
ment without stoppage of work, by arbitration 
or otherwise of all differences between the 
parties to, or persons bound by, the agreement 
or on whose behalf it was entered into, con- 
cerning its meaning, application or violation. 

The Court dismissed the motion for a 
mandamus order to compel the employer 
to carry out a term of a collective agree- 
ment relating to a pension plan. Re Bakery 
and Confectionery Workers' International 
Union of America, Local 389, Winnipeg, 
and Brothers Bakery Ltd. (1962), 37 
W.W.R., Part 9, p. 413. 

Quebec Court of Queen's Bench . . . 

. . .upholds the validity of union dues agreement 
between employer and certified bargaining agents 

On December 15, 1961, the Quebec 
Court of Queen's Bench allowed an appeal 
from the judgment of Mr. Justice Mont- 



956 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



petit of February 24, 1956, and held as 
valid a "union dues agreement" between 
the CNR and the unions recognized as duly 
certified bargaining agents for the em- 
ployees concerned. 

The Court held that the agreement — 
which stipulated that each employee cov- 
ered by the collective agreements then in 
force, whether or not a member of the 
union, would be obliged to pay union dues 
and that the sanction for non-payment 
would be the loss, for the delinquent em- 
ployee, of his preference of employment — 
was neither contrary to nor prohibited by 
the provisions of the Industrial Relation's 
and Disputes Investigation Act. Further, the 
Court held that the agreement in question 
did not imply intimidation or coercion, but 
only imposed a condition that was reason- 
able and within the law. 

Since 1946, the Brotherhood of Locomo- 
tive Engineers has been recognized as a 
certified bargaining agent for "the locomo- 
tive engineers handling steam or other 
classes of motive power while employed as 
such in Canada by the Canadian National 
Railways." The Brotherhood of Locomo- 
tive Firemen and Enginemen has been rec- 
ognized since 1948 as a bargaining agent 
for all the CNR employees engaged as 
"locomotive fireman, locomotive helpers, 
hostlers, and outside hostlers' helpers." 

Both unions had collective agreements 
with the Canadian National Railways which 
were valid on February 1, 1955, and cov- 
ered all the above-mentioned employees. 
On February 1, 1955, both unions and the 
company signed an additional agreement 
called "union dues agreement" which was 
to be valid from April 1, 1955 till March 
31, 1956, and which stipulated "the pay- 
ment of union dues as a condition of con- 
tinued preference of employment with the 
railway company." 

Sloan had been a member of both unions 
for 18 and 17 years respectively, until No- 
vember 1952, when he ceased to be a union 
member but continued to pay union dues 
under the dues agreement. The latter agree- 
ment provided that all CNR employees cov- 
ered by the collective agreement then in 
force, whether or not members of the 
unions, were bound to tender and pay the 
union dues assesed by the two Brother- 
hoods. Upon the failure of such payment, 
the employees were considered as delin- 
quent and were liable to lose their "prefer- 
ence of employment." The effect of the 
"loss of preference of employment" clause 
was that a delinquent locomotive engineer, 
locomotive firemen (helper), hostler or 
hostler's helper, would lose the privilege of 



exercising his seniority to service of any 
kind and would not be called for work 
unless there was no one else available. 

In April and May 1955, Sloan refused 
to pay union dues, and in June he lost his 
seniority rights for three days. Once he 
started the payments, his seniority .was re- 
stored. Then he brought a court action 
challenging the legality of the union dues 
agreement on the grounds that the agree- 
ment was not a collective agreement; the 
unions and the company had no right to 
sign it; the agreement was contrary to the 
Industrial Relations and Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act, to the Civil Code, and to the 
constitution and by-laws of the Brother- 
hoods. He contended also, that the agree- 
ment was against public order. 

Mr. Justice Montpetit of the Superior 
Court rejected the submission that the 
union dues agreement was not a collective 
agreement; he also rejected the contention 
that the parties to the agreement had no 
right and no authority to sign it. He ac- 
cepted the contention, however, that the 
agreement was contrary to the Industrial 
Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 
and he declared null and void the parts of 
the agreement dealing with the loss of pref- 
erence of employment, and held the union 
dues agreement as such null and without 
effect insofar as Sloan was concerned. 

The judgment of Mr. Justice Montpetit 
was appealed by the unions. 

In the Court of Queen's Bench, the 
unions asked for confirmation of the find- 
ings of the judge below that the union dues 
agreement was of the nature of a collective 
agreement within the terms of Section 2(1) 
of the I.R.D.I. Act and that the unions, 
which were certified bargaining agents, had 
the right to claim the totality of rights con- 
ferred upon them by the said Act. 

On the other hand, the unions sub- 
mitted that the judge below was wrong 
when he found, inter alia, that the provi- 
sions of the union dues agreement regarding 
the loss of preference of employment could 
not be comprised in the exceptions author- 
ized by Section 6(1) of the Act; that the 
judge was also wrong when deciding that 
the stipulations of the agreement were in 
conflict with Section 4(4) of the Act, as 
well as in his findings that the union dues 
agreement was void and null insofar as 
Sloan was concerned. 

The following sections of the Industrial 
Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 
were considered: 

S. 2 (1) (d). "Collective agreement" means 
an agreement in writing between an employer 
or an employers' organization acting on behalf 
of an employer, on the one hand, and a bar- 
gaining agent of his employees, on behalf of 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



957 



the employees, on the other hand, containing 
terms or conditions of employment of employees 
including provisions with reference to rates of 
pay and hours of work. 

S. 4 (4). No employer and no person acting 
on behalf of an employer shall seek by intimi- 
dation by threat of dismissal, or by any other 
kind of threat, or by the imposition of a 
pecuniary or other penalty, or by any other 
means to compel an employee to refrain from 
becoming or to cease to be a member or 
officer or representative of a trade union and 
no other person shall seek by intimidation or 
coercion to compel an employee to become 
or refrain from becoming or to cease to be a 
member of a trade union. 

S. 6 (7). Nothing in this Act prohibits the 
parties to a collective agreement from inserting 
in the collective agreement a provision requir- 
ing, as a condition of employment, membership 
in a specified trade union, or granting a pref- 
ernce of employment to members of a speci- 
fied trade union. 

S. 10. Where a trade union is certified 
under this Act as the bargaining agent of the 
employees in a unit 

(a) the trade union shall immediately replace 
any other bargaining agent of employees 
in the unit and shall have exclusive author- 
ity to bargain collectively on behalf of 
employees in the unit and to bind them 
by a collective agreement until the certi- 
fication of the trade union in respect of 
employees in the unit is revoked, 
S. 18. A collective agreement entered into 
by a certified bargaining agent is, subject to 
and for the purposes of this Act, binding upon 
(a) the bargaining agent and every employee 
in the unit of employees for which the 
bargaining agent has been certified. 

Mr. Justice Casey, in his reasons for 
judgment, agreed with the ruling of the 
trial judge that the union dues agreement 
was a collective agreement, that the prefer- 
ence of employment provisions were condi- 
tions of employment, and the unions and 
the company were entitled to enter into this 
kind of contract. As there was no appeal 
from that part of the judgment, the issue 
before the Court of Appeal was to decide 
whether the union dues agreement was 
contrary to the I.R.D.I. Act. In particular, 
the question was whether the union dues 
agreements set up the type of preference 
contemplated by Section 6(1) of the Act. 
The trial judge reached the conclusion that 
the preference of employment, as provided 
in the agreement, was not the one envisaged 
by Section 6(1) of the Act. 

On this point, Mr. Justice Casey dis- 
agreed with the decision of the trial judge. 
He noted that the question whether there 
was anything in the Act that expressly 
prohibits agreements of this type was dealt 
with by Chief Justice McRuer of the "On- 
tario High Court in Hill v. Canadian Pacific 
Railway Company (L.G., April, p. 450). 
He agreed with the Chief Justice's reason- 
ing that irrespective of Section 4(4) and 
Section 6(1), the I.R.D.I. Act, by Sections 
10 and 18, authorizes an agreement of the 



kind under review; that an employer is 
entitled, under the Act, to agree with a 
trade union acting on behalf of his em- 
ployees that payment of union dues is a 
condition of employment, or a condition to 
the enjoyment of preference in employ- 
ment. 

Mr. Justice Casey agreed also that Sec- 
tions 4(4) and 6(1) do not concern the 
situation under review because the purpose 
of these subsections is to preserve the right 
of freedom to belong to a union, or free- 
dom to refrain from belonging to a union, 
and that the employee is not to be subject 
to coercion, but that is a different thing 
from an employer saying to his employees: 
"If you wish to have the benefits of col- 
lective agreements that we enter into with 
the union and to remain in our employ, 
you will pay union dues"; or, "If you wish 
to enjoy the privileges of the union agree- 
ment as to first in first out in the pool of 
engineers, you will have to support the 
union that looks after the enforcement of 
the rights of the employees." 

Mr. Justice Casey added that it was un- 
realistic and contrary to the economy of the 
Act to assume that unions must or should 
donate their services to non-member em- 
ployees; it is in the interest of the employ- 
ees that they be given a bargaining agent, 
and this interest implies a duty to contribute 
to the costs incurred by that agent in the 
discharge of its functions. Therefore, be- 
fore declaring a union dues agreement in- 
valid under the Act, Mr. Justice Casey 
would require an express prohibition or, 
at the very least, one that necessarily im- 
plies invalidity. Since he was unable to 
find either, he held the union dues agree- 
ment valid. 

Further, he did not regard the loss of 
preference of employment provisions as 
intimidation or coercion; in his opinion, 
these provisions imposed on all a condition 
that was reasonable and not contrary to 
the law. 

Mr. Justice Badeaux, in his reasons for 
judgment, noted that the trial judge rightly 
decided that the union dues agreement was 
a kind of collective agreement. A collec- 
tive agreement, under the terms of Section 
2(l)(d), has to be (1) an agreement in 
writing between an employer or an em- 
ployers' organization acting on behalf of 
an employer, on the one hand, and a 
bargaining agent of his employees, on be- 
half of the employees, on the other hand, 
and (2) has to contain terms or conditions 
of employment of employees, including 
provisions with reference to rates of pay 
and hours of work. 



958 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



The union dues agreement under con- 
sideration was no doubt in conformity with 
the first requirement of a collective agree- 
ment. Did it, however, conform with the 
second requirement, namely, did it contain 
conditions of employment of employees? 

In this respect, Mr. Justice Badeaux 
said that the union being duly certified, 
all the employees in the bargaining unit, 
whether or not union members, were bound 
by the union dues agreement in pursuance 
of Section 18(a) of the Act. This collective 
agreement, in his opinion, did not contain 
anything discriminatory against the em- 
ployees who were not union members, since 
the conditions of employment which this 
agreement imposed were the same for the 
union members as for those who were not. 

Under the agreement in question, if an 
employee who was a union member ceased 
to pay his union dues, he lost his seniority 
exactly in the same way as an employee 
who was not a union member and who had 
stopped his payments. The employee was 
not deprived of his right to work, but he 
lost his seniority and could work only when 
the list of employees who made such pay- 
ment had been exhausted. 

Under Section 18(a) of the Act, all the 
employees within the bargaining unit are 
bound by such an agreement, which, in 
the opinion of Mr. Justice Badeaux, was 
made not to the detriment of one or the 
other group of employees, but in reality 
for the common benefit of all the employees 
of the bargaining unit without distinction. 

In reference to Section 4(4) of the Act, 
Mr. Justice Badeaux said that the section 
in question forbids an employer to seek 
by intimidation, by the threat of dismissal, 
or by any other kind of threat, or by the 
imposition of a pecuniary or other penalty, 
or by any other means, to compel an em- 
ployee to refrain from becoming or to 
cease to be a member or officer or repre- 
sentative of a trade union. And no other 
person could, for the same reasons, compel 
an employee to become or refrain from 
becoming, or to cease to be, a member of a 
trade union. In his opinion, this section 
deals with a total forfeiture of the right 
to work, while this was not stipulated in the 
union dues agreement. 

Under Section 6(1) of the Act, Mr. Jus- 
tice Badeaux continued, the CNR and the 
unions could include in the collective agree- 
ment a provision stipulating as a condition 
of employment the membership in the 
union, or could provide for a preference 
of employment for a union member. This 
section allowed the conditions of employ- 
ment to be more restrictive than those con- 
tained in the union dues agreement. 



Mr. Justice Badeaux did not find any- 
thing in the Act that would prevent in- 
sertion in the union dues agreement of the 
conditions of employment such as were 
included. In conclusion, he held that the 
provisions regarding the loss of prefer- 
ence of employment as contained in the 
union dues agreement could be com- 
prised within the exceptions provided by 
Section 6(1) of the Act and these pro- 
visions were not in conflict with Section 
4(4) of the Act. 

Mr. Justice Rinfret, in his dissenting 
opinion, stated that the union dues agree- 
ment was illegal insofar as Sloan was con- 
cerned. Further, he held that the agree- 
ment could not be considered as being of 
the nature of a collective agreement within 
the terms of Section 2(l)(d) of the I.R.D.I. 
Act because, insofar as the agreement went, 
the unions were not acting in the name of 
the employees, nor were they concerned 
only with the benefits of employees whom 
they represented as bargaining agents, but 
they were prompted by their own benefits 
and interests with the sole aim of facilitat- 
ing the collection of union dues from their 
members and of the contributions imposed 
on non-members. 

Also, Mr. Justice Rinfret added that the 
union dues agreement was outside the 
scope of Section 6(1) of the Act and was 
not a stipulation of preference of employ- 
ment which the parties to the collective 
agreement could grant to the members of a 
specified trade union. Actually, in Mr. Jus- 
tice Rinfret's opinion, the provision in ques- 
tion amounted to a penalty for defaulting in 
the payment of union dues imposed on all 
employees, whether or not union members, 
who, by refusing to pay, become delinquent. 

The Court of Queen's Bench, by a major- 
ity decision, allowed the appeal and found 
the union dues agreement valid and within 
the terms of the I.R.D.I. Act and binding 
insofar as Sloan was concerned. Brother- 
hood of Locomotive Engineers and Brother- 
hood of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen 
v. Sloan and Canadian National Railways, 
(1962) R.J.B.R., No. 4, p. 305. 

Ontario High Court . . . 

. . .quashes arbitration decision on ground that 
the board declined to exercise its jurisdiction 

On January 23, 1962, Mr. Justice Gale 
of the Ontario High Court, in certiorari 
proceedings, quashed a decision of an arbi- 
tration board in which the board had de- 
clined to hear a dispute submitted by a 
union under a collective agreement. The 
Court held that under the collective agree- 
ment the union had the right to submit to 
an arbitration board any grievance which 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



959 



the individual employees had the right to 
raise and the board could not decline its 
jurisdiction by refusing to hear such dis- 
pute. 

On January 10, 1961, Local 598 of the 
Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers Union 
requested a meeting of the International 
Nickel Co. of Canada Ltd. under Article 
7.09 of the collective agreement to deal 
with an alleged violation of Article 11.13 
of the agreement in respect of the amounts 
said to be payable to the employees for 
the 1960 Christmas and New Year's pay 
periods. 

The opening paragraph of Article 7.09 
reads as follows: 

Any differences arising between the union 
and the company from the interpretation, appli- 
cation, administration or alleged violation of the 
provisions of this agreement, instead of follow- 
ing the procedure hereinbefore set out, may 
be submitted, in writing by either of such parties 
to the other with opportunity for oral discus- 
sion between the officers of the union and the 
General Manager or his designated representa- 
tive. 

The article continues by setting out the 
procedures that were to be followed in 
the event there was not an initial settlement 
and ultimately provides that such matters 
might go to arbitration. 

Other Articles dealing with the adjust- 
ment of grievances were Articles 7.01 to 
7.08, which had to do with differences 
arising "between the company and any of 
the employees." Apart from the words 
quoted above, the first part of Article 7.01 
was identical with Article 7.09. 

From the outset, the company took the 
position that the question of what was to 
be paid to all of the some 8,000 employees 
with respect to the periods in question was 
a dispute between the company and each 
individual employee and could not be the 
subject matter of discussions and proceed- 
ings under Article 7.09 between the union 
and the company. 

When the union submitted the dispute to 
the arbitration board, the majority of 
the board decided that the board had no 
jurisdiction to hear the dispute because the 
dispute was not one which could be proc- 
essed through Article 7.09. The Board's 
decision could be summed up by quoting 
from the award the following passage: 

We are dealing with a contract which pro- 
vides for final and binding arbitration of any 
difference whatever, but provides two different 
and mutually exclusive procedures for the 
only two kinds of difference that can possibly 
arise under a collective agreement namely, a 
difference between employees as such and the 
company and differences between the union as 
such and the company. 



When the union applied for certiorari 
to quash the board's decision, it took the 
position that the board had jurisdiction to 
deal with dispute. The union's counsel 
argued that, in declining jurisdiction, the 
board acted in excess of jurisdiction; that 
there was an infringement of the funda- 
mental principles of justice because, in 
failing to adjudicate the dispute, the board 
denied justice to those seeking it; that 
there was an error on the face of the record 
which amounted to a manifest defect of 
jurisdiction; and that the board unlawfully 
declined jurisdiction when, in law, it was 
obliged to act. 

Mr. Justice Gale was of the opinion that 
certiorari should be granted and the board's 
ruling quashed because the board declined 
or refused to assume jurisdiction which it 
possessed. 

In his opinion, there were two matters 
before the board. There was first the com- 
pany's allegation that the dispute raised by 
the union was not one between the com- 
pany and the union, but was one between 
the company and its employees and was 
therefore not one that could be processed 
and ultimately arbitrated pursuant to Article 
7.09 of the collective agreement. As the 
union steadfastly contested that contention, 
therefore, in the opinion of Mr. Justice 
Gale, the board's first duty was to ascertain 
and decide whether, by reason of the 
agreement and the provisions of the Ontario 
Labour Relations Act and the correspon- 
dence at hand, the board had jurisdiction 
to hear the dispute although initiated by the 
union rather than by the employees per- 
sonally. 

The second matter before the board 
was to decide the question of how Article 
11.13 of the collective agreement dealing 
with the amounts payable for the 1960 
Christmas and New Year's pay periods 
should be interpreted and whether the em- 
ployees of the company should have re- 
ceived the money they claimed under 
Article 11.13. The consideration of the 
second matter by the board depended on 
the ruling regarding the first question as 
to whether the board had jurisdiction to 
hear the dispute. Consequently, the question 
before the Court to decide was primarily 
whether or not the board wrongly refused 
to assume jurisdiction. 

In deciding this matter, Mr. Justice Gale 
did not accept the proposition that the 
collective agreement contemplated two types 
of differences which were mutually ex- 
clusive and which had to be processed 
in separate ways. On the contrary, he was 
of the opinion that all differences may be 
disputed and carried to arbitration, subject 



960 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



to the specific terms of Articles 7.01 to 
7.10 as to procedures, by either the union 
or an individual employee. Article 7.01 of- 
fered one type of procedure for individuals 
up to a certain point and Article 7.09 gave 
a different type of procedure to the union, 
but there was no suggestion in the collec- 
tive agreement that "differences" fell into 
two or more classes and that one class must 
be pursued by individual employees and 
the other by the union. 

This interpretation, according to Mr. Jus- 
tice Gale, is recognized by and flows from 
the provisions of the Labour Relations- 
Act and, in particular, from Section 32 
of the Act, which provides that in every 
collective agreement the trade union is a 
party and is to be deemed to be the 
exclusive bargaining agent of the employ- 
ees, and from Section l(j), which sug- 
gests that one of the purposes of the for- 
mation of a trade union is the regulation 
of relations between employees and em- 
ployers. 

Section 34(1) and (2) are also of sig- 
nificance because they stipulate that the 
form of article therein set out regarding 
arbitration is deemed to be contained in 
any collective bargaining agreement from 
which it is omitted and is one "between 
the parties" which, of course, must include 
at least the union and the company. The 
board held, however, that this direction 
provided by the Act to the parties was 
removed from the union when it agreed to 
the insertion of Article 7.01 in the collec- 
tive agreement. In other words, the board 
concluded that by accepting that Article 
the union abandoned its right to raise any 
question, including those involving pay for 
the entire work force, that individual em- 
ployees have the right to raise. 

Mr. Justice Gale did not agree with the 
board's interpretation • and held that, if 
there has been abdication by the union of 
its ordinary right to bring a matter such 
as this to arbitration, then it must be found, 
if at all, in clear and explicit language. In 
the agreement under consideration, such 
language was entirely lacking. 

Further, Mr. Justice Gale noted that 
Article 7.09 of the collective agreement 
was worded in general terms and did not 
qualify in any way the type of difference 
that the union could bring pursuant to its 
provisions and did not envisage different 
classes of difference. Articles 7.01 to 7.08 
and Article 7.09 differentiated only between 
two types of grievors, not between differ- 



ences. If it were otherwise, it would be 
almost impossible to decide into which 
class a difference might fall. Uncertainty, 
and perhaps chaos, would follow, for every 
grievance would probably be preceded by 
a quarrel as to whether it was one which 
was available only to employees or only to 
the union. 

Under the collective agreement, the 
parties desired to promote harmonious in- 
dustrial relations and to establish the union 
as a party to the agreement, not only on its 
own behalf, but also on behalf of all its 
employees. In assuming these responsibil- 
ities, the union, in Mr. Justice Gale's 
opinion, was obliged to provide the mecha- 
nism for the carrying out of those terms 
of the agreement which, in its opinion, 
were to the benefit of individual employees. 

Mr. Justice Gale also agreed with the 
union's interpretation of Article 7.09. Under 
this article any difference was capable of 
being processed to arbitration, and the 
words "instead of following the procedure 
hereinbefore set out" indicated that the 
union could resort to either of the two 
methods of initiating proceedings for the 
adjustment of any dispute. 

Mr. Justice Gale was of the opinion that 
the union had the right under the agree- 
ment to resort to Article 7.09 in the dispute 
at bar. It was unreasonable to suggest that 
a matter affecting all of the great working 
force of the company was intended to be 
settled pursuant to individual grievances and 
in no other manner. The fact that Articles 
7.01 to 7.07 imposed a definite restriction 
upon the right of individual employees to 
follow the procedure therein set out was 
another reason for rejecting the com- 
pany's contention. An employee's right to 
grieve stopped at a certain stage and the 
agreement thus recognized that the union 
was thereafter his agent with exclusive 
power to process further all matters which 
it deemed worthy of additional consider- 
ation. 

In conclusion, Mr. Justice Gale held that, 
in the situation at bar, the union could 
commence the proceedings under Article 
7.09 and the board was wrong in deciding 
that no such right existed and that it had 
no jurisdiction to deal with the merits of 
the dispute as to the interpretation of Article 
11.13. The board was directed to deal with 
the dispute as submitted by the union. Re 
Sudbury Mine, Mill and Smelter Worker's 
Union, Local 598 and International Nickel 
Co. of Canada Ltd. (1962), 32 D.L.R. 
(2d), Part 7, p. 494. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



961 



Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 

Saskatchewan increases minimum wage rates in cities. New Brunswick sets out 
minimum construction standards for logging camps, lays down rules for hygiene 
and sanitation. Alberta sets licensing requirements for sheet metal mechanics 



In Saskatchewan, a revision of minimum 
wage orders increased rates for the 10 
cities of the province but left rates for the 
smaller centres unchanged. In the cities, the 
minimum for most occupations is now $34 
a week for full-time employees 18 years 
and over and 90 cents an hour for part-time 
workers. In the smaller centres, the corre- 
sponding rates are $32 a week and 85 
cents an hour. 

In New Brunswick, new regulations for 
logging camps set out minimum construc- 
tion standards for camps and also laid down 
rules with respect to equipment, mainte- 
nance, sanitation and hygiene. 

In Alberta, regulations under the Trades- 
men's Qualification Act set out licensing 
requirements for sheet metal mechanics. The 
regulations for apprentice welders were re- 
vised. Three new orders dealing with gas 
installations were issued under the Gas Pro- 
tection Act. 

Alberta Apprenticeship Act 

In Alberta, the apprenticeship rules for 
the welding trade have been re-issued with 
some changes in the provisions dealing with 
educational standards and wages of appren- 
tices. The new regulations, which were ga- 
zetted as Alta. Reg. 287/62 on May 31, 
replace Alta. Reg. 126/57. 

Apprentices in the welding trade must 
now have at least a Grade 9 education or 
its equivalent, instead of Grade 8. 

The minimum now payable to an appren- 
tice welder for registered employment prior 
to first-year technical training is 60 per 
cent of the prevailing journeyman's wage. 
The rate must be increased to 70 per cent 
after he passes his first-year technical train- 
ing, with a further increase to 80 per cent 
after a second successful year. From the 
time he passes his third year of technical 
training until completion of his contract, an 
apprentice in the welding trade must now 
be paid at least 90 per cent of the journey- 
man's rate. 

Previously, the minimum was 60 per cent 
of the journeyman's rate the first-year, 70 
per cent the second, and 80 per cent the 
first six months of the third year and 90 per 
cent the last six months. 



Alberta Gas Protection Act 

Three new orders under the Alberta Gas 
Protection Act, dealing with gas appliances, 
were gazetted June 15. 

One of these orders, Alta. Reg. 319/62, 
adopted the latest edition of the CSA in- 
stallation code for gas-burning appliances 
and equipment (B. 149-1962), in place of 
the 1958 edition previously used. Another 
order, Alta. Reg. 322/62, amends Alta. Reg. 
319/62 with respect to certain provisions 
in the Code relating to the purging of gas 
lines. Both regulations are effective August 
1, 1962. 

A further order, Alta. Reg. 323/62, "Reg- 
ulations Governing Gas Installations," con- 
solidates the provisions of Alta. Reg. 637/57 
and amendments with several new require- 
ments. 

One of these new provisions requires the 
producer or manufacturer of liquefied petro- 
leum gas to introduce an odorant into it to 
indicate the presence of gas in air in con- 
centrations as low as one half of one per 
cent by volume. Every tank truck ticket or 
tank car bill of lading must have a stamp 
stating that the gas has been "odorized in 
accordance with the requirements of the Gas 
Protection Act Regulations." 

Another new requirement specifies that 
appliances rated in excess of 400,000 B.T.U. 
per hour must pass the operational test of 
the Gas Protection Branch before being 
approved for operation. 

Alberta Tradesmen's Qualification Act 

Regulations under the Alberta Trades- 
men's Qualification Act providing for the 
examination and certification of sheet metal 
mechanics were gazetted as Alta. Reg. 
288/62 on May 31. The trade of a sheet 
metal mechanic was designated a trade 
under the Tradesmen's Qualification Act in 
April, and these are the first regulations 
to be issued. 

For purposes of these regulations, the 
term "sheet metal mechanic" means any 
person engaged in the fabrication or con- 
struction of warm air heating systems, ven- 
tilation systems, air conditioning systems, 
exhaust systems, fire doors, or restaurant, 
hospital and dairy equipment out of sheet 
metal not heavier than 10 gauge U.S.S., 
and in the installation, repair and servicing 



962 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



of such equipment. It does not cover persons 
employed in the manufacture of sheet metal 
products for sale as such, nor those em- 
ployed in the fabrication and installation 
of gravel stops and edging flashing or in 
the installation of eaves troughing made 
from sheet metal not heavier than 26 gauge 
U.S.S. or its equivalent. 

As in other designated trades, the regula- 
tions provide for two types of certificates, 
certificates of proficiency and temporary 
certificates of proficiency. 

To qualify for a certificate of proficiency 
in the trade of a sheet metal mechanic, an 
applicant must have at least four years 
experience and pass the prescribed examina- 
tion. However, a sheet metal mechanic 
holding a certificate of qualification under 
the Apprenticeship Act may exchange it 
for a certificate of proficiency under this 
Act upon payment of the prescribed fee. 

The examination for a certificate of pro- 
ficiency will include both practical and 
theoretical tests based on the course of 
studies established for the trade under the 
Apprenticeship Act. 

At the discretion of the Department of 
Labour, a temporary certificate of pro- 
ficiency may be issued to a person who is 
subject to examination, or to a tradesman 
who has failed the examination for a certifi- 
cate of proficiency but has obtained at 
least two thirds of the required pass mark. 

The Department may also issue a certifi- 
cate of proficiency or a temporary certificate 
of proficiency to a sheet metal mechanic 
who holds a certificate issued by another 
province or other approved licensing au- 
thority. 

New Brunswick Logging Camps Act 

The first regulations to be issued under 
the New Brunswick Logging Camps Act 
were gazetted June 6 to go into force on 
October 1. The Act, which was passed at 
the last session of the Legislature following 
a survey of woods camps by Department 
of Labour officials, provides for the enforce- 
ment of health and sanitation standards in 
logging camps. 

The regulations, which are to be admin- 
istered by the Department of Labour, lay 
down minimum construction standards for 
logging camps, specify the bedding, washing 
facilities and sanitary conveniences to be 
provided, and lay down rules with respect 
to sanitation, prevention of disease, and 
first aid. 

The regulations apply to all temporary 
or permanent camps housing five or more 
employees engaged in cutting, driving, raft- 
ing, booming, transporting and sawing of 



logs, timber, pulpwood, firewood, pit props, 
railroad ties or sleepers, and work incidental 
to these activities. 

Where possible, camp buildings must be 
located in a dry and sunny place, 100 feet 
or more from the high water level of a 
lake or stream. Floors must be tight and 
smooth and at least one foot above properly 
drained ground. Walls have to be seven 
feet or more in height and weatherproof. 
One square foot of window area is required 
for each 20 square feet of floor area. Roof 
windows may not be located over bunks. 
And artificial lighting must be provided. 

There must be at least 300 cubic feet 
of air space for each occupant of a bunk- 
house. The regulations also set out require- 
ments for ventilators. Each camp must have 
at least two exits and be provided with a 
suitable fire extinguisher. 

Workers must be provided with single 
beds not exceeding two tiers, with springs, 
and clean, disinfected bedding, including a 
mattress, sheets, woollen blankets, and a 
pillow. There must be a 24-inch passage 
between beds. Bed sheets are for the ex- 
clusive use of the worker and must be 
washed at least twice a month. Blankets 
must be washed and disinfected at least at 
the beginning of each working season. 

Each camp is required to have proper 
facilities for the cleanliness of its occupants. 
Suitable washrooms with at least one basin 
for every five workers are to be provided 
and supplied with hot water. There must 
also be a suitable room or other space for 
workers to dry their clothes and a place 
to store clothes and other belongings. 

A separate room must be provided for 
women employees. If a woman is accom- 
panied by one child or more, a dwelling 
separate from the bunkhouse and kitchen 
must be made available. 

Each camp must have a pantry for the 
storage of perishable foods, with proper pro- 
tection against flies, insects, vermin and 
dust. There must also be a suitable storage 
place for vegetables. Kitchen utensils and 
dishes must be made of rustproof material 
and be properly washed after use. 

Camp floors are to be washed twice a 
week and damp-swept daily. Insect screens 
must be provided. Harness, chainsaws and 
other equipment must be kept in a place 
other than the living quarters, where they 
will not interfere with camp cleanliness. 

Camps must be provided with a plentiful 
supply of wholesome drinking water. If 
there is no drilled well, the water must be 
obtained from a source higher than the 
camp level. If obtained from a lake or river, 
the intake must be located upstream from 
the camp and at least 200 feet from the 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • -AUGUST 7962 



963 



nearest building. If running water is not 
available, a clean, covered container with a 
tap and cups must be supplied. The water 
supply must be tested in a laboratory at least 
yearly. 

The regulations also set out minimum 
standards with respect to toilet facilities. 
Other sanitation provisions deal with drain- 
age, garbage disposal, the location of stables, 
and the keeping of domestic animals. 

An employer is forbidden to engage a 
cook, assistant cook or any food handler 
who does not have a certificate, issued 
within the preceding seven years, certifying 
his immunity to smallpox, his successful 
vaccination or accelerated reaction. Such 
a prospective employee must also have a 
medical certificate, issued within the past 
six months, stating that he is not suffering 
from a contagious or venereal disease and 
is not a carrier of germs likely to cause an 
infection transmissible by food. 

The employer is obliged to take pre- 
cautions to prevent the occurrence or spread 
of any infectious or contagious disease. He 
is also responsible for ensuring that the 
regulations of the Department of Health, or 
the sub-district board, regarding notifiable 
disease, are enforced. The employer must 
bear the cost of disinfection or cleaning for 
sanitary purposes. 

The regulations state that the Minister 
of Health may require the employer to 
engage a medical doctor to attend and treat 
any camp occupant who has a notifiable 
disease and to take whatever other measures 
the Minister may consider necessary. The 
employer is also required to provide a first- 
aid room and a first-aid kit containing the 
articles specified. 

Saskatchewan Minimum Wage Act 

In a new revision of its minimum wage 
orders, the Saskatchewan Minimum Wage 
Board replaced its general order — which had 
set uniform rates throughout the province — 
by two orders, one applying in the 10 cities 
of the province and the other governing 
workers in other areas. 

The minimum wage for adult workers in 
the cities and within a five-mile radius of 
a city is now $34 a week for full-time work 
and 90 cents an hour for part-time employ- 
ment. In the smaller centres, minimum 
rates remain, as before, $32 a week and 85 
cents an hour respectively, depending on 
the classification of the employees. 

Regional differentials have also been re- 
stored in some of the special orders. The 
order for hotels and restaurants has been 
replaced by two orders, which set the same 
minima as the general orders. Similarly, 
there are now two orders for educational 



institutions, hospitals and nursing homes, 
instead of one; Order 3 applies in the cities 
and a five-mile radius, and Order 6 governs 
employees elsewhere in the province. The 
new order for amusement places (No. 10) 
also set higher minimum rates for employees 
in the cities but left minimum rates for other 
workers unchanged. 

In addition, the Board increased the mini- 
mum wage of janitors in residential build- 
ings, and of truck drivers. 

The two special orders governing em- 
ployees in logging and lumbering and in 
oil well drilling (Orders 9 and 11), and the 
order requiring employers to furnish em- 
ployees with earnings statements every pay- 
day and on termination of employment 
(Order 12), were re-issued without change. 

The revised orders, which were gazetted 
June 8 and went into force on July 1, re- 
place orders issued in 1960 (L.G. 1960, p. 
286). 

Although regional differentials have been 
restored to some extent, the total coverage 
of the orders is substantially the same. To- 
gether, the two general orders and the nine 
special orders cover the majority of workers 
in the province. As before, the principal 
exemptions are agricultural workers and 
domestic servants, one difference being that, 
under the new coverage order (O.C. 
940/62), employees in egg hatcheries are 
not included in the exemption for the agri- 
cultural industry. 

The following other classes of employees 
are exempted under the general or special 
orders: workers employed in boarding or 
rooming houses; persons employed solely in 
a managerial capacity; firemen subject to 
the Fire Departments Platoon Act; registered 
nurses, student nurses or nursing assistants, 
and student laboratory or X-ray technicians 
whose wages and working conditions are 
fixed by regulations under the Hospital 
Standards Act; employees of rural munici- 
palities engaged solely in road maintenance 
work; and persons employed on core drilling 
rigs or in oil well servicing, or in the geo- 
physical or seismographic survey industry. 

Employees engaged in highway construc- 
tion work outside the boundaries of a city 
or town, a group previously excluded, will 
come under the general orders on October 
1. On that date also, cooks and "cookees" 
employed by boarding car contractors or in 
cook cars operated by highway construction 
contractors, will be subject to the hotel 
and restaurant orders (Orders 2 and 5). 

In line with former practices, a majority 
of the orders set weekly rates for full- 
time employees and hourly rates for part- 
time workers, with lower minima for em- 
ployees under 18. Under the two general 



964 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



orders (Orders 1 and 4), and the four 
orders governing employees in hotels, res- 
taurants, educational institutions, hospitals 
and nursing homes (Orders 2, 3, 5, 6), the 
full-time or weekly rates apply to persons 
who work 36 or more hours a week and the 
part-time or hourly rates apply to persons 
whose normal work week is less than 36 
hours. As formerly, these orders also im- 
pose a quota on part-time employees, limit- 
ing the number of such workers to 25 per 
cent of the total number of full-time em- 
ployees. 

The order for amusement places (No. 
10) defines full-time employees in the same 
manner as the orders referred to above 
and, as before, classifies as "part-time" per- 
sons those who normally work between 
16 and 36 hours a week and as "casual" 
employees those who work less than 16 
hours a week. It does not, however, limit 
the number of part-time or casual em- 
ployees. 

Under the order for janitors and care- 
takers in residential buildings (No. 7), the 
weekly rate applies to employees who regu- 
larly work 48 hours a week, and the hourly 
rate to employees who work less than 48 
hours a week. 

As indicated above, the two general 
orders and the special orders for hotels, 
restaurants, educational institutions, hospi- 
tals, nursing homes and amusement places, 
set the same rates. In the cities and within 
a five-mile radius, the minimum is now $34 
a week for full-time employees 18 years 
and over and $32 for those under 18. In 
the smaller centres, the corresponding rates 
are, as before, $32 and $30, respectively. 

For part-time employees in the cities and 
within a five-mile radius (and "casual em- 
ployees" in amusement places), the rate is 
now 90 cents an hour for employees 18 
years and over and 85 cents for those under 
18. In areas other than the cities, the part- 
time or casual rates remain 85 cents and 80 
cents an hour, respectively, for the two age 
categories. 

In addition to the rates described above, 
special rates are fixed for certain occupa- 
tions. Full-time drivers of motor vehicles 
weighing up to 7,500 pounds gross weight 
must now be paid at least $37 a week in 



the cities and $35 elsewhere in the province. 
The part-time rates for drivers in this cate- 
gory are 95 cents and 90 cents an hour, re- 
spectively. 

The special order for truck drivers, No. 
8 (1962), set a minimum of 95 cents an 
hour or 3 cents a mile, whichever is greater, 
for persons driving trucks with a gross 
weight in excess of 7,500 pounds, and a 
minimum of 95 cents an hour for helpers 
and swampers. Previously, the general order 
set a full-time minimum of $35 a week 
for taxi drivers and for persons driving light 
delivery trucks (under 2,000 pounds net 
weight). Under the earlier trucking order, 
the minimum was 90 cents an hour or 3 
cents a mile, whichever was greater, for 
drivers of trucks over 2,000 pounds net 
weight, and 90 cents a mile for helpers 
and swampers. 

In the cities, the minimum for full-time 
messengers has been increased to $24 a 
week; elsewhere the minimum remains $22 
a week. As before, a full-time messenger 
who provides his own bicycle is entitled to 
an additional 50 cents a week. For part- 
time messengers in the cities the minimum 
rate is now 70 cents an hour, five cents 
more than in the smaller centres. All part- 
time messengers who use their own bicycles 
must, as before, be paid an additional 3 
cents an hour. 

The minimum for janitors and caretakers 
in other than residential buildings has been 
increased to 90 cents an hour in the cities, 
but remains at 85 cents an hour elsewhere. 
The revised order for janitors in residential 
buildings, No. 7, (1962), increased the mini- 
mum of full-time employees from $42 to 
$44 a week and that of part-time janitors 
from 90 cents to 95 cents an hour. 

As formerly, working hours of employees 
in hotels, restaurants, educational institu- 
tions, hospitals and nursing homes must 
be confined within a 12-hour period. How- 
ever, it is now provided that such employees 
may not be required to report more than 
twice (three times, under the former orders) 
in the 12-hour period. 

The provisions dealing with the three- 
hour minimum, public holidays, minimum 
age for employment and deductions are 
unchanged (L.G. 1960, p. 286). 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



965 



UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND 
NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Claimants for unemployment insurance benefit on May 31 number 263,900,* all 
claimants for regular benefit as seasonal benefit period ended during month. 
Number was about 23 per cent smaller than the total at end of May last year 



Claimants for unemployment insurance 
benefit numbered 263,900 on May 31. Since 
the seasonal benefit period came to an end 
on May 19, the persons in this total were 
all regular claimants. 

The end-of-May figure was nearly 30 
per cent below the total of 373,300 regular 
claimants in April (in addition, 191,200 
claimed seasonal benefit in that month), 
and about 23 per cent below the 341,000 
persons who were claiming regular benefit 
in May last year. 

Males accounted for 100,600, or 90 per 
cent, of the decrease of 109,400 in regular 
claimants in May. 

The proportion of persons on claim for 
13 weeks or more on May 31 was 39 per 
cent, compared with 48 per cent last year. 
On the other hand, there was an increase 
in the proportion of those on claim for less 
than five weeks, from 29 per cent on May 
31 last year to 32 per cent on the corre- 
sponding date this year. Changes in the 
distribution of regular claimants by length 
of period on claim were more pronounced 
for men than for women. 

Initial and Renewal Claims 

Initial and renewal claims filed at local 
offices in May numbered 138,400, which 
was 40,000, or about 22 per cent, fewer 
than in April and 24,000, or nearly 15 
per cent, fewer than in May last year. 

The 93,000 initial claims in May in- 
cluded 35,000 filed by persons who had 
exhausted benefit and were seeking to re- 
establish credit. The April total of 122,100 
included 53,700 such persons. 

Despite the decline in the number' of 
claims processed, from 188,200 in April 
to 153,500 in May, the number of cases 
in which claim to benefit was not estab- 
lished rose slightly. This is usual at this 



season of the year, and is associated with 
the termination of the seasonal benefit, 
which makes it necessary for claimants 
to fulfil the regular requirements in order 
to qualify. 

Beneficiaries and Benefit Payments 

The average weekly number of bene- 
ficiaries in May was estimated at 430,300 
compared with 556,300 in April and 563,500 
in May 1961. 

Payments during the month totalled 
$45,400,000 in comparison with $51,600,000 
in April and $58,700,000 in May last year. 

The average weekly benefit payment was 
$23.99 in May, $24.43 in April and $23.68 
in May 1961. 

The ending of seasonal benefit on May 
19 had less effect on the amounts paid out 
than it had on the number of claimants 
and claims processed. This is because the 
week of May 20-26 was the only one in 
the month in which seasonal benefit was 
not in force, and it was also the last week 
covered by May payment data. Seasonal 
benefit payments thus were made for about 
three quarters of the month, but the total 
number of claimants at the end of the 
month, except for a few special cases, did 
not include seasonal claimants. 



*See Tables E-l to E-5 at back of this issue. 



In a comparison of current employment 
statistics with those for a previous period, 
consideration should be given to relevant 
factors other than numbers, such as the 
opening and closing of seasonal industries, 
increase in area population, influence of 
weather conditions, and the general em- 
ployment situation. 

Claimants should not be interpreted 
either as "total number of beneficiaries" or 
"total job applicants." 

A claimant's unemployment register is 
placed in the "live file" at the local office 
as soon as the claim is made. As a result, 
the count of claimants at any given time 
inevitably includes some whose claims are 
in process. 



966 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



Insurance Registrations 

Reports received from local offices of 
the Unemployment Insurance Commission 
for May showed that insurance books or 
contribution cards had been issued to 
3,483,401 employees who had made con- 
tributions to the Unemployment Insurance 
Fund at one time or another since April 
1, 1962. 

At May 31, registered employers num- 
bered 337,076, an increase of 494 since 
April 30. 

Entorcement Statistics 

During May, 11,073 investigations were 
conducted by enforcement officers across 
Canada. Of these, 7,078 were spot checks 
of postal and counter claims to verify the 
fulfilment of statutory conditions and 179 
were miscellaneous investigations. The re- 
maining 3,816 were investigations in con- 
nection with claimants suspected of making 
false statements to obtain benefits. 



Prosecutions were begun in 161 cases, 
32 against employers and 129 against 
claimants.* 

Punitive disqualifications as a result of 
false statements or misrepresentations by 
claimants numbered 2,324.* 

Unemployment Insurance Fund 

Revenue received by the Unemployment 
Insurance Fund in May totalled $26,564,- 
030.77 in May, compared with $23,754,550.- 
44 in April and $26,021,228.93 in May 
1961. 

Benefits paid in May totalled $45,409,- 
413.891", compared with $51,656,056.36 in 
Aprilt and $58,704,100.43 in May 1961. 

The balance in the Unemployment In- 
surance Fund on May 31 was $19,851,- 
162.75t; on April 30 it was $39,147,154.43t 
and on May 31, 1961 it was $110,051,- 
922.26. 



Monthly Report on Operations of 

the National Employment Service 

Placements made by the National Em- Cumulative total placements for the 

ployment Service during June 1962 first six months of 1962 amounted to some 

amounted to some 125,500, of which 592,000, higher by 24.1 per cent than the 

86,200 were men and 39,300 were women. total for the corresponding period in 1961 

Some 6.5 per cent of these placements in- and by 37.2 per cent than that for 1960. If 

volved the movement of workers from one this pace continues through the remainder 

local office area to another. of the year, the million mark in placements 

The June placement total exceeded that wil1 be wel1 exceeded for the second con- 

during the same month last year by 12.6 secutive year. 

per cent. This represents a slackening in Some 140,900 vacancies were notified to 
the rate of year-to-year increase that has the NES by employers during June, an in- 
been reported over the past several months. crease of 9.7 per cent over the figure last 
Nonetheless, this total exceeded that for June. Most of this increase occurred in 
any previous June since 1944. Since the vacancies for men, which amounted to 
NES began operations, there have been only 92,300 and were 13.7 per cent higher than 
two years, 1944 and 1943, when June place- in June 1961. Total vacancies notified to 
ments exceeded those in 1962. NES during the first six months of 1962 

Regionally, the following percentage amounted to 711,000, much higher than 

changes over June 1961 were reported: during the same period of any previous 

Atlantic + 7.8 y ear since 1947 ' 

n , ,„ n In summary, a large volume of place- 

V D C "^ Z ' U ments continued to be made by the Na- 

° ntano + 29 - 4 tional Employment Service in June. It 

Prairie -f 4.2 should be noted, however, that year-over- 

Pacific —28.1 year comparisons are affected by levels of 

„,, , . . _ , . T activity established a year ago. 

The drop in placements from last June ' 

in the Pacific Region was due largely to ~~ ~~~~ ' , ' . . .. 

... . , . . . ,. u *These do not necessarily relate to the mvestiga- 

a decline in placements in agriculture, where tions conduct ed during this period. 

weather delayed seasonal employment +The fi gure s for April and May of this year 

activity this June. are interim figures and are subject to revision. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



967 



Decisions of the Umpire under 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 



Decision CUB 1958, April 30, 1962 

Summary of the Main Facts: The claim- 
ant filed a renewal application for benefit 
at the local office in Winnipeg, Man., on 
May 25, 1961 and was registered for em- 
ployment as a sales clerk. She stated that 
she was last employed as a complex assessor 
with the [XYZ Department], Winnipeg, at 
$205 a month, from March 6 to May 23, 
1961, when she was laid off because of a 
work shortage. The employer gave as the 
reason for the separation: "End of Season." 

On July 20, 1961, the claimant signed 
the following statement: 

I have worked part-time at both [the E 

Company] and the [XYZ Department]. As a 
general rule I work steady from September to 
the end of January with [the E Company] 

and then start work March 1 until end of May 
with the [XYZ Department]. I am not working 
steady during the summer months but I am 
called from time to time. I am on call to [the 
E Company]. 

I am employed both as a cashier and sales 

clerk at [the E Company], at $1.05 an 

hour. With the [XYZ Department] I do com- 
plex assessing, at $205 per month. 

I am quite satisfied working [seasonally] 
under these conditions and would not like to 
change. 

I will be willing to take employment, if 
offered, during the months of June, July and 
until August 15 under the following conditions: 

1. Anywhere in Metropolitan Winnipeg, pref- 
erably downtown Winnipeg. 

2. Will take employment as a sales clerk 
or tax assessor. I have not the experience for 
other work. 

3. I will work the hours between 9 a.m. and 
5 p.m. 

4. I will not work for less than $205 per 
month. 

5. I want to leave this employment prior to 

August 15, if called to work by [the E 

Company], 

The local office commented that the pre- 
vailing rate of pay for sales clerks was $30 
to $40 per week. On July 28, 1961, the 
insurance officer disqualified the claimant 
from receipt of benefit from July 23, 1961 
because, as she had restricted her avail- 
ability to temporary work only and to a 
wage rate in excess of the prevailing rate 
in the district, she had failed to prove that 
she was available for work as required by 
section 54(2)(a) of the Act. 

The claimant appealed to a board of 
referees on August 9, 1961. In her appeal, 
she stated: 

. . . The only reason I said I was satisfied 
working as I am is because I have been getting 
steady employment for over 9 months and 
part-time during the summer, and hope to 
be back on steady in a week or two, but if 



you have a steady position I would be more 
than happy to get it instead of going from one 
place to another. 

I have had no holidays for the last 5 years, 
as I stay at home and wait for calls to go 
into work. As you will notice, I was on a 
renewal claim from last summer which I would 
not even use up this year . . . 

The claimant was present at the hearing 
of her case in Winnipeg on September 8, 
1961. The board, by a majority, dismissed 
the appeal. The decision reads in part: 

The husband is employed with a railway 
company. The claimant has been employed on 
a part-time basis with a large store for over 
8 years . . . 

At the hearing, the claimant said that she 
was willing to accept employment during the 
months of June, July and August, and went on 
to say that she was quite satisfied with the pres- 
ent arrangement, namely that, during approx- 
imately 9 months of the year, she worked at 
those two types of employment . . . 

In weighing the statement, ". . . if you have 
a steady position I would be more than happy 
to get it instead of going from one place to 
another," the emphasis should be placed on 
the words, "if you have." The primary respon- 
sibility for obtaining work rests upon the person 
wanting work, and the responsibility of the 
Employment Service is secondary. 

At the hearing, the claimant was asked 
whether, during the last 4 years, she had, at 
any time, sought employment elsewhere than 
with the store and the [XYZ Department]. The 
claimant replied "No, . . . because I would be 
going back to my former employer." She 
went on to say that, during those years, the 
Commission had not offered her any employ- 
ment. 

The claimant appeared before the board 
and made certain statements. On being ques- 
tioned, she stated that, if offered full-time em- 
ployment, she would accept it, and at the 
going rate of pay. She gave some evidence of 
attempts to obtain work but her statements 
on that point were vague. 

As stated in CUB 1845 the board has to 
consider all the statements made by the claim- 
ant and decide which ones should be accepted. 
The majority of the board have no hesitation in 
reaching the conclusion that the statements 
made by the claimant on July 20, 1961 are 
entitled to much more weight than the state- 
ments made following the disqualification. The 
statement of August 9, 1961 is not entitled to 
much consideration because there the claimant 
is placing the burden of finding employment 
upon the Commission. The statements made 
before the Board were in answer to direct 
questions; and to the majority of the board, 
they had all the appearances of an afterthought. 
There was no clear evidence to show that 
efforts to obtain work were made before the 
disqualification . . . 

The dissenting member of the board 
stated, among other things, that: 

. . . The claimant appeared before the board 
of referees and stated that, in previous years, 
she had been able to draw unemployment 
insurance benefits, without any question as to 
her eligibility. 



968 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



The first statement must be considered as an 
outcome of her previous experience, and can- 
not be judged separately from that experience. 
In part she states, "I will be willing to take 
employment if offered, during the months of 
June, July and until August 15, under the 
following conditions." The conditions she out- 
lined were the results of her previous exper- 
ience. 

In reply to questions the claimant stated that 
she was prepared to work all the year round, 
and she would accept steady employment. She 
stated that she had looked for employment 
herself, had applied by telephone for situations 
which had been advertised in the daily news- 
papers. She also stated that she was prepared 
to accept employment in any field within her 
ability at the going rate of pay for that em- 
ployment. She had found difficulty in getting 
employment because of her inability to do typ- 
ing and stenographical work. 

The appeal must be considered in the light 
of her realization of the fact that, for the first 
time in her exDerience, she might be denied 
insurance benefits. 

The insurance officer ruled as follows, "You 
have failed to prove that you are available for 
work, as required by section 54(2) (a) of the 
Unemployment Insurance Act, in that you are 
unduly restricting your availability to temporary 
work only, and to a wage rate in excess of 
the rate prevailing in the area." 

In spite of the content of the letter of 
appeal, the insurance officer made no change 
in his decision . . . 

I contend that the decision of the insurance 
officer is not based on any fact; it is based on 
assumption that the applicant would refuse 
proffered employment, an assumption deduced 
from the first statement made by the claimant. 

On the same basis, on the assumption without 
proof, that an applicant would refuse to accept 
employment, every worker employed in sea- 
sonal employment (construction workers, sea- 
men, woodworkers, textile workers, canning 
plant employees) could be denied benefits. 

In view of the fact that the claimant has in 
[her appeal] and in her statements before the 
board, shown that she has tried to find employ- 
ment for herself, that she is willing to accept 
steady employment, and that she is willing to 
work for the prevailing rate in any area and 
occupation, these two statements should carry 
much greater weight than the original one. 

Again, I contend that the decision of the 
insurance officer is a wrong decision, and that if 
it were applied, as it could be, to all workers 
engaged on a seasonal basis, it would be in 
violation of the fundamental principles of the 
Unemployment Insurance Act. 

In my opinion, the claimant has proved 
beyond any shadow of doubt that she is 
available for work. 

The claimant appealed to the Umpire on 
October 7, 1961. Her appeal reads: 

I would like to make an appeal to the 
Umpire, as I do not feel the two referees' find- 
ings were just. They have stated in the letter 
that my husband works for railway, yes, he is 
just a labourer, stowing freight in the box cars 
and makes a small wage in which case I am 
working, otherwise we could not meet the 
payments on the house. 

The two referees also stated that I was 
placing the burden of finding employment upon 
the Commission, which, I think, is very unjust. 
When I found I wasn't getting enough work 
with [the E Company] I applied elsewhere. 



I was fortunate to receive a letter from the 
Government that my application was 
accepted and to write the examinations for a 
position. I was ill and ordered to go to the 
hospital. I didn't want to miss my chance for 
employment, so I didn't go. Instead I wrote 
my exams, then the following day I went into 
the hospital and was operated on that night. 

While I was in the hospital, my husband 
brought me a letter saying I passed my exams 
and was to be interviewed the next week. I 
got permission from the doctor to leave the 
hospital on the morning of the interview and 
went back to bed. Several weeks later, I was 
placed with the [XYZ Department]. There I 
[was still ill] and my supervisor told me more 
than once I should go home. She didn't know 
how I could work. Certainly this should show 
you how badly I wanted to get work. 

The two referees also said I was unemployed 
during June, July and August. I am tem- 
porarily unemployed as I go part-time whenever 
they call me in to [the E Company]. 

I do not think I abuse my unemployment 
privileges. This summer I was on a renewal 
claim from last summer. I do not use up my 
benefits from one year to another. 

I've tried to get work, but all the employers 
want you to be able to type, which I cannot. 
That is why I hang on to the two employers 
I work for as I know I will get steady work 
for 9 months and part-time the rest of the 
year. 

I think I have been judged unfairly. If this 
is applied to me why isn't it applied to others 
who work less than I do but receive benefits 
most of the year. What about construction 
workers etc., who work during the summer 
and fall and collect during the winter and 
spring months. It seems to me I have been 
judged unfairly and that somewhere there has 
been a violation of the fundamental principles 
of the Insurance Act in my case. Surely my 
insurance stamps must be just as good as the 
other fellow's. If not, I think I should have 
some sort of letter from you people showing 
my employers that they should not deduct 
insurance stamps from my pay. 

I hope you will reconsider my claim and 
restore my faith in the Commission. I am 
sorry I took a little longer in replying as I 
have been working steady . . . 

Considerations and Conclusions: Avail- 
ability for work is a question of fact to be 
considered in the light of the particular 
circumstances of each case. In the present 
case, the claimant was disqualified by the 
insurance officer on the grounds that she 
had restricted h?r availability (1) to tempo- 
rary work only and (2) to a wage rate in 
excess of the prevailing one in the area. 

Regarding (1) above, the established juris- 
prudence is to the effect that the mere fact 
that a claimant has a definite engagement 
to start work at some future date does not 
mean that he is, in the meantime, not 
available for work; although he is not 
available for other continuing or permanent 
employment, he may be available for short 
engagements (CUB 1943). This applies par- 
ticularly in the present case, as the record 
shows that not only was the claimant will- 
ing to accept temporary work "during the 
months of June, July and until August 15," 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

59897-9—5 



• AUGUST 7962 



969 



which in a matter of this kind can hardly be 
considered a short period of time, but also 
that during that period she, in fact, was on 
call and worked for one of her regular 
employers whenever requested to do so. 

In connection with the wage rate, the 
record shows that when the claimant worked 
as a sales clerk she earned $1.05 an hour, 
and $205 a month when employed as a tax 
assessor. The record indicates also that 
she stated on July 20, 1961 she would "take 
employment as a sales clerk or tax asses- 
sor. . . anywhere in Metropolitan Winnipeg" 
during the months of June, July and August, 
and that, in the same statement, she said 
"I will not work for less than $205 per 
month." This was not an unduly restrictive 
condition if the claimant meant, and I be- 
lieve she did, that such was the salary she 
would accept as a tax assessor or its equiv- 
alent, and not also as a sales clerk even 
though her statement could be interpreted 
otherwise. 

There are good reasons for giving the 
claimant the benefit of the doubt in that 
respect as there was evidence that she was 
anxious, if possible, to obtain year-round 
employment. When making her claim for 
benefit, she had registered for employment 
as a sales clerk for the period in question, 
and there is no mention in the record that, 
at the time of her registration, she insisted 
on a higher rate of pay than the prevailing 
one for that type of work. Moreover, as 
the claimant regularly worked five or six 
months each year as a sales clerk at $1.05 
an hour and, in fact, did so during the 
period in question, it seems hard to be- 
lieve that she would suddenly no longer 
want work at that rate, when the evidence 
on file clearly shows, in my opinion, that 
she was "prepared to accept employment 
within her ability at the going rate of pay" 
and even was anxious to obtain a year- 
round position "instead of going from one 
place to another." 

For the above reasons, and also taking 
into account the sincerity of the claimant's 
grounds for appeal, I decided to reverse 
the majority decision of the board of ref- 
erees and to allow the claimant's appeal. 

A matter which carried considerable 
weight in arriving at my decision is that the 
disqualification imposed by the insurance 
officer, in effect, placed the claimant in 
the unfortunate position that, in order to 
prove she was available for work, she 
would have had to give up the certainty of 
nine months steady employment a year as 
against the uncertainty of securing a year- 
round suitable job. Had she taken this alter- 
native and subsequently refused to accept 
temporary employment from either one of 
her steady employers, she might then have 



been subject to a disqualification for having 
failed to prove that she was unable to ob- 
tain suitable employment. 

Decision CUB 1991, June 7, 1962 

Summary of the Main Facts: The claim- 
ant made an initial application for un- 
employment insurance benefit on February 
6, 1962, at the local office of the Unem- 
ployment Insurance Commission in Lon- 
gueuil, Que., and was registered for em- 
ployment as a stationary engineer. He 
stated he had voluntarily left his last em- 
ployment with [a clothing factory], where 
he had been employed from January 14, 
1962 to February 2, 1962, "because I was 
engaged as a stationary engineer and I had 
to (work) at any other job [such] as sweep- 
ing and I make 60 hours a week, and I 
was paid for only 58 hours." It seems that 
his rate of pay was $1.25 an hour. 

The employer reported that the claim- 
ant's employment had terminated because: 
"We could not make arrangements with 
this employee." 

On the evidence before him, the insur- 
ance officer disqualified the claimant and 
suspended benefit from February 4, 1962, 
to March 17, 1962, under section 60(1) of 
the Act, on the ground that the claimant 
had, without just cause, voluntarily left 
his employment. 

In answer to a request for comment on 
the claimant's statement, the employer said 
there was no contract, but it was under- 
stood that when the claimant was hired as 
a stationary engineer, he would be ex- 
pected to do some sweeping, because, had 
the claimant been hired as a stationary 
engineer only, the company would have 
been unable to provide him with work on 
a yearly basis. The employer stated that the 
claimant worked five days a week from 
7.00 p.m. to 7.00 a.m., with a half hour 
for lunch, that he worked 571 hours a 
week and was paid for 58 hours a week at 
$1.25 an hour, making a total wage of 
$72.50 a week. 

The claimant appealed to a board of 
referees on March 5, 1962, and explained 
in detail, among other things, his differences 
with his foreman regarding the weekly wage 
he felt he was entitled to. 

The claimant also wrote a four-page letter 
on March 21, 1962, which was submitted 
to the board of referees at its hearing of 
the case on March 27, 1962. In this letter, 
the claimant reiterated that he had protested 
to the employer that he should be paid for 
a full 60 hours per week, but without 
success. The claimant further stated that he 
felt he was justified in leaving the employ- 
ment when he had tried to have his griev- 
ances adjusted. He referred to his previous 



970 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1962 



employment record of 17 years with one 
company and four years with another, and 
stated he was looking for work with the 
assistance of the employment office. 

The claimant attended the hearing of the 
board of referees, which, by a majority 
decision, upheld the decision of the in- 
surance officer. The board expressed the 
opinion that the claimant should have 
assured himself of other work before quit- 
ting his job, where the difference in ques- 
tion was only $2.50 a week in a total wage 
of $72.50 a week. 

The dissenting member of the board 
stated: "In my opinion, there was a change 
of contract of service and the claimant had 
good reason to leave his job." 

The claimant appealed to the Umpire. In 
his appeal, he stated that he was right in 
leaving a job where he was not paid for 
a 60-hour week when he was at the job 
for 60 hours weekly, and that the two 
hours per week for which he was not paid 
amounted to $125 a year, which he could ill 
afford. He also stated that, under the 
Stationary Engineers Act of Canada, an 
engineer is responsible, at all times, for 
the care and maintenance of high-pressure 
boilers, and that one could not give proper 
care while working elsewhere at something 
else for five hours a night, yet could be 
held responsible if anything went wrong 
with the boilers. 

An oral hearing was held before the 
Umpire in Montreal, Que., on May 29, 1962. 
The claimant was present at the hearing. 
The Unemployment Insurance Commission 
was represented by C. Dubuc, its Assistant 
Legal Adviser. 

Considerations and Conclusions: Both in 
his appeal to the Umpire and during the 
hearing of his case on May 29, 1962, the 
claimant stated that the employer required 
him to leave the high-pressure steam boilers 
to do several hours sweeping in the plant. 
He pointed out that as a stationary engineer 
he could be held responsible if anything 
happened because of negligence on his part, 
with the result that his licence could be 
suspended or cancelled. This evidence was 
not denied. 

Under those circumstances, I consider 
that the claimant has discharged the onus 
of proving that he had just cause for volun- 
tarily leaving his employment on February 
2, 1962, and I decide to allow his appeal. 

Decision CUB 2003, June 18, 1962 

Summary of the Main Facts: The claim- 
ant, whose home is at White Rock, B.C., 
filed an initial application for benefit on 
September 26, 1961, and was registered for 
employment as a labourer. He had last 



been employed [in a paper mill] as a 
labourer from July 26, 1960, to September 
13, 1961. His reason for separation reads: 

Left voluntarily — originally took the job on 
a temporary basis but could not find other 
work, so stuck to this as long as I could. The 
work bothered my eyes— I did not like shift 
work. I have senior matriculation and am look- 
ing for office work of some kind. 

His rate of pay was $1.94 an hour. In 
the Confirmation of Separation received 
from the employer, dated September 27, 
1961, it was stated that the claimant 
had returned to the University of British 
Columbia. 

The insurance officer disqualified the 
claimant from receipt of benefit on the 
basis that he had voluntarily left his em- 
ployment without just cause. He also dis- 
qualified him as not available for work 
while attending the university (sections 
60 (1) and 54 (2) (a) of the Act). 

On December 5, 1961, the claimant filed 
a renewal application for benefit, reporting 
the same employment as on his initial 
application, but stated therein that he had 
left that employment to return to the above- 
mentioned university. He said he would be 
available for work as of December 9, 1961. 
The insurance officer notified the claimant, 
by letter, on December 7, 1961, that the 
suspension of benefit commencing Septem- 
ber 24, 1961, of which he had been pre- 
viously notified, remained in effect. 

The claimant wrote on December 14, 
1961, stating: "The last day that it was 
necessary for me to attend U.B.C. was 
Monday, December 11. I am available for 
work from that date till Jan.?" 

The local office, on December 18, 1961, 
wrote the claimant, referring him to his 
written statement of December 14, 1961, 
above, and requested information in regard 
to the following: 

1. On what date will you be writing your 
final exam at U.B.C? 

2. Are you available for employment in the 
White Rock area only? 

3. You are registered for employment as 
Labour (Veneer), what other types of employ- 
ment (if any) are you willing to accept? 

4. On what date does U.B.C. commence after 
Xmas holidays? 

To this questionnaire, the claimant re- 
plied on December 21, 1961, stating he had 
written his final examination on December 
16, 1961, that he was available for work 
in the White Rock and New Westminster' 
areas, that he was willing to accept any 
reasonable type of work, pointing out that 
his main kind of work had been as a paper- 
worker, and that if he returned to university 
for the second half of the winter session, 
it would commence on January 5, 1962. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



971 



The employment section of the local 
office, when asked about the opportunities 
of employment that might be available to 
the claimant from December 16, 1961, to 
January 4, 1962, reported: "No opportuni- 
ties for part-time employment for period 
mentioned." Other information received 
disclosed that claimant was again attending 
university from January 7, 1962. The in- 
surance officer was still of the opinion that 
the disqualification for non-availability for 
work effective September 24, 1961, should 
remain in effect. 

On January 14, 1962, the claimant ap- 
pealed to the board of referees, specifically 
from the disallowance of his claim from 
December 17, 1961 to January 7, 1962. He 
stated he had understood that he had been 
disqualified as he could not prove he was 
available for work while attending univer- 
sity, and as no other reasons had been given 
for disqualification, he failed to see why he 
was still disqualified, since he had again 
registered for work including selling or do- 
ing postal work anywhere in the New West- 
minster-White Rock area. Also submitted 
as evidence was a letter written by the 
Postmaster at White Rock, B.C., on Janu- 
ary 15, 1962, which reads: 

This will verify that [Claimant!, . . . [by] 
occupation university student, did apply for 
work at this office in November in advance 
of the Xmas rush. [Claimant] has performed 
extra Xmas service satisfactorily at this office 
in previous years. He would have been used 
this year but my requirements had to be on 
duty by the 14th December. [Claimant] was not 
through exams in time to meet this deadline. 

The claimant's father wrote on January 
29, 1962, outlining the financial struggle of 
the claimant in keeping up his studies at 
university, and expressed the wish that 
something could be done to assist his son 
to collect unemployment insurance benefits 
during his Christmas holidays. 

A board of referees, which heard the 
case at New Westminster, B.C., on Febru- 
ary 15, 1962, by a unanimous decision dis- 
missed the claimant's appeal. The board's 
decision reads in part: 

Th<= claim-mt did not appear but was repre- 
sented by [his] father. 

Reviewing the submission, and before record- 
ing our decision, it seems desirable to em- 
phasize that the whole spirit and intent of the 
Unemployment Insurance Act is intended to 
act as a cushion against the hardships incidental 
to protracted periods of involuntary unemploy- 
ment. It seems also necessary to point out, that 
the term availability must be interpreted in a 
practical common sense manner and should 
not be confused with a claimant's willingness 
to work. 

A university student, such as this claimant, 
even though he may have established a right 
to benefit because of the fulfilment of the 
statutory contribution requirement during his 
summer vacation, is not really unemployed at 



all in the sense of that term which permeates 
the Unemployment Insurance Act and the 
Regulations thereunder. 

In this case, the claimant filed his applica- 
tion for benefit on 5 December, 1961, and the 
presumption is that he will be returning to his 
university studies early in the new year. In the 
intervening period, there would be two holidays, 
Christmas and New Year. It is highly improb- 
able that an employer would engage the services 
of such a student, well knowing that his services 
would be of a temporary character only, and 
it should be remembered in this connection 
that the sort of temporary help ordinarily 
engaged for special Christmas activities would 
have been so engaged sometime prior to 17 
December, 1961. 

On behalf of the claimant, [his father] stated 
that the claimant had written a number of 
examinations during the month of December 

1961, from a desire to discover what progress 
he was making. It would seem, therefore, that 
from 5 December to 16 December, 1961, the 
claimant was preoccupied with his examinations 
and not available for employment within the 
meaning of the Act. In this connection we note 
a letter written by the Postmaster at White 
Rock in which he states that he could not 
employ this person after 14 December, 1961. 

The Board takes the position further that 
it is not the purpose of the Unemployment 
Insurance Act to subsidize a student's education, 
(if a student's financial position is such that 
he needs assistance in his educational studies 
such assistance should come from other sources 
and not from the Unemployment Insurance 
Fund) . . . 

The Board also used the opportunity to read 
Umpire's decision No. 1189 to [claimant's 
father] in order that he might understand the 
basis upon which the insurance officer had 
reached his decision and which must also be a 
guide to our consideration of this case . . . 

With the permission of the chairman of 
the board of referees, the claimant appealed 
to the Umpire mainly on the grounds that 
there was an inconsistency between the 
board's finding that it was not the purpose 
of the Unemployment Insurance Act to 
subsidize a student's education, and that the 
Commission "advertises to put unemployed 
through vocational training." He stated also 
that he knew of students who were con- 
sidered available for work and were re- 
ceiving unemployment benefits during the 
Christmas holiday period, and that in his 
own case, he had been available for work 
from December 11, 1961, to January 5, 

1962, except for the day of December 16, 
1961, a Saturday, on which date he wrote 
a compulsory examination. 

Considerations and Conclusions: Availa- 
bility for work is a question of fact to be 
examined in the light of the particular cir- 
cumstances of each case, and, as a general 
rule, a claimant's availability for work, is 
conditional (1) on his willingnes to accept 
work, and (2) on his prospects of obtaining 
employment of the kind he is willing to 
accept. 



972 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



In the present case, the claimant's will- 
ingness to work is unquestionable. How- 
ever, there is evidence that the employment 
which he would have taken and, in fact, 
could accept, would have to be, because 
of his probable return to the university on 
January 5, 1962, of very short duration. 
The board of referees, after considering 
this latter-mentioned aspect and having in 
mind the conditions of the local labour 



market, unanimously found, as a fact, that 
it was "highly improbable that an employer 
would engage the services of such a student 
well knowing that his services would be of 
a temporary character only. . ." 

As the evidence which is before me is 
the same as that which was before the 
board of referees, I decide to dismiss the 
claimant's appeal. 



Conciliation Proceedings 

{Continued from page 951) 

7. Baton Aldred Rogers Broadcasting 
Limited (CFTO-TV), Agincourt, Ont., and 
Motion Picture Studio Production Tech- 
nicians, Local 873, International Alliance 
of Theatrical Stage Employees and Moving 
Picture Machine Operators of the United 
States and Canada (Conciliation Officers: 
F. J. Ainsborough and T. B. McRae) (L.G., 
June, p. 655). 

8. Buntain Bell and Co. Ltd., J. A. Gorm- 
ley (Stevedoring Service) and Horace B. 
Willis Ltd., and Labourers Protective Union 
No. 9568 (Conciliation Officer: H. R. Pet- 
tigrove) (L.G., Sept. 1961, p. 921). 

Conciliation Board Appointed 

Sydney and Louisburg Railway Company, 
Glace Bay, N.S., and Lodge No. 684 of the 



Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen (L.G., 
May, p. 533). 

Settlement Reached following Board Procedure 

Canadian National Steamship Company 
Limited (Pacific Coast Service), Vancouver, 
and Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District (L.G., May, p. 
534). 

Dispute Lapsed 

CKSO Radio Limited, Sudbury, Ont., and 
National Association of Broadcast Employ- 
ees and Technicians (Conciliation Officer: 
T. B. McRae) (L.G., July, p. 836). With- 
drawal of conciliation services granted on 
request of union. 



The Seventh World Congress of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, 
held in West Berlin, on July 11 called for the adoption of a "world-wide employment 
policy." 

Clas Erik Odhner of Sweden, in presenting the program to the Congress, criticized 
several Western countries for failure to meet the unemployment problem. He said the 
"strange aversion" of the'U.S. to state planning and investments was an important factor in 
producing recessions in that country. 

AFL-CIO President George Meany told the Congress that neutralism and free trade 
unionism were incompatible. The meeting unions could not be neutral when they were 
so close to hundreds of thousands of workers, many of whom were willing to risk their 
lives to cross the barrier into West Berlin. In his formal report, he termed the United 
Nations irreplaceable as a forum, and stressed that free labour was determined to save 
the UN. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

59897-9—6 



• AUGUST 7962 



973 



LABOUR CONDITIONS IN FEDERAL 
GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS 



Wage Schedules Prepared and Contracts Awarded during June 
Works of Construction, Remodelling, Repair or Demolition 

During June the Department of Labour prepared 260 wage schedules for inclusion 
in contracts proposed to be undertaken by departments of the federal Government and 
its Crown corporations in various areas of Canada, for works of construction, remodelling, 
repair or demolition. In the same period, a total of 171 contracts in these categories was 
awarded. Particulars of these contracts appear below. 

In addition, 248 contracts not listed in this report and which contained the General 
Fair Wages Clause were awarded by Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Defence 
Construction (1951) Limited and the Departments of Defence Production, Northern 
Affairs and National Resources, Public Works and Transport. 

A copy of the wage schedule issued for each contract is available on request to trade 
unions concerned or to others who have a bona fide interest in the execution of the 
contract. 

(The labour conditions included in each of the contracts listed under the heading provide 
that: 

(a) the wage rate for each classification of labour shown in the wage schedule included 
in the contract is a minimum rate only and contractors and subcontractors are not exempted 
from the payment of higher wages in any instance where, during the continuation of the work, 
wage rates in excess of those shown in the wage schedule have been fixed by provincial 
legislation, by collective agreements in the district, or by current practice; 

(b) hours of work shall not exceed eight in the day and 44 in the week, except in 
emergency conditions approved by the Minister of Labour; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of eight per day and 44 per week; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 

Contracts for the Manufacture of Supplies and Equipment 

Contracts awarded in June for the manufacture of supplies and equipment were as 
follows: 

Department No. of Contracts Aggregate Amount 

Defence Production 170 $960,388.00 

Post Office 5 38,991.00 

Royal Canadian Mounted Police 1 2,308.40 



The Fair Wages and Hours of Labour These wage schedules are thereupon in 
legislation of the federal Government nas eluded with other relevant labour condi- 
the purpose of insuring that all Government tions as terms of such contracts to be 
contracts tor works of construction and for observed by the contractors, 
the manufacture of supplies and equipment Wage schedules are not included in con- 
contain provisions to secure the payment of tracts for the manufacture of supplies and 
wages generally accepted as fair and reason- equipment because it is not possible to 
able in each trade or classification employed determine in advance the classifications to 
in the district where the work is being per- be employed in the execution of a contract, 
formed. A statement of the labour conditions which 

The practice of Government departments must be observed in every such contract 

and those Crown corporations to which' the is however, included therein and is of the 

legislation applies, before entering into con- same nature and effect as those which apply 

tracts for any work of construction, re- in works of construction, 
modelling, repair or demolition, is to obtain Copies of the federal Government's Fair 

wage schedules from the Department of Wages and Hours of Labour legislation 

Labour showing the applicable wage rate may be had upon request to the Industrial 

for each classification of workmen deemed Relations Branch of the Department of 

to be required in the execution of the work. Labour, Ottawa. 



974 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



(The labour conditions included in contracts for the manufacture of supplies and equip- 
ment provide that: 

(a) all persons who perform labour on such contracts shall be paid such wages as are 
currently paid in the district to competent workmen; and if there is no current rate, then 
a fair and reasonable rate, but in no event shall the wages paid be less than those established 
by the laws of the province in which the work is being performed; 

(b) the working hours shall be those fixed by the custom of the trade in the district, 
or if there be no such custom, then fair and reasonable hours; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of those fixed by custom of the trade in the district, or in excess of fair 
and reasonable hours; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 

Wage Claims Received and Payments Made during June 

During June the sum of $8,211.21 was collected from 15 contractors for wage arrears 
due their employees as a result of the failure of the contractors, or their subcontractors, 
to apply the wage rates and other conditions of employment required by the schedule of 
labour conditions forming part of their contract. This amount is for distribution to the 
124 workers concerned. 

Contracts Containing Fair Wage Schedules Awarded during June 

(The labour conditions of the contracts marked (*) contain the General Fair Wages 
Clause providing for the observance of current or fair and reasonable rates of wages and 
hours of labour not in excess of eight per day and 44 per week, and also empower the 
Minister of Labour to deal with any question which may arise with regard thereto.) 

Department of Agriculture 

Nappan N S: MacDougall Construction Co Ltd, addition to Research Piggery, Experi- 
mental Farm. 

Atomic Energy ot Canada Limited 

Deep River Ont: M J Sulphur & Sons Ltd, subdivision services for blocks XX & MM. 
Whiteshell Man: Malcolm Construction Co Ltd, construction of research & development 
bldg, Nuclear Research Establishment. 

Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Oshawa Ont: Abbotsford Homes Ltd, construction of 42 housing units (FP 1/58). 
Sarnia Ont: Cardinal Painting & Decorating Co, exterior painting of houses, Projects 
Nos. 2 & 8. Toronto Ont: Dell Construction Co Ltd, construction of 230 housing units 
(FP 9/59), Warden Ave. 

In addition, this Corporation awarded five contracts containing the General Fair 
Wages Clause. 

Department of Citizenship and Immigration 

Six Nations Indian Agency Ont: Gar-Jon Construction Ltd, construction of bridge 
over McKenzie Creek, Six Nations IR. 

Defence Construction (1951) Limited 

Dartmouth N S: Community Enterprises Ltd, supply & erection of steel maintenance 
hangar, HMCS Shearwater. Halifax N S: Fundy Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
timber cribwork shore protection, Osborne Head Gunnery Range; Universal Electric, 
renewal of electrical services, Jetty No 2, HMC Dockyard. Chatham N B: E J Ludford 
Line Construction Ltd, ceilometer & transmissometer installation, RCAF Station. Trenton 
Ont: B & B Cable Service Ltd, ceilometer & transmissometer installation, RCAF Station. 
Cold Lake Aha: Burns & Dutton Concrete & Construction Co Ltd, construction of liquid 
& gaseous oxygen storage bldg & GCA bldg, RCAF Station. Namao Aha: McNamara 
Construction Western Ltd, reconstruction of concrete aircraft parking apron, RCAF 
Station. Colwood B C: W R Menzies & Co Ltd, installation of steam distribution system, 
RCN. Various locations: Nine contracts in the restricted category. 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 975 

59897-9— 6£ 



Building and Maintenance 

Summerside P E I: Leonard Roofers & Metal Works, re-roofing of five hangars, RCAF 
Station. Halifax N S: Banfield & Miles, exterior painting of various bldgs. Camp Gage- 
town N B: Phillips Contracting Ltd, construction of parking area; Dexter Construction 
Co Ltd, resurfacing "D" zone, parade square. Valcartier Que: Dependable Painting Ltd, 
interior & exterior painting of bldgs, Camp. Barriefield Ont: Kingston Decorating Ltd, 
exterior painting of 12 bldgs, Vimy Barracks; Conniston Construction Co Ltd, construction 
of gatehouse & supporting services. Centralia Ont: Lavis Contracting Co Ltd, application 
of asphalt pavement overlay, RCAF Station. Kingston Ont: T A Andre & Sons Ltd, altera- 
tions to boiler room, Yeo Hall, RMC. Shilo Man: Rowland Claydon & Co Ltd, construction 
of converter bldg & electrical alterations for bldg N-118, Camp. Winnipeg Man: Walter 
Wray Ltd, supply & installation of 745 metal windows, RCAF Station. Calgary Alta: 
Taylor Decorating Ltd, exterior painting of bldgs, Currie Barracks. Wainwright Alta: 
Shaw Construction Co Ltd, crushing & stockpiling 12,500 cu yds of gravel. 

In addition, Defence Construction (1951) Limited awarded one contract containing 
the General Fair Wages Clause. 

Department of Defence Production 

Summerside P E I: Curran & Briggs Ltd, repairs to roads & parking areas, RCAF 
Station; Curran & Briggs Ltd, repairs to aerodrome pavements, RCAF Station. Cornwallis 
N S: A L Parelman Ltd, application of roofing shingles at various locations, HMCS 
Cornwallis. Greenwood N S: Municipal Spraying & Contracting Ltd, repair to wartime 
hangars line ramp, RCAF Station; Municipal Spraying & Contracting Ltd, repair of roads, 
RCAF Station; M L Foster, repainting runway markings, RCAF Station. Gagetown N B: 
Weyman Construction Co Ltd, acoustic treatment to unit drill hall bldg D-15, Camp. 
Farnham Que: Desourdy Frere Ltee, construction of recreation hall. Centralia Ont: Karl 
Dudek, exterior painting of station bldgs, RCAF Station. Foymount Ont: Smiths Con- 
struction Co Ltd, paving of roads, RCAF Station. Hamilton Ont: W Ford Construction 
Ltd, extension of handrails & repairs to stairs, James St Armoury, lpperwash Ont: Cardinal 
Painting & Decorating Co Ltd, exterior & interior painting & carpentry repairs to various 
bldgs, Military Camp. Ottawa Ont: Dibblee Construction Co Ltd, paving of roads, Con- 
naught Rifle Ranges; Dominion Steel & Coal Corp Ltd, installation of fence, Connaught 
Rifle Ranges; O'Leary's (1956) Ltd, road repairs, RCAF Station, Rockcliffe. Uplands Ont: 
L Mongeon & Son, installation of roof at 208 Workshop, RCEME. Dauphin Man: Metal 
Industries Ltd, repairs & replacement of furnace, Armoury. Rivers Man: Zenith Paving 
Ltd, resurfacing runways & overshoot areas, CJATC Camp. Shilo Man: H G Hay 
Decorating Co, interior painting of Bldg T-100, Military Camp; Brandon Asphalt Paving 
Ltd, regrading, shaping & sealcoating of access road to Military Camp. Saskatoon Sask: 
Thode Construction Ltd, paving of parking lot, RCAF Station. Cold Lake Alta: Everall 
Engineering Ltd, road repairs, RCAF Station. Wainwright Alta: Poole Construction Co 
Ltd, repair of Battle River diversion structure, Camp. Belmont Park B C: C D Johnston, 
repainting exterior of 53 residences in "A" & "B" blocks; C D Johnston, repainting exterior 
of 52 residences in "V", "W", "XS" & "Y" blocks; C D Johnston, repainting exterior of 
42 residences in "S", "RN", & "RS" blocks. Esquimalt B C: Old Country Industrial 
Contractors Ltd, exterior painting of bldgs & railings of parade ground, HMCS Naden; 
K J Howe, exterior painting of five bldgs, HMCS Naden. 

In addition, this Department awarded 171 contracts containing the General Fair 
Wages Clause. 

National Harbours Board 

Halifax N S: Munck Ltd, construction & installation of telescoping on Shed 21. Saint 
John N B: Richards-Wilcox Canadian Co Ltd, replacement of dockside doors, Shed 8. 
Montreal Que: Canadian Locomotive Co Ltd, supply & installation of railroad track scale; 
Charles Duranceau Ltee, construction of viaduct & connected works at Wellington Street 
near May Avenue for Section 1A, Champlain Bridge. 

Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources 

Prince Edward Island National Park P E I: R H Rankin Construction, construction 
of toilet & shower bldg, New London Campground & toilet bldg, Brackley Beach. Cape 
Breton Highlands National Park N S: M R Chappell Ltd, construction of laundry bldg & 
entrance kiosk at Broad Cove Campground; J W Rudderham Ltd, mechanical & electrical 
installations for water supply system, Broad Cove Campground. Louisburg N S: Dominion 

976 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



Structural Steel Division, Canada Iron Foundries Ltd, erection of structural steel for 
Administration Bldg, Fortress Restoration Program. Prince Albert National Park Sask: 
Pidskalney & Paulsen Construction Ltd, construction of marina. 

In addition, this Department awarded one contract containing the General Fair 
Wages Clause. 

Department of Public Works 

Portugal Cove South Nfld: Benson Builders Ltd, breakwater repairs. Pushthrough 
Nfld: Avalon Construction & Engineering Ltd, wharf reconstruction. Rocky Harbour 
Nfld: Avalon Construction & Engineering Ltd, wharf extension. St John's Nfld: Fred A 
Down, alterations to Fisheries Cold Storage Bldg. Upper Island Cove Nfld: Wm O'Reilly, 
wharf reconstruction. Graham's Pond P E I: Colin R MacDonald Ltd, improvements 
(landing extension & deck repairs). Higgins Shore P E I: Ralph Ford, wharf repairs. 
Naufrage P E I: Edward MacCallum, breakwater extension. Poverty Beach P E I: L E 
Wellner, Jr, landing extension. Savage Harbour P E I: Douglas & MacEwen Construction 
Co, repairs to entrance channel pier. Digby N S: C & M Products Ltd, harbour improve- 
ments, fire protection (installation of fire hydrants). Stoney Island N S: R A Douglas 
Ltd, breakwater construction. Dalhousie N B: Alford Bros Construction Co Ltd, harbour 
improvements. Little Cape N B: Leo LeBlanc, construction of haul-out slip. Petitcodiac 
N B: MacPherson Builders Ltd, construction of post office bldg. Point Sapin N B: Gerard 
Johnson, construction of haul-out slip. Port Elgin N B: MacPherson Builders Ltd, con- 
struction of federal bldg. Brion Island M I Que: Les Entreprises de Fatima Ltee, repairs 
to slipway. Cap aux Meules Que: Gulf Maritime Construction Ltd, breakwater repairs & 
enlargement. Cap Chat Que: McMullen & Gagnon Inc, wharf improvements. Etang du 
Nord M I Que: La Cie de Construction Arseneau, wharf repairs. Les Mechins Que: Roger 
Boudreau, wharf repairs. New Carlisle Que: Cecil H Beebe, wharf repairs. Quebec Que: 
Laverendrye Construction Ltee, construction of UIC Bldg; Maurice Laverdiere, alterations, 
Upper Town Post Office, 3 Buade St. St Augustin Que: Landry Construction Inc, construc- 
tion of landing pier. Ste Croix Que: Plessis Construction, construction of protection works. 
St Ferdinand Que: Conrad Lessard Ltee, construction of post office bldg. St Jean I O Que: 
Les Entreprises Cap Diamant Ltee, construction of retaining wall. St Laurent I O Que: 
Travaux St Laurent Enrg, construction of retaining wall. St Michel de Bellechasse Que: 
Noel Grenier, construction of protection wall. St Pierre les Becquets Que: Maurice Maillot, 
construction of protection works. St Vallier Que: Gaumond et Freres, construction of 
protection wall. Amherstburg Ont: Dean Construction Co Ltd, construction of retaining 
wall. Arnprior Ont: Able Construction Co Ltd, construction of federal bldg. Barry's Bay 
Ont: R G Reinke Sons Ltd, addition, alterations & repairs to post office bldg. Belle River 
Ont: George L Dillon Construction Ltd, reconstruction of training wall. Dault's Bay Ont: 
MacDonald & Sykes Ltd, wharf repairs. Elk Lake Ont: P M Lechlitner, wharf repairs. 
Gull Lake (Gravenhurst) Ont: Barway Marine, wharf repairs. Cook Bay (Lake Simcoe) Ont: 
Weller Tree Experts, harbour improvements at entrance of Jersey River. Manitowaning 
Ont: R Bryant Construction, construction of federal bldg. New Liskeard Ont: Tri-Town, 
alterations to federal bldg. Ottawa Ont: Canadian Comstock Co Ltd, addition to ventilation 
systems, Post Office Headquarters Bldgs, Confederation Heights; John Shore Construction 
Ltd, alterations & additions to RCMP Headquarters bldg, "S" Directorate & "A" Division; 
Louis G Fortin Construction, alterations, Kent-Albert Bldg, Kent St; Capital Enterprises, 
alterations in certain area of Confederation Bldg, Wellington St (Job "B"); Capital 
Enterprises, alterations to Geological Bldg, 601 Booth St. Sarnia Ont: Con-Bridge Ltd, 
construction of wharf extension. Toronto (Don Mills) Ont: Wembley Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of Trade & Commerce Bldg, Coldwater Road & Leslie Street; Wilson Cartage, 
removal of ashes, garbage & waste paper from federal bldgs. Windsor Ont: Scott Electrical 
Contractors Ltd, installation of fire alarm system in Income Tax Bldg. Prince Albert Sask: 
H A Hawksworth, replacement of windows on second floor, federal bldg. Swift Current 
Sask: MacWilliam Construction Co Ltd, construction of agricultural research laboratory 
& administration bldg. Raymond Alta: Getkate Masonry Construction Ltd, construction of 
post office bldg. Glacier National Park B C: Poole Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
commemorative monument, Rogers Pass, Trans-Canada Highway. Hospital Bay B C: 
Greenlees Piledriving Co Ltd, harbour improvements. Quesnel B C: Thompson Construction 
Co Ltd, alterations to federal bldg. Salmon Arm B C: Thomas Stubbins & Sons, construc- 
tion of RCMP detachment quarters & garage. Tofino B C: Tom Gibson Contracting, harbour 
improvements. Vancouver B C: Bennett & White Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
Standards Bldg for Dept of Trade & Commerce; Peterson & Cowan Elevator Co Ltd, 
repair of escalator units, general Post Office, 349 West Georgia St; R D Bristowe & 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 977 



Associates, cleaning & external repairs to Customs House. Victoria B C: Pacific Piledriving 
Co Ltd, harbour repairs. Flatt Creek-Eagle Plain Y T: Pembina River Construction Ltd, 
repairs & maintenance to Development Road, Mile 0-76. Whitehorse Y T: Whitehorse 
Painting & Decorating, interior painting of 34 units, Valley view Housing; Conniston 
Construction Co Ltd, landscaping & construction of sidewalks & driveways, federal housing. 
In addition, this Department awarded 66 contracts containing the General Fair Wages 
Clause. 

The St. Lawrence Seaway Authority 

Brossard Que: Payette Construction Ltd, reclamation & protection of Sylga & Lefebvre 
property. Cornwall Ont: Fernand Halle, landscaping, North of Seventh St, Cornwall North 
Channel Bridge; Fernand Halle, landscaping, Second St to Seventh St, Cornwall North 
Channel Bridge; Fernand Halle, landscaping, Cornwall Island, Cornwall North Channel 
Bridge. St Catharines Ont: Bridge & Tank Co of Canada Ltd, supply, installation & adjust- 
ment of mitring guides for mitre gates, Welland Canal; Frost Steel & Wire Co Ltd, supply 
& installation of chain link fence at Locks 2, 4, 6 & 8, Welland Canal. 

Department ot Transport 

Keppel Island Nfld: Avalon Construction & Engineering Ltd, construction of dwelling. 
Powles Head Nfld: S J Clark, construction of two dwellings, fog alarm & storage shed. 
Halifax N S: E J Ludford Line Construction Ltd, installation of lighting for access & 
service roads & cable system for fire alarm purposes, International Airport; Capital Window 
Cleaners Ltd, interior cleaning of Air Terminal Bldg, International Airport. Jordan Bay 
N S: Wm E Smith, construction of two dwellings. Alma N B: Judson E Kelly, construction 
of two dwellings. Fredericton N B: Diamond Construction (1961) Ltd, surface treatment 
of parking apron, Airport. Cartierville Que: G M Gest Contractors Ltd, installation of 
traffic lights & warning signs on Bois Franc Road, Airport. Greenly Island Que: Roger 
Gagne & Gerard Gauthier, construction of dwelling. Port Harrison Que: J M Fuller Ltd, 
renovation of dwellings. Prince Shoal Que: Janin Construction Ltd, construction of pier & 
superstructure for lighthouse. Rouyn Que: Betteridge-Smith Construction Co Ltd, construc- 
tion of NDB Bldg & associated work. Moosonee Ont: J M Fuller Ltd, installation of 
primary power cables to NDB. Ottawa Ont: Stanley Sulpher Construction Co Ltd, con- 
struction of power house & emergency plant for Greenbank Rd Transmitter Station; Sanco 
Ltd, interior cleaning of Air Terminal Bldg, International Airport. Flin Flon Man: Plains 
City Electric Co Ltd, installation of LI approach lighting, runway 17, Airport. Winnipeg 
Man: McNamara Construction of Ontario Ltd, construction of aircraft parking apron 
& related taxi ways, International Airport. Saskatoon Sask: Jim Patrick Ltd, clearing, 
stumping, grubbing, grading, gravelling, fencing & related work at Localizer 14-32 site, 
Airport. Calgary Alta: Standard Gravel & Surfacing of Canada Ltd, extension of runway 
16-34, etc, Airport. Edmonton Alta: McCormick Electric Ltd, relocation of glide path 
bldg, runway 33 & related work at Municipal Airport; Caledonia Electric Ltd, electrical 
installations, runways 19 & 29, International Airport. Lethbridge Alta: Kenwood Engineer- 
ing Construction Ltd, replacement of glide path bldg on runway 05 & related work, Airport. 
Abbotsford B C: Deitcher's Construction, construction of emergency powerhouse & related 
work. Victoria B C: John Laing & Son (Canada) Ltd, construction of aircraft parking 
apron, International Airport. 

In addition, this Department awarded four contracts containing the General Fair 
Wages Clause. 



Housing starts in urban centres of 5,000 population and over during the first half of 
1962 totalled 41,237, an increase of 3.4 per cent over the 39,873 starts in the first half 
of 1961, reports the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation. 

Dwelling units for which NHA loans were approved during the first half of this year 
declined by 19.9 per cent to 26,720 from 33,378 units in the first half of 1961. 

Actual completions during the first half of 1962 totalled 39,128, an increase of 13.2 
per cent over the 34,562 figure for the first half of 1961. 



978 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



PRICES AND THE COST OF LIVING 



Consumer Price Index, July 1962 

The consumer price index (1949=100) 
rose 0.4 per cent from 130.5 to 131.0 
between June and July largely as a result 
of an increase in the food index. The 
housing, transportation, health and personal 
care, and recreation and reading indexes 
were also at higher levels. The clothing 
index declined, however, and the tobacco 
and alcohol index was unchanged.* 

The index one year earlier was 129.0. 

The food index rose 1.1 per cent from 
125.6 to 127.0, reflecting price increases 
for most fresh and cured meats, especially 
pork and chicken. Beef prices continued 
to rise. Prices were also higher for eggs, 
flour, coffee, grapefruit, apples, canned fruits 
and most fresh vegetables, particularly pota- 
toes and tomatoes. Prices were lower for 
margarine, powdered skim milk, oranges, 
bananas, grapes, cabbage and lettuce. 

The housing index increased 0.1 per cent 
from 134.9 to 135.1 as both the shelter 
and household operation components moved 
to slightly higher levels. In shelter, both 
rent and home-ownership were up. In house- 
hold operation, fuel and lighting, floor 
coverings, textiles, utensils and equipment 
and household supplies moved up. Furniture 
prices were unchanged and appliance prices 
somewhat lower. 

The clothing index declined 0.2 per cent 
from 113.1 to 112.9 as a result of sale 
prices for men's, women's and children's 
wear and piece goods. 

The transportation index increased 0.2 
per cent from 140.4 to 140.7 as a result 
of higher prices for both domestic and 
imported passenger cars. Gasoline prices 
declined slightly. 

The health and personal care index was 
up 0.1 per cent from 158.2 to 158.4 due 
to price increases for toilet soap and men's 
haircuts. 

The recreation and reading index in- 
creased 0.5 per cent from 147.0 to 147.8 
due to a rise in the reading component as 
a result of price increases for newspapers 
and imported magazines. The recreation 
component remained unchanged. 

The tobacco and alcohol index remained 
unchanged at its May and June levels of 
117.9. 



7 



See Table F-l at back of book. 
THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



Group indexes in July 1961 were: food 
124.9, housing 132.9, clothing 112.2, trans- 
portation 138.7, health and personal care 
155.1, recreation and reading 145.0, and 
tobacco and alcohol 115.8. 

City Consumer Price Indexes, June 1962 

Consumer price indexes (1949=100) rose 
in nine of the ten regional cities between 
May and June.* Increases ranged from 0.1 
per cent in Saint John to 0.5 per cent in 
Toronto. The St. John's index declined 0.2 
per cent. 

Food indexes were up in all cities except 
St. John's. Housing indexes rose in six cities, 
declined in one and remained unchanged in 
three. Clothing indexes increased in six 
cities, decreased in three and remained 
unchanged in the remaining city. The index 
for transportation rose in five cities, declined 
in two and held steady in three. Indexes 
for health and personal care were up in 
seven cities and down in three. Recreation 
and reading indexes were unchanged in six 
cities, rose in three cities and declined in 
the remaining city. Tobacco and alcohol 
indexes were unchanged in all ten regional 
cities. 

Regional consumer price index point 
changes between May and June were as 
follows: Toronto +0.6 to 132.3; Ottawa 
+0.5 to 131.7; Saskatoon-Regina +0.5 to 
127.4; Halifax +0.4 to 129.6; Winnipeg 
+0.4 to 129.1; Edmonton-Calgary +0.4 to 
125.9; Montreal +0.3 to 130.5; Vancouver 
+0.3 to 129.4; Saint John +0.1 to 130.9; 
St. John's -0.2 to 117.4t. 

Wholesale Price Index, June 1962 

The general wholesale index (1935-39= 
100) rose to 240.3 in June, up 0.5 per cent 
from the May index of 239.1 and 3.8 per 
cent above the June 1961 index of 231.4. 
Five major group indexes increased while 
three declined. 

The animal products group index rose 
2.4 per cent to 260.5 from 254.4. A rise of 
1.0 per cent to 241.9 from 239.6 took place 
in the textile products group index. The 
chemical products group index moved up 

* See Table F-2 at back of book, 
t On base June 1951=108. 



979 



0.5 per cent to 191.3 from 190.4, the wood 
products group index advanced 0.3 per cent 
to 318.0 from 317.0, and the non-metallic 
minerals products group index increased 
slightly to 188.4 from 188.1. 

The non-ferrous metals products group 
index moved down 0.3 per cent to 193.7 
from 194.8, the vegetable products group 
index declined 0.3 per cent to 211.9 from 
212.5 and the iron products group index 
eased 0.3 per cent to 256.1 from 256.9. 

The residential building material price 

index (1935-39=100) moved up from 
295.8 to 296.6 betweent May and June. On 
the 1949 base, the index changed from 
129.7 to 130.1. 

The index of non-residential building 
material prices (1949=100) remained steady 
at 131.6. 



U.S. Consumer Price Index, June 1962 

The United States consumer price index 
(1957-59=100) rose to 105.3, a record, at 
mid-June; the May index was 105.2. The 
0.1-per-cent increase from May was attrib- 
utable to a seasonal rise in food prices. 

The index has risen 1.3 per cent since 
June 1961. 

British Index of Retail Prices, May 1962 

The British index of retail prices (Jan. 16, 
1962=100) rose from 101.9 to 102.2 be- 
tween mid-April and mid-May. The increase 
was attributable mainly to a 0.5-per-cent 
rise in the food index because of the 
imposition of a purchase tax on confec- 
tionery and price increases in potatoes, 
tomatoes, mutton and lamb, only partly 
offset by reductions in prices of other fresh 
vegetables, fresh fruit and bacon. 



Publications Recently Received 

in Department of Labour Library 



The publications listed below are not 
for sale by the Department of Labour. 
Persons wishing to purchase them should 
communicate with the publishers. Publica- 
tions listed may be borrowed by making 
application to the Librarian, Department 
of Labour, Ottawa. Students must apply 
through the library of their institution. 
Applications for loans should give the num- 
ber (numeral) of the publication desired 
and the month in which it was listed in the 
Labour Gazette. 

List No. 166 

Accident Prevention 

The following eight pamphlets were is- 
sued by the British Ministry of Labour 
in London between 1958 and 1961 and 
published by HMSO: 

1. Canteens and Messrooms for Small 
Factories. Pp. 48. 

2. Cloakroom Accommodation and 
Washing Facilities in Factories. Pp. 32. 

3. Fire Fighting in Factories. Pp. 43. 

4. Ionising Radiations: Precautions for 
Industrial Users. Pp. 63. 

5. Radioactive Markers in Go-Devils: 
Safety Precautions. Pp. [13]. 

6. Safety in Building Operations, Roof- 
ing. Pp. 12. 

7. Safety in the Use of Abrasive Wheels. 
Pp. 64. 

8. Toxic Substances in Factory Atmos- 
pheres. Pp. 12. 



Annual Reports 

9. Canada. Unemployment Insurance 
Commission. Twentieth Annual Report, 
Fiscal Year ending March 31, 1961. Ot- 
tawa, Queen's Printer, 1961. Pp. 48. 

10. Great Britain. Chancellor of the 
Exchequer. Economic Survey, 1962. Lon- 
don, HMSO, 1962. Pp. 59. 

11. Manitoba. Department of Industry 
and Commerce. Annual Report for Period 
ending March 31st, 1961. Winnipeg, 1962. 
Pp. 51. 

12. New Brunswick. Workmen's Com- 
pensation Board. Forty-third Annual Re- 
port, 1961. St. John, 1962. Pp. 38. 

Arbitration, Industrial 

13. Beatty, Marion. Labor-Management 
Arbitration Manual. New York, E. E. 
Eppler, 1960. Pp. 186. 

A step-by-step guide for anyone who has to 
handle a case before an arbitrator or arbitration 
board. Tells about selecting arbitrators, ex- 
penses of arbitration, preparing and presenting 
the case, the applicability of legal rules, griev- 
ance procedure and mediation and conciliation. 

14. Carrothers, Alfred William 
Rooke. Labour Arbitration in Canada; a 
Study of the Law and Practice relating to 
the Arbitration of Grievance Disputes in 
Industrial Relations in Common Law, Can- 
ada. Toronto, Butterworths, 1961. Pp. 204. 



980 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



"The object of this study is to describe and 
evaluate arbitration as a method of settling 
grievance disputes in labour-management rela- 
tions." 

Biographies 

15. Dwarkadas, Kanji. Forty -five Years 
with Labour. New York, Asia Publishing 
House, 1962. Pp. 315. 

The author has spent 45 years as a worker 
and personnel officer in the textile industry in 
India. He describes working conditions in the 
textile industry and tells of his efforts to im- 
prove workers' housing. 

16. Foulser, George. Seaman's Voice. 
London, MacGibbon & Kee, 1961. Pp. 192. 

Autobiography of a British sailor. 

Economic Development 

17. Kuznets. Simon Smith. Six Lectures 
on Economic Growth. Glencoe, 111., Free 
Press, [1960, cl959]. Pp. 122. 

Each lecture contains two papers. Contents 
range from The Meaning and Measurement of 
Economic Growth to Knowledge and Policy. 

18. Robertson, (Sir) Dennis Holme. 

Growth, Wages, Money. Cambridge [Eng.] 
University Press, 1961. Pp. [64]. 

Three lectures given at Cambridge University 
by that university's Emeritus Professor of Polit- 
ical Economy. 

Finance 

19. McIvor, Russel Craig. Canadian 
Monetary, Banking, and Fiscal Develop- 
ment. Toronto, Macmillan, 1958. Pp. 263. 

A history of monetary and banking develop- 
ment from the days of New France till the 
present. Touches on war finance during the 
First and Second World Wars, the depression 
period and the introduction of central bank- 
ing, social credit in Alberta, and post-war 
monetary and fiscal policy. 

20. Tower, Ralph Burnett. A Hand- 
book of Small Business Finance. 5th ed. 
Rev. by Staff Members of the Small Busi- 
ness Administration. Washington, U.S. Small 
Business Administration, 1961. Pp. 81. 

Provides information on the financial opera- 
tions of small business. 

Industrial Relations 

21. Chicago. University. Graduate 
School of Business. The Structure of Col- 
lective Bargaining; Problems and Perspec- 
tives; Proceedings of a Seminar sponsored 
by Graduate School of Business, University 
of Chicago, and the McKinsey Foundation. 
Edited by Arnold R. Weber. [New York], 
Free Press of Glencoe, [1961]. Pp. 380. 

Examines developments in collective bar- 
gaining. Includes studies of collective bargain- 
ing in the steel, meat packing, chemical, air 
transportation, and construction industries, and 
an analysis of public policy on collective bar- 
gaining. 



22. U.S. Congress. House. Committee 
on Education and Labor. Construction 
Site Picketing. Hearings before the General 
Subcommittee on Labor of the Committee 
on Education and Labor, House of Repre- 
sentatives, Eighty-seventh Congress, First 
Session on H. R. 2955 and Various Bills to 
amend Section 8(b) (4) of the National 
Labor Relations Act, as amended . . . Wash- 
ington, GPO, 1961. Pp. 326. 

Hearings held April 17-25, 1961. The General 
.Subcommittee on Labor discussed legislation 
which would reverse the Supreme Court deci- 
sion on the Denver Building Trades case, where 
the Supreme Court ruled that the Denver Build- 
ing Trades Council had violated the secondary 
boycott provisions of the Labor-Management 
Relations Act by picketing a construction job 
where the contractor had employed a non- 
union electrical subcontractor. 

23. U.S. Congress. House. Committee 
on Education and Labor. Labor-Manage- 
ment Irregularities: Investigation of Dis- 
crimination in Employment and Irregulari- 
ties in the Field of Labor-Management 
Relations. Hearing before the Committee 
on Education and Labor, House of Repre- 
sentatives, Eighty-seventh Congress, First 
Session. Hearings held in New York, N.Y., 
June 3 and 24, 1961. Washington, GPO, 
1961. Pp. 104. 

These hearings deal with alleged discrimina- 
tion in employment, migratory labour, and 
alleged unfair labour practices by unions. 

Labour Organization 

24. Campaigne, Jameson G. Check-off; 
Labor Bosses and Working Men. Chicago, 
H. Regnery Co., 1961. Pp. 248. 

The author, an American newspaper editor, 
advocates the abolition of compulsory check-off 
and of compulsory union membership in the 
U.S. He alleges that certain American labour 
leaders are too powerful. 

25. Pound, Roscoe. Labor Unions and 
the Concept of Public Service. Washington, 
American Enterprise Association, 1959. 
Pp. 63. 

The author, former Dean and Professor 
Emeritus of the Harvard University Law School, 
recommends that labour unions should be sub- 
ject to duties and responsibilities under law 
and should not be immune. 

Labouring Classes 

26. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Economics and Research Branch. Office 
Occupations. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1960. 
Pp. 64. 

Contains job descriptions of different office 
workers. 

27. Cheit, Earl Frank. Injury and Re- 
covery in the Course of Employment. New 
York, Wiley, 1961. Pp. 377. 

The author discusses how well workmen's 
compensation in the U.S. succeeds in: "1. 
Restoring economic losses due to occupational 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

59897-9—7 



• AUGUST 1962 



981 



disability and death. 2. Providing medical care. 
3. Returning injured workers to their jobs." 

28. Great Britain. Central Office of 
Information. Reference Division. Labour 
Relations and Conditions of Work in Brit- 
ain. Rev. March 1962. London, 1962. Pp. 

45. 

Contents: Pay, Hours and Holidays. Safety. 
Health and Welfare. Industrial Relations. 
Human Relations at the Work Place. 

29. International Labour Office. Vo- 
cational Training. Fourth item on the 
agenda. Geneva, 1961-1962. 2 volumes. 

At head of title: International Labour Con- 
ference. 46th session, Geneva, 1962. Volume 1 
contains a proposed Recommendation concern- 
ing vocational training. Volume 2 contains a 
summary and brief analysis of the replies of 
67 member governments as well as English and 
French versions of the proposed text to be 
considered at the 46th session. 

30. Ohio. Division of Women and Mi- 
nors and Minimum Wage. The Employment 
of Youth in Ohio Industry: Education, Occu- 
pation, Injuries, 1955-1960. Columbus, Dept. 
of Industrial Relations, Division of Women 
and Minors and Minimum Wage, Division 
of Labor Statistics, 1961. Pp. 96. 

3 1 . Senesh, Lawrence. Our Labor Force: 
Workers, Wages and Unions, by Lawrence 
Senesh and Barbara Warne Newell. Harry 
Negley, consultant. Minneapolis, Curriculum 
Resources, cl961. Pp. 84. 

". . . Presents the role of manpower in the 
American economy: the factors which have 
contributed to the growth and composition of 
the [U.S.] labor force; the role of the market, 
organized labor, and government in determining 
wages and working conditions." 

32. U.S. Bureau of Labor Standards. 
Labor Offices in the United States and 
Canada. November 1961. Washintgon, GPO, 
1962. Pp. 57. 

Management 

33. Argyris, Chris. Understanding Or- 
ganizational Behavior. Homewood, 111., Dor- 
sey Press, 1960. Pp. 179. 

Written for the social scientist studying be- 
havior in an organization. Tells how to carry 
out an interview, what kind of questions to ask 
and what not to ask, and how to analyse the 
information received, etc. 

34. Dalziel, Stuart. The Human Impli- 
cations of Work Study; the Case of Pakitt 
Ltd., by Stuart Dalziel and Lisl Klein. 
Stevenage, Eng., Human Sciences Unit, 
Warren Spring Laboratory, 1960. Pp. 81. 

A case study which describes what happened 
to one company that called in a management 
consultant firm to help improve productivity 
by the introduction of work study. 

Research, Industrial 

35. Great Britain. Department of 
Scientific and Industrial Research. Re- 
search for Industry; a Report on Work 



done by Industrial Research Associations in 
the Government Scheme, 1960. London, 
HMSO, 1961 [i.e., 1962]. Pp. 148. 

36. U.S. National Science Foundation. 
Publication of Basic Research Findings in 
Industry, 1957-59. Washington, GPO, 1961. 
Pp. 43. 

Unemployment 

37. International Labour Office. Em- 
ployment Objectives in Economic Develop- 
ment; Report of a Meeting of Experts. 
Geneva, 1961. Pp. 255. 

Deals with unemployment and underemploy- 
ment. Includes case studies of employment 
problems and policies in Brazil, Ghana, India, 
Italy, Japan, the Philippines, Poland and Egypt. 

38. Malisoff, Harry. The Insurance 
Character of Unemployment Insurance. 
Kalamazoo, Mich., W. E. Upjohn Institute 
for Employment Research, 1961. Pp. 44. 

Analyses the mixture of insurance and wel- 
fare in unemployment insurance and considers 
how the dominant insurance character can 
be maintained while the unemployment ex- 
igencies keep changing. 

39. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Unemployment: Terminology, Measurement, 
and Analysis. [Study Papers prepared for] 
Subcommittee on Economic Statistics of the 
Joint Economic Committee, Congress of 
the United States. Washington, GPO, 1961. 
Pp. 113. 

Contains three Study Papers: 1. Unemploy- 
ment Terminology and Classification. 2. Some 
Alternative Indexes of Employment and Unem- 
ployment. 3. Unemployment in the Early 1960's. 

40. U.S. Congress. Joint Economic 
Committee. Employment and Unemploy- 
ment. Hearings before the Subcommittee on 
Economic Statistics of the Joint Economic 
Committee, Congress of the United States, 
Eighty-seventh Congress, First Session, pur- 
suant to Sec. 5 (a) of Public Law 304, 79th 
Congress. December 18, 19, 20, 1961. 
Washington, GPO, 1962. Pp. 399. 

The Subcommittee considered three ques- 
tions, in particular: 1. Are statistics on employ- 
ment and unemployment adequate in concept, 
coverage, consistency, accuracy, and amount of 
detail? 2. What has caused the high rate of 
unemployment? 3. What should be the public 
and private policies for dealing with employ- 
ment and unemployment over the next couple 
of years? 

41. U.S. Congress. Joint Economic 
Committee. Higher Unemployment Rates, 
1957-60: Structural Transformation or In- 
adequate Demand. [A Study Paper pre- 
pared for the] Subcommittee on Economic 
Statistics. Washington, GPO, 1961. Pp. 79. 

At head of title: 87th Cong. 1st sess. Joint 
Committee print. An analysis of the reasons 
for the higher unemployment rates in the 1957- 
1960 period. 



982 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



Women— Employment 

42. Canadian Nurses' Association. 
Facts and Figures about Nursing in Canada. 
Toronto, 1960. Pp. 32. 

43. Klein, Viola. Employing Married 
Women. London, Institute of Personnel 
Management, 1961. Pp. 51. 

Study based on information supplied by 120 
firms employing about 27,000 married women. 
The study explains why there is some reluctance 
to hire them. 

44. Winter, Elmer. A Woman's Guide 
to Earning a Good Living. New York, 
Simon and Schuster, 1961. Pp. 401. 

Contains practical suggestions for both single 
and married women who are looking for jobs. 
Includes a brief review of 52 fields to choose 
from. 

Miscellaneous 

45. Canada. Department of National 
Health and Welfare. The Volunteer in 
Recreation. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1958. 
Pp. 48. 

46. Canadian Association for Adult 
Education. Tomorrow's Teaching for 
Adults; a Report on Teaching Machines and 
Programmed Instruction, with Glossary and 
Bibliography. Toronto, 1962. Pp. 36. 

47. Commerce Clearing House Cana- 
dian Limited. Canadian Master Tax Guide; 
a Guidebook to Canadian Income Tax with 
Rates and Fees under the Excise Tax Act; 
the Companies Act and a Brief Outline of 
the Estate Tax Act. 17th ed., January 1962. 
Don Mills, Ont., 1962. Pp. 409. 

48. Corbett, Richmond M. Pension 
Trends and the Self-employed. New Bruns- 
wick, N.J., Rutgers University Press, 1961. 
Pp. 156. 

Discusses the problem of the self-employed 
person, such as doctors, lawyers, farmers et al 
in the U.S. who were not permitted to deduct 
contributions to a pension fund from their 
income tax. Reviews legislation which would 
remedy this situation, introduced in the U.S. 
Congress. 

49. Lougheed, William Foster. Second- 
ary Manufacturing Industry in the Cana- 
dian Economy. Toronto, Baxter Pub. Co., 
1961. Pp. 273. 



Discusses such aspects of secondary manu- 
facturing in Canada as employment, capital 
investment, exports, imports, taxation, markets, 
productivity, foreign competition, government 
control, etc., with particular reference to the 
period 1949 to 1960. 

50. National Consumer Credit Con- 
ference. 12th, Washington University, 
St. Louis, Mo., 1960. Consumer Credit in 
the Sixties; Proceedings. [St. Louis, Mo? 
Washington University? 1961]. Pp. 94. 

. Conference held March 27, 28, 29, 1960. 

51. Railway Labor Executives' Asso- 
ciation. The Move toward Railroad Mer- 
gers, a Great National Problem. Washing- 
ton, 1962. Pp. 102. 

An examination of the present proposals for 
railroad mergers in the U.S. 

52. Tolles, Newman Arnold. Labor 
Costs and International Trade, by N. Arnold 
Tolles, assisted by Betti C. Goldwasser. 
Washington, Committee for a National 
Trade Policy, 1961. Pp. 43. 

Examines "some of the practical and the 
logical problems involved in proposals to deter- 
mine so-called 'flexible' American tariff rates 
on the basis of comparative production costs 
in the U.S.A. and in foreign countries." 

53. U.S. Children's Bureau. Services in 
Public and Voluntary Child Welfare Pro- 
grams, by Helen R. Jeter. Washington, 
GPO, 1962. Pp. 126. 

54. U.S. Congress. Senate. Special 
Committee on Aging. Problems of the 
Aging. Hearings before the Subcommittee 
on Federal and State Activities of the 
Special Committee on Aging, United States 
Senate, Eighty -seventh Congress, First Ses- 
sion . . . Pt. I. Washington, D.C., August 
23 and 24, 1961. Washington, GPO, 1961. 
Pp. 254. 

The first in a series of hearings dealing with 
the programs and policies of different levels 
of government in the field of aging. 

55. U.S. Selective Service System. 
Outline of Historical Background of Selec- 
tive Service, from Biblical Days to June 
30, 1960, prepared by Irving W. Hart, rev. 
by Maxwell O. Jensen. Rev. 1960 ed. Wash- 
ington, 1960. Pp. 60. 



More than 18 per cent of U.S. industrial establishments are sponsoring apprenticeship 
and other employee training programs. Edw. E. Goshen, Director of the U.S. Department 
of Labor's Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, released figures in July as the result 
of a nation-wide study. 

Some 9,500 employers, of whom 80 per cent replied, were involved in a study survey 
conducted in March 1962 by the Bureau. The establishments included were representative 
of industry in general. The findings are to be published and made available later. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

59897-9— 1\ 



• AUGUST 7962 



983 



U.S. Labour Unions Own Assets Worth $1.5 Billion 



Labour unions in the United States had 
assets of $1.5 billion in 1960, according to 
a report by U.S. Secretary of Labor Arthur 
J. Goldberg. The unions, which included 
local, national and other types, gave total 
liabilities as $224 million, leaving net assets 
of more than $1.3 billion. 

About 25 per cent of the 260 national 
unions each took in more than $1 million a 
year in dues and other revenue. 

A total of 44,530 unions reported finan- 
cial statistics to the Labor Secretary, in 
accordance with the Labor-Management 
Reporting and Disclosure Act. Compiled by 
the Bureau of Labor-Management Reports, 
the results were published in Union Finan- 
cial Statistics and released by Secretary 
Goldberg. Assets by individual union were 
not given. 

Welfare and pension plan funds were not 
included in the report, as most of these — 
about 90 per cent — are administered by the 
employers. These funds have a total esti- 
mated value of $50 billion, increasing at 
the rate of about $5 billion a year. 



Of the 260 national unions, 75 per cent 
had total receipts of under $1 million; 16 
per cent of these unions had receipts of 
under $10,000; 27 per cent had total receipts 
of between $100,000 and $1,000,000; and 
4 per cent had revenue of less than $10,000. 

Nearly 55 per cent of the local unions 
had receipts of less than $5,000, an addi- 
tional 15 per cent had revenue of between 
$5,000 and $10,000. Unions classified as 
other than national or local had a receipt 
distribution similar to the local unions. 

The largest assets— at $770.8 million- 
were reported by the national unions; their 
total liabilities were $147.9 million. Local 
unions came next with assets of $670.1 
million and liabilities of nearly $43 million. 
Unions other than local or national reported 
assets worth nearly $100 million and liabili- 
ties of almost $33 million. 

Of the 44,530 unions reporting, 41,796 
were local unions, 260 were national as 
noted, and 2,474 were others. 

At present the grand total of reporting 
unions is over 52,000, as about 8,000 small 
organizations were not included in the first 
statistical report. 



46th International Labour Conference 

(Continued from page 948) 

(b) making available training facilities to 
enable selected personnel from other coun- 
tries, either on an exchange basis or other- 
wise, to acquire skill, knowledge and ex- 
perience not available in their own country; 

(c) the organization of visits abroad for per- 
sons concerned with training to enable 
them to become familiar with training 
practices in other countries; 

(d) the loan of experienced personnel from 
one country to another to help organize 
training; 

(e) the exchange of qualified personnel; 

(/) the preparation and supply of textbooks 
and other materials for training; 

(g) the systematic exchange of information on 
training questions; 

(h) helping the industrializing countries to 
create and develop their national training 
systems and to acquire their own qualified 
teachers and instructors. 



79. Consideration should be given to — 

(a) the desirability and possibility of progres- 
sively assimilating training levels for the 
same occupation within a group of coun- 
tries with a view to facilitating access to 
training abroad as well as occupational 
mobility; 

(b) the possibility of reciprocal recognition 
of examination certificates in territories 
where training levels for the same occupa- 
tion are comparable; 

(c) the preparation and exchange of occupa- 
tional information such as job descriptions 
which may be particularly useful in the 
training of migrants. 

XVI. Effect on Earlier Recommendations 

80. This Recommendation supersedes the 
Vocational Training Recommendation, 1939, 
the Apprenticeship Recommendation, 1939, and 
the Vocational Training (Adults) Recommenda- 
tion, 1950. 



984 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



LABOUR STATISTICS 



Page 

Tables A-l to A-3— Labour Force 985 

Table B-l— Labour Income 987 

Tables G-l to C-6 — Employment, Hours and Earnings 988 

Tables D-l to D-5 — Employment Service Statistics 993 

Tables E-l to E-5 — Unemployment Insurance 998 

Tables F-l and F-2— Prices 1001 

Tables G-l to G-4— Strikes and Lockouts 1002 



A — Labour Force 

TABLE A-l— REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION, WEEK ENDED JULY 21, 1962 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: DBS Labour Force Survey 



The Labour Force 

Men 

Women 

14 — 19 years 

20— 24 years 

25 — 44 years 

45 — 64 years 

65 years and over 

Employed v . . 

Men 

Women 

Agriculture 

Non-agriculture 

Paid Workers 

Men 

Women 

Unemployed 

Men 

Women 

Persons not in the Labour Force 

Men 

Women 

* Less than 10,000. 



Canada 



6,877 

5,033 
1,844 



870 
2,981 
1,939 

221 

6,569 

4,786 
1,783 

746 
5,823 

5,359 

3,776 
1,583 

308 

247 
61 

5,357 

1,049 
4.308 



Atlantic 
Region 



630 

479 
151 

93 
88 
251 
176 
22 

584 

440 

144 

48 
536 



352 

128 



39 



137 
469 



Quebec 



1,914 

1,423 
491 

267 
286 
838 
476 

47 



1,332 
473 



144 



1,516 



1,084 
432 



109 



1,589 



305 
1,284 



Ontario 



2,492 

1,786 
706 

278 

279 

1,116 

734 

85 

2,398 

1,713 
685 

180 
2,218 

2,055 

1,436 
619 

94 

73 

21 

1,784 

322 
1,462 



Prairie 
Region 



1,218 



330 

161 
149 
503 
356 
49 

1,192 



323 



337 
855 



807 



544 
263 



2*3 



170 
700 



British 
Columbia 



623 

457 
166 

67 

68 

273 

197 

18 

590 

432 
158 

37 
553 

501 

360 
141 

33 

25 



508 



115 
393 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • -AUGUST 7962 



985 



TABLE A-2— AGE, SEX AND MARITAL STATUS, WEEK ENDED JULY 21, 1962 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: DBS Labour Force Survey 



Total 



14-19 

years 

all 

persons 



20-64 years 



Men 



Married Other 



Women 



Married Other 



65 years 

and over 

all 

persons 



Population 14 years of age and over fl > 

Labour force 

Employed 

Unemployed 

Not in labour force 

Participation rate < 2 > 

1962, July 21 

June 23 

Unemployment rate < 3 > 

1962, July 21 

June 23 



12,234 

6,877 

6,569 

308 

5,357 



56.2 
55.3 



4.5 
4.5 



1,821 

866 

770 

96 

955 



47.6 
38.2 



11.1 
12.6 



3,567 

3,452 

3,346 

106 

115 



96.8 



3.1 
3.3 



962 



817 
64 



81 



7.3 
7.3 



3,640 

821 

807 

14 

2,819 



22.6 
23.7 



1.7 
1.7 



636 

618 

18 

290 



68.7 



2.8 
2.4 



1,318 

221 

211 

10 

1,097 



16.8 
17.3 



4.5 



d) Excludes inmates of institutions, members of the armed services, Indians living on reserves and residents of the 

Yukon and Northwest Territories. 
( 2 > The labour force as a percentage of the population 14 years of age and over. 
( 3 > The unemployed as a percentage of the labour force. 
* Less than 10,000 unemployed. 



TABLE A-3— UNEMPLOYED, WEEK ENDED JULY 21, 1962 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: DBS Labour Force Survey 



July 

1962 



June 
1962 



July 
1961 



Total unemployed 

On temporary layoff up to 30 days 
Without work and seeking work. . . 

Seeking full-time work 

Seeking part-time work 

Seeking under 1 month 

Seeking 1 — 3 months 

Seeking 4 — 6 months 

Seeking more than 6 months. . 



16 

292 

268 
24 

92 
101 
37 
62 



301 



11 
290 



268 
22 



110 
69 
42 



354 



21 
333 



310 
23 



104 
100 



986 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



B — Labour Income 
TABLE B-l— ESTIMATES OF LABOUR INCOME 

Note: Monthly and quarterly figures may not add to annual totals because of rounding. 

($ Millions) 
Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 





Monthly Totals 


Quarterly Totals W 


Year and 
Month 


Mining 


Manu- 
facturing 


Trans- 
portation, 
Storage 
and 
Communi- 
cation ( 2 > 


Forestry 


Construc- 
tion 


Public 

utilities 


Trade 


Finance 
Services 
(including 
Govern- 
ment) 


Supple- 
men- 
tary 
Labour 
income 


Totals 

(3) 


1957— Total.... 
1958— Total.... 
1959— Total.... 
1960— Total.... 
1961— Total. . . . 

1961— 


535 
527 
552 
551 
545 

45.6 
46.3 
46.2 
46.2 
46.3 
46.3 
46.2 
45.5 

45.8 
45.2 
45.6 
45.1 
47.0 


4,838 
4,823 
5,096 
5,188 
5,348 

441.8 
457.5 
451.2 
459.3 
464.6 
463.0 
458.8 
451.3 

450.7 
455.9 
461.1 
469.0 
482.7 


1,661 

1,685 
1,785 
1,806 
1,862 

153.8 

165.5 

166.9 

162.2 

162.0 

159.0. 

158.1 

152.0 

151.2 
152.1 
150.3 
153.8 
159.8 


336 
270 
288 
326 
285 

62.4 


1,311 
1,317 
1,279 
1,245 
1,225 

302.5 


277 
307 
332 
344 
356 

88.8 


2,265 

2,360 
2,528 
2,638 
2,737 

678.6 


3,920 
4,303 
4,653 
5,019 
5,475 

1,375.1 


683 
727 
746 
790 
827 

205.6 


16,018 
16,521 
17,463 
18,119 
18,884 

1,563.9 




1,629.4 


July 














1,615.3 


August 

September... 


75.4 


373.8 


91.9 


690.3 


1,375.3 


210-2 


1.629.9 
1,657.7 














1,644.9 


November... 


85.1 


311.5 


89.9 


712.2 


1,413.5 


211.9 


1.625.1 
1,585.8 


1962 — 

January 

February 














1,565.7 


68.2 


255.6 


89.7 


687.7 


1,421.5 


212.0 


1,575.7 
1,590.5 


April* 

Mayt 














1,618.8 














1,674.4 

















W Quarterly figures are entered opposite the middle month of the quarter but represent quarterly totals. 
< 2 > Includes post office wages and salaries. 

(3) Figures in this column are for total labour income, Canada, but are not totals of the figures in the remaining 
columns of this table, as figures for labour income in Agriculture, Fishing and Trapping are not shown. 
* Revised, 
t Preliminary. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



987 



C — Employment, Hours and Earnings 

Tables C-l to C-3 are based on reports from employers having 15 or more employees— at May 1962 employees 
In the principal non-agricultural industries reported a total employment of 2,887,337 . Tables C-4 and C-5 are 
based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of firms than Tables C-l to C-3. They relate only to wage 
earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available whereas Tables C-l to C-3 relate to salaried em- 
ployees as well as to all wage earners in the reporting firms. 

TABLE C-l— EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS AND WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Sottbce: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 



Year and Month 



Industrial Composite < ! ) 



Index Numbers 
(1949=100) 



Employ- 
ment 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 

and 
Salaries 



Average 

Weekly 

Wages 

and 



Manufacturing 



Index Numbers 
(1949=100) 



Employ- 
ment 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 

and 
Salaries 



Average 
Weekly- 
Wages 

and 
Salaries 



.\verages 

1957 

1958 

1959 

1960 

1961 

1961 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October... 
November 
December. 

1962 

January 

February. . 

March 

April* 

Mayf 



122.6 
117.9 
119.7 
118.7 
118.1 



117.2 
121.3 
122.5 
123.9 
123.3 
122.9 
121.6 
117.8 



115.2 
114.7 
115.2 
116.7 
121.0 



158.1 
163.9 
171.0 
176.5 
181.8 



181.6 
182.8 
182.1 
182.2 
183.3 
183.9 
183.5 
179.4 



184.5 
186.7 
187.2 
186.7 
188.0 



67.93 
70.43 
73.47 
75.83 
78.11 



78.00 

78.55 
78.24 
78.27 
78.75 
79.02 
78.82 
77.08 



79.27 
80.21 
80.41 
80.21 
80.76 



115.8 
109.8 
111.1 
109.5 
108.9 



108.4 
111.2 
110.9 
113.1 
112.8 
112.1 
110.9 
107.9 



108.5 
108.9 
109.6 
110.4 
113.4 



159.1 
165.3 
172.5 
177.8 
183.6 



183.6 
184.6 
182.7 
182.9 
184.6 
186.0 
186.2 
182.3 



187.1 
188.2 
189.3 
189.0 
190.4 



72.67 
75.84 
78.19 
80.73 



80.72 
81.17 
80.34 
80.42 
81.15 
81.79 
81.87 
80.16 



82.28 
82.74 
83.23. 
83.11 
83.74 



(^ Includes (1) Forestry (chiefly logging), (2) Mining (including milling), quarrying and oil wells, (3) Manufacturing- 
(4) Construction, (5) Transportation, storage and communication, (6) Public utility operation, (7) Trade, (8) Finance, 
insurance and real estate and (9) Service, (mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants, business andrecrea- 
tional service). 

* Revised. 

t Preliminary. 



988 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 






TABLE C-2— AREA SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES 

AND SALARIES, MAY, 1962 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 



Area 



Provinces 

Newfoundland 

Prince Edward Island 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta (including Northwest Territories) 
British Columbia (including Yukon) 

Canada 



Urban Areas 

St. John's 

Sydney 

Halifax 

Moncton 

Saint John 

Chicoutimi — Jonquiere 

Quebec 

Sherbrooke 

Shawinigan 

Three Rivers 

Drummondville 

Montreal 

Ottawa— Hull 

Kingston 

Peterborough 

Oshawa 

Toronto 

Hamilton 

St. Catharines 

Niagara Falls 

Brantford 

Guelph 

Gait 

Kitchener 

Sudbury 

Timmins 

London 

Sarnia 

Windsor 

Sault Ste. Marie 

Ft. William— Pt. Arthur 

Winnipeg 

Regina 

Saskatoon 

Edmonton 

Calgary 

Vancouver 

Victoria 



Employment Index Numbers 



May 

1962 



126.3 
137.6 
96.8 
101.9 
120.2 
123.1 
110.6 
126.6 
157.2 
115.1 

121.0 



138.6 



123, 
107. 
106, 

108. 
118. 
106. 
104. 
118. 

80. 
127. 
134, 
115, 

96. 
189, 
136, 
114, 
110, 
101 

82 
122 
115 
130 
145 

90 
136 
134 

74 
150 
107 
110 
141 
139 
203 
179 
113 
115 



Apr. 
1962 



115.5 
114.6 
91.0 
92.4 
116.3 
119.9 
106.9 
117.2 
149.0 
111.6 

116.7 



130.0 

72.6 
119.5 
102.9 
105.8 
105.8 
116.9 
103.1 
100.8 
112.5 

57.6 
125.5 
130.1 
112.4 

94.1 
185.3 
134.7 
111.3 
110.1 

96.1 

80.9 
119.6 
113.2 
127.0 
143.9 

88.1 
132.9 
130.3 

73.1 
145.7 

99.8 
107.8 
134.5 
132.6 
193.1 
173.8 
111.6 
112.2 



May 

1961 



117.9 
131.9 
96.3 
99.2 
116.6 
118.3 
109.9 
125.4 
153.7 
112.3 

117.2 



128.5 

88.8 
122.0 
102.5 
101.8 
109.8 
113.3 

98.6 
104.5 
111.1 

74.9 
123.1 
127.6 
120.4 

90.4 
175.6 
130.6 
108.3 
107.0 

99.0 

82.5 
119.9 
106.1 
121.2 
146.6 

91.5 
128.3 
126.2 

74.4 
139.8 
110.0 
110.8 
138.9 
145.3 
187.0 
173.0 
111.1 
107.3 



Average Weekly Wages 
and Salaries, in Dollars 



May 
1962 



73. 



61.08 
82.06 
67.60 
61.96 
65.65 
97.82 
69.50 
66.51 
86.54 
73.76 
67.70 
80.45 
75.42 
78.62 
89.74 

105.00 
84.30 
90.50 
95.14 
81.55 
75.83 
75.51 
71.77 
76.32 
91.37 
73.01 
76.53 

104.42 
92.24 

101.73 
82.15 
71.69 
75.04 
72.56 
76.19 
80.87 
86.03 
79.98 



Apr. 
1962 



73.30 
61.53 
65.72 
66.05 
77.50 
83.27 
75.00 
75.97 
81.32 
87.15 

80.21 



60.18 
77.49 
67.84 
61.82 
64.21 
97.11 
68.64 
66.78 
85.89 
72.26 
65.49 
79.13 
74.17 
77.42 
90.04 

104.88 
83.52 
89.25 
94.27 
83.19 
75.42 
73.73 
71.66 
74.96 
92.00 
72.48 
75.57 

104.64 
90.03 

100.65 
79.48 
71.99 
75.70 
70.74 
75.95 
80.41 
85.28 
79.79 



May 

1961 



71.75 
56.37 
64.66 
61.38 
75.26 
81.17 
72.79 
73.72 
79.54 
85.35 

78.00 



59.37 
79.37 
63.71 
60.23 
60.53 
95.05 
67.37 
64.97 
85.01 
72.89 
63.10 
77.18 
72.42 
76.98 
86.88 
90.40 
81.66 
86.59 
88.87 
81.16 
74.83 
72.27 
70.04 
73.37 
91.48 
70.90 
74.12 

101.49 
88.16 

104.43 
80.47 
70.04 
71.92 
69.38 
74.59 
75.61 
83.76 
76.43 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



TABLE C-3— INDUSTRY SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY 
WAGES AND SALARIES, MAY, 1962 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 
Note: Information for other industries is given in "Employment and Payrolls" 



Area 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

E ubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills. .'. 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries. . . . 
Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery, industrial 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

Wire and wire products 

Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery 

Telecommunication equipment 

Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Petroleum refining and products 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Other chemical products 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

Construction 

Building and general engineering 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 

Industrial composite 



Employment Index Numbers 



May 

1962 



117.9 

132.9 
69.5 

191.8 
84.9 
41.9 

260.7 

147.1 

113.4 

118.1 
109.4 
114.7 
132.2 
92.0 
100.1 
111.1 
95.3 
99.4 
104.6 



87.4 
94.1 
80.9 
73.4 
61.4 
88.9 
91.0 
94.6 
96.1 
73.1 
108.0 
110.6 
114.1 
82.6 
125.1 
125.1 
125.1 
126.7 
109.3 
62.6 
154.7 
106.5 
102.3 
94.2 
127.0 
125.4 
114.7 
112.7 
114.9 
256.0 
115.7 
114.7 
57.3 
149.7 
125.4 
140.4 
104.5 
140.4 
146.7 
107.8 
265.0 
150.8 
90.0 
165.4 
141.1 
143.6 
135.6 
122.5 
160.3 
133.3 
142.0 

125.8 

122.9 
130.8 
137.6 

157.3 

135.7 
130.5 

121.0 



Apr. 
1962 



113.3 

130.2 
68.4 

187.5 
79.7 
37.9 

250.2 

135.7 

110.4 

114.7 
106.7 
107.9 
129.6 
82.8 
97.4 



100. 
94. 



05 



5 
2 
7 
3 
1 
2 
77.8 



74 

50 

77 

91 

04 

00 

72 
101 
101 
112.7 

78.8 
122.3 
121.9 
123.4 
126.0 
106.4 

63.4 
149.4 
104.7 



92.6 
122.9 
121.3 
109.6 
109.6 
113.5 
257.8 
113.9 
113.0 

56.2 
146.9 
123.6 
136.3 
103.4 
138.4 
143.7 
105.8 
256.9 
144.3 

86.0 
164.3 
137.6 
140.4 
133.3 
121.8 
155.1 
131.3 
139.8 

112.3 

110.3 
115.7 
135.3 

152.0 

129.4 
129.1 

116.7 



May 
1961 



117.4 

132.8 
71.8 

189.7 
85.3 
45.8 

255.5 

141.5 

108.4 

111.0 
106.2 
112.0 
134.8 
82.5 
102.0 
110.1 
100.9 
79.0 
97.3 
86.0 
92.4 
77.5 
70.2 
60.8 
82.4 
88.4 
90.5 
95.0 
70.1 
104.6 
108.0 
108.1 
81.2 
123.8 
124.8 
121.3 
123.8 
103.1 
67.0 
146.9 
100.2 
92.1 
88.5 
113.7 
117.4 
105.3 
110.8 
107.0 
258.4 
106.1 
104.0 
53.6 
130.4 
123.7 
136.9 
101.3 
144.2 
129.6 
97.7 
220.0 
138.9 
88.4 
154.0 
138.7 
141.4 
133.0 
119.4 
156.6 
131.2 
136.3 

123.1 

117.6 
132.2 
134.9 

148.8 
129.3 
123.4 

117.2 



Average Weekly Wages 
and Salaries, in Dollars 



May 
1962 



$ 
98.57 

100.33 
82.63 

106.29 

101.60 
76.70 

117.94 
86.26 

83.74 
90.40 
77.73 
74.26 
84.55 
66.84 
82.29 
70.51 

102.67 
77.60 
85.58 
54.58 
51.87 
66.50 
62.51 
62.75 
73.33 
51.07 
49.56 
52.86 
50.70 
70.86 
72.73 
69.17 
62.81 
97.25 

104.96 
79.03 
91.33 
95.79 
98.31 
96.74 
84.17 
80.23 
90.01 
90.83 

112.76 
93.60 
95.36 
98.02 
96.29 

116.65 
97.04 
84.49 
89.86 
94.22 
92.63 
89.98 

102.65 
89.32 
97.80 
86.64 
88.35 
79.94 
84.29 

121.46 

122.47 
98.41 
85.48 

109.71 
98.24 
73.51 

85.08 
91.77 
74.58 
85.43 

57.15 

43.42 
50.87 

80.76 



Apr. 


May 


1962 


1961 


$ 


$ 


98.49 


95.82 


99.79 


98.22 


81.41 


79.37 


106.02 


104.86 


101.89 


95.71 


74.50 


74.22 


118.84 


112.29 


86.99 


85.87 


83.11 


80.72 


89.59 


86.94 


77.27 


75.26 


73.98 


71.96 


82.73 


82.55 


68.01 


64.69 


79.46 


79.05 


68.48 


68.25 


100.64 


96.37 


74.99 


82.27 


84.44 


82.22 


54.72 


53.86 


52.07 


51.00 


65.51 


63.83 


61.73 


59.57 


61.41 


60.94 


72.30 


71.20 


51.46 


49.12 


50.20 


47.83 


53.71 


50.16 


50.69 


49.26 


70.22 


69.16 


72.13 


71.30 


68.54 


66.6) 


62.64 


61.88 


96.39 


94.25 


103.85 


101.72 


78.94 


76.26 


90.79 


87.31 


94.35 


92.46 


98.10 


93.68 


94.88 


93.54 


82.94 


81.44 


80.26 


78.16 


90.17 


86.40 


90.76 


88.15 


108.57 


109.34 


92.32 


90.29 


93.61 


92.00 


97.09 


90.87 


94.99 


95.37 


114.93 


100.10 


98.20 


91.08 


86.23 


80.99 


85.93 


81.56 


94.01 


93.13 


91.62 


90.04 


89.75 


87.57 


102.80 


101.20 


88.67 


87.64 


96.89 


94.91 


86.84 


86.71 


86.91 


85.30 


79.65 


77.75 


83.41 


80.98 


122.08 


117.44 


122.95 


118.24 


98.33 


94.85 


85.29 


82.81 


109.49 


107.53 


98.29 


94.20 


72.77 


71.40 


83.49 


81.27 


90.27 


87.92 


72.67 


71.38 


85.37 


82.70 


57.29 


55.29 


43.36 


42.14 


49.93 


48.58 


80.21 


78.00 



990 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7962 



Tables C-4 and C-5 are based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of firms than Tables C-l to C-3. 
They relate only to wage-earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available whereas Tables C-l 
to C-3 relate to salaried employees as well as to all wage-earners of the co-operative firms. 

TABLE C-4— HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING BY PROVINCES 

(Hourly- Rated Wage-Earners) 

Sour